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Banking related general awareness -- descriptive


1) what is corporate hedging

Following a severe currency crisis in 1998, the Brazilian economy switched from a fixed to a floating exchange rate regime in 1999. Brazilian firms that had accumulated foreign currency liabilities in the fixed exchange rate regime suddenly found themselves exposed to significant currency risk. The temporary disequilibrium created by this shock allows us to trace the causal effect of currency hedging on corporate performance and firm value. We find that hedging allows a firm to insulate its capital expenditure from variation in operating cash flow. That is, it mitigates the underinvestment friction of Froot, Scharfstein and Stein (1993). Hedging also increases the foreign debt capacity of a firm at a time when domestic capital is scarce, allowing the firm to increase the level of investment. Both these channels lead to an improvement in the value of the firm.


A hedge financial term denoting is an investment position intended to offset potential losses that may be incurred by a companion investment.
Possible vehicles for a hedge investment include stocks, ETFs, insurance, forward contracts, swaps, options, many types of over-the-counter andderivative products, futures contracts. Public futures markets were established in the 19th century to allow transparent, standardized, and efficient hedging of agricultural commodity prices; they have since expanded to include futures contracts for hedging the values of energy, precious metals,foreign currency, and interest rate fluctuations.

2) what is medical tourism
Medical tourism (also called medical travel, health tourism or global healthcare) is a term initially coined by travel agencies and the mass media to describe the rapidly-growing practice of travelling across international borders to obtain health care. It also refers pejoratively to the practice of healthcare providers travelling internationally to deliver healthcare.[1][2]
Services typically sought by travelers include elective procedures as well as complex specialized surgeries such as joint replacement (knee/hip), cardiac surgery, dental surgery, andcosmetic surgeries. However, virtually every type of health care, including psychiatry, alternative treatments, convalescent care and even burial services are available.
Over 50 countries have identified medical tourism as a national industry.[3] However, accreditation and other measures of quality vary widely across the globe, and some destinations may become hazardous or even dangerous for medical tourists.
In the context of global health, "medical tourism" is a pejorative because during such trips health care providers often practice outside of their areas of expertise or hold different (i.e., lower) standards of care.[4][5] Greater numbers than ever before of student volunteers, health professions trainees, and researchers from resource-rich countries are working temporarily and anticipating future work in resource-starved areas.[5][6] This emphasizes the importance of understanding this other definition.

3) Gold standard
The gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold. There are distinct kinds of gold standard. First, the gold specie standard is a system in which the monetary unit is associated with circulating gold coins, or with the unit of value defined in terms of one particular circulating gold coin in conjunction with subsidiary coinage made from a lesser valuable metal.
Similarly, the gold exchange standard typically involves the circulation of only coins made of silver or other metals, but where the authorities guarantee a fixed exchange rate with another country that is on the gold standard. This creates a de facto gold standard, in that the value of the silver coins has a fixed external value in terms of gold that is independent of the inherent silver value. Finally, the gold bullion standard is a system in which gold coins do not circulate, but in which the authorities have agreed to sell gold bullion on demand at a fixed price in exchange for the circulating currency.


3) What do u mean by the word sovereign in sovereign democratic country
sov•er•eign (s v r- n, s v r n)
1. One that exercises supreme, permanent authority, especially in a nation or other governmental unit, as:
a. A king, queen, or other noble person who serves as chief of state; a ruler or monarch.
b. A national governing council or committee.
2. A nation that governs territory outside its borders.
3. A gold coin formerly used in Great Britain.
1. Self-governing; independent: a sovereign state.
2. Having supreme rank or power: a sovereign prince.
3. Paramount; supreme: Her sovereign virtue is compassion.
a. Of superlative strength or efficacy: a sovereign remedy.
b. Unmitigated: sovereign contempt.

Sovereignty is the quality of having supreme, independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory.[1] It can be found in a power to rule and make law that rests on a political fact for which no purely legal explanation can be provided. In theoretical terms, the idea of "sovereignty", historically, from Socrates to Hobbes, has always necessitated a moral imperative on the entity exercising it.
The United Nations currently only requires that a sovereign state has an effective and independent government within a defined territory. According to current international law norms, states are only required to have an effective and independent system of government pursuant to a community within a defined territory.[2]
For centuries past, the idea that a state could be sovereign was always connected to its ability to guarantee the best interests of its own citizens. Thus, if a state could not act in the best interests of its own citizens, it could not be thought of as a “sovereign” state.[3]
The concept of sovereignty has been discussed, debated and questioned throughout history, from the time of the Romans through to the present day. It has changed in its definition, concept, and application throughout, especially during the Age of Enlightenment. The current notion of state sovereignty is often traced back to the Peace of Westphalia (1648), which, in relation to states, codified the basic principles:
 territorial integrity
 border inviolability
 supremacy of the state (rather than the Church)
 a sovereign is the supreme lawmaking authority within its jurisdiction.[cit


Qn.distance between North end and South end of India.
ANS. 3214 KM.
The geography of India describes the physical features of India, a country in South Asia, that lies entirely on the Indian Plate in the northern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate. The country lies to the north of the equator between 8°4' and 37°6' north latitude and 68°7' and 97°25' east longitude.[2] It is the seventh-largest country in the world, with a total land area of 3,287,263 square kilometres (1,269,219 sq mi).[3] India measures 3,214 km (1,997 mi) from north to south and 2,993 km (1,860 mi) from east to west. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km (9,445 mi) and a coastline of 7,517 km (4,671 mi).[4]
India is bounded to the southwest by the Arabian Sea, to the southeast by the Bay of Bengal, and to the south by the Indian Ocean.Kanyakumari is the southern tip of the Indian peninsula. The southernmost point in India is Indira Point, in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.[4] The Maldives, Sri Lanka and Indonesia are island nations to the south of India. Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Gulf of Mannar and the narrow channel of Palk Strait. The territorial waters of India extend into the sea to a distance of 12 nautical miles(13.8 mi; 22.2 km) measured from the appropriate baseline.[clarification needed][5]
The northern frontiers of India are defined largely by the Himalayan mountain range, where the country's political boundaries with China, Bhutan, and Nepal lie. Its western border with Pakistan lies in the Punjab Plain and the Thar Desert. In the far northeast, theChin Hills and Kachin Hills, deeply forested mountainous regions, separate India from Burma. The Bangladesh–India border is defined by the Khasi hills and Mizo Hills, and the watershed region of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.[clarification needed]
The Ganges is the longest river originating in India. The Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra Rivers form the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The Ganges-Brahmaputra system occupies most of northern, central, and eastern India, while the Deccan Plateau occupies most of southern India. On India's western frontier is the Thar Desert.
Kanchenjunga, on the border between Nepal and the Indian state of Sikkim, is the highest point in India at 8,598 m (28,209 ft). Climate across India ranges from equatorial in the far south, to alpine in the upper reaches of the Himalayas


Qn. core industry at max risk is coal or oil



Qn Income tax is levied by
Union government.

Qn What do we mean by financial inclusion? Does it only pivot around “no frill accounts” or is it a concept much wider in scope?
Financial inclusion is delivery of banking services at an affordable cost to the vast sections of underprivileged and low income groups. By financial inclusion we mean the provision of affordable financial services, viz., access to payments and remittance facilities, savings, loans and insurance services by the formal financial system to those who tend to be excluded. It is important to recognize that in the policy framework for development of the formal financial system in India, the need for financial inclusion and covering more and more of the excluded
population by the formal financial system has always been consciously emphasized.
population by the formal financial system has always been consciously emphasized.

Qn Which organization approved reforms to shift more voting powers to emerging
nations like china India

Ans International Monetary Fund (IMF)

In big IMF revamp, Europe to lose influence to emerging economies

G20 leaders are meeting ahead of a summit in three weeks
World leaders meeting ahead of a major G20 summit have laid the groundwork for what could be the biggest revamp of the International Monetary Fund since the body's creation, giving greater power to developing countries.

Representatives of the Group of 20 leading industrial nations on Saturday reached an agreement on how to reform the International Monetary Fund, decreasing Europe's influence on decision-making and increasing that of developing nations like China and India.
Speaking to reporters at the meeting on Saturday, IMF managing director Dominique Strauss-Kahn called the deal a "very historic agreement."
"This makes for the biggest reform ever in the governance of the institution," he said.
The agreement came out of meetings of G20 finance ministers and central bankers in Gyeongju, South Korea, where G20 heads of state are to meet in three weeks. It would likely go into effect in 2011.
Less power for Europe
At the heart of the reforms is a substantial change in how the body is governed, shifting more than 6 percent of voting power to fast-developing countries. Europe would also give up two out of the eight or nine seats it controls at any given time on the 24-member executive board.
China and India are to have greater influence on decision-making
Current IMF governance largely reflects the geopolitical situation at the time of the body's founding after World War II, and it has proven outdated with the rapid rise of economies like China, India, Russia and Brazil. Under the new agreement, these countries would have greater voting power as well as greater financial obligations and access to IMF funds.
The Fund's five biggest members - the United States, Japan, Germany, France and Britain - each control their own seats on the board and are able to appoint their own executive directors. The reformed structure would require these directors to be elected by the full board.
The United States had sought a greater reduction in Europe's influence on the board, but agreed to the compromise in return for retaining its veto power over the Fund's most important decisions.
The IMF functions as a watchdog over the global financial system and intervenes when countries are threatened with the inability to make payments on debt. Its influence has increased since the 2008-2009 global economic crisis, in Europe most notably with its joint EU bailout fund for Greece.
Germany criticizes dollar policy
Meanwhile after the meeting of G20 financial representatives, German Economics Minister Rainer Bruederle offered criticism of the US Federal Reserve, accusing it of artifically manipulating its exchange rate.
"There was criticism of the American policy of monetary easing, or creating more liquidity," he said. "I tried to make clear in my contribution that I regard that as the wrong way to go... An excessive, permanent increase in money is, in my view, an indirect manipulation of the (foreign exchange) rate."
US Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner said he backed a "strong dollar" and denied any policy of weaking the currency to boost exports by making American goods cheaper abroad.
Author: Andrew Bowen (dpa, AFP, Reuters)
Editor: Kyle James

Qn. Intensity of sound is measured in
Ans. decibels
The acoustic intensity (energy) level is measured in decibels (dB).
Your ear drums and microphone diaphragms are moved by sound pressure only.
Also the SPL meters (sound pressure level meters) care about the sound pressure level.


Qn GST will replace
Ans. Excise duty
Goods Services Tax is supposed to replace Excise duty. Bill is not to be tabled in this session in parliament.

Amendment Bill on GST is unlikely to be tabled in this session of Parliament in the face of opposition from the BJP and others.
BJP-ruled states and a few others have opposed the revised draft of the bill, saying it does not clarify how the changes will be brought about in the GST structure.
GST is expected to replace excise duty, service tax on the Centre’s front, VAT at states end, besides cesses, surcharges and local levies.
The earlier deadline of implementing GST from April 1, 2010, was missed due to differences between the Centre and states over the GST structure.
The introduction of a good and services tax (GST) is likely to miss the deadline of April 2011 after the Centre and states failed to break the deadlock over their differences on the tax architecture.
Qn Most favourable destination for investment
Bangalore, Dec 21 (PTI) Among the top 20 investment attracting states, Karnataka has emerged as most preferred destination with the highest share of 9.1 per cent in domestic investment plans in April-September 2010, as per ''Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India Investment Meter (AIM).''
Karnataka clocked an year-on-year growth of 73.8 per cent and attracted investments of Rs 3,88,578 crore.
Uttar Pradesh acquired second spot with a growth of 75.5 per cent (y-o-y) and 4.7 per cent share of total investments in April-September 2010-11. The state attracted massive investment plans of Rs 205,189 crore during the period.
Power and services were prominent among the sectors attracting major share investment.
As per the AIM assessment report for corporate investments across states and sectors, total investment plans of India Inc increased significantly from Rs 7,971,464 crore in 2009 to Rs 10,097,472 crore during April-September, 2010.
"The total investment intentions tracked in the AIM study reflects encouraging signs of pick up in investments and acceleration in the overall growth rate.
The factors such as delay in infrastructure expansion plans, hurdles in legal procedures and political instability have adversely affected the implementation of these investment projects across the states", said Assocham President Dilip Modi.
Availability of rich mineral resources like coal and ironore along with cheap manpower availability helped Jharkhand rank among top three states in attracting corporate investments.
The state was ranked third on investment radar with total planned investments at Rs 2,00,141 crore having a share of 6.3 per cent in total investments in H1 of FY 2010-11.
Jharkhand recorded a hike of about 45.9 per cent in overall investments over the previous year. Among the sectors manufacturing and power companies received the major proportion of investments.
Gujarat and Orissa stood at fourth and fifth position by attracting investment plans worth Rs 196,305 crore and Rs 191,382 crore, respectively during in H1 of 2010-11.
One time preferred destination for India Inc., Gujarat has slipped to fourth spot with the state seeing a mere 17.3 per cent in investments over the same period of the previous fiscal. more PTI RS BHAPR


Qn. describe sub prime lending

In finance, subprime lending (also referred to as near-prime, non-prime, and second-chance lending) means making loans to people who may have difficulty maintaining the repayment schedule.
Proponents of subprime lending maintain that the practice extends credit to people who would otherwise not have access to the credit market. Professor Harvey S. Rosen of Princeton University explained, "The main thing that innovations in the mortgage market have done over the past 30 years is to let in the excluded: the young, the discriminated-against, the people without a lot of money in the bank to use for a down payment."[

Qn. Mortgage loan categorized as
Ans Secured loan.

Expand FEDAI --Foreign Exchange Development Authority of India

Qn money laundering
Money laundering is the practice of disguising the origins of illegally-obtained money. Ultimately, it is the process by which the proceeds of crime are made to appear legitimate. The money involved can be generated by any number of criminal acts, including drug dealing, corruption, accounting and other types of fraud, and tax evasion.[1] The methods by which money may be laundered are varied and can range in sophistication from simple to complex.
Many regulatory and governmental authorities quote estimates each year for the amount of money laundered, either worldwide or within their national economy. In 1996 the International Monetary Fund estimated that two to five percent of the worldwide global economy involved laundered money. However, the FATF, an intergovernmental body set up to combat money laundering, admitted that "overall it is absolutely impossible to produce a reliable estimate of the amount of money laundered and therefore the FATF does not publish any figures in this regard."[1] Academic commentators have likewise been unable to estimate the volume of money with any degree of assurance.[2]
Regardless of the difficulty in measurement, the amount of money laundered each year is in the billions and poses a significant policy concern for governments.[2] As a result, governments and international bodies have undertaken efforts to deter, prevent and apprehend money launderers. Financial institutions have likewise undertaken efforts to prevent and detect transactions involving dirty money, both as a result of government requirements and to avoid the reputational risk involved.

Net asset value (NAV) is a term used to describe the value of an entity's assets less the value of its liabilities. The term is most commonly used in relation to open-ended or mutualfunds because shares of such funds registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission are redeemed at their net asset value. However, the term may also be used as a synonym for book value or the equity value of a business. Net asset value may represent the value of the total equity, or it may be divided by the number of shares outstanding held by investors and, thereby, represent the net asset value per share.
Net asset values and other accounting and recordkeeping activities are the result of the process of Fund Accounting, sometimes called securities accounting, investment accounting and/or portfolio accounting. Fund Accounting systems are sophisticated computerized systems used to account for investor capital flows in and out of a fund, purchases and sales of investments and related investment income, gains, losses and operating expenses of the fund. The fund's investments and other assets are valued on a regular schedule such as daily, weekly or monthly, depending on the fund and associated regulatory or sponsor requirements. There is no universal method or basis of valuing assets and liabilities for the purposes of calculating net asset value used throughout the world, and the criteria used for the valuation will depend upon the circumstances, the purposes of the valuation and any regulatory and/or accounting principles that may apply. For example, for US registered open-ended funds, investments are commonly valued each day the New York Stock Exchange is open, using closing prices (meant to represent fair value),[1] typically 4:00 PM Eastern Time. For US registered money market funds, investments are often carried or valued at 'amortized cost' as opposed to market value for expedience and other purposes, provided various requirements are continually met.[2]
At the completion of the valuation process and once all other appropriate accounting entries are posted, the accounting books are 'closed' enabling a variety of information to be calculated and produced including the net asset value per share.


The Banking Regulation Act was passed as the Banking Companies Act 1949 and came into force wef 16.3.49. Subsequently it was changed to Banking Regulations Act 1949 wef 01.03.66. Summary of some important sections is provided hereunder. The section no. is given at the end of each item. For details, kindly refer the bare Act.
• Banking means accepting for the purpose of lending or investment of deposits of money from public repayable on demand or otherwise and withdrawable by cheque, drafts order or otherwise (5 (i) (b)).
• Banking company means any company which transacts the business of banking (5(i)(c)
• Transact banking business in India (5 (i) (e).
• Demand liabilities are the liabilities which must be met on demand and time liabilities means liabilities which are not demand liabilities (5(i)(f)
• Secured loan or advances means a loan or advance made on the security of asset the market value of which is not at any time less than the amount of such loan or advances and unsecured loan or advances means a loan or advance not secured (5(i)(h).
• Defines business a banking company may be engaged in like borrowing, lockers, letter of credit, traveller cheques, mortgages etc (6(1).
• States that no company shall engage in any form of business other than those referred in Section 6(1) (6(2).
• For banking companies carrying on banking business in India to use at least one word bank, banking, banking company in its name (7).
• Restrictions on business of certain kinds such as trading of goods etc. (8)
• Prohibits banks from holding any immovable property howsoever acquired except as acquired for its own use for a period exceeding 7 years from acquisition of the property. RBI may extend this period by five years (9)
• Prohibitions on employments like Chairman, Directors etc (10)
• Paid up capital, reserves and rules relating to these (11 & 12)
• Banks not to pay any commission, brokerage, discount etc. more than 2.5% of paid up value of one share (13)
• Prohibits a banking company from creating a charge upon any unpaid capital of the company. (14) Section 14(A) prohibits a banking company from creating a floating charge on the undertaking or any property of the company without the RBI permission.
• Prohibits payment of dividend by any bank until all of its capitalised expenses have been completely written off (15)
• To create reserve fund and 20% of the profits should be transferred to this fund before any dividend is declared (17 (1))
• Cash reserve - Non-scheduled banks to maintain 3% of the demand and time liabilities by way of cash reserves with itself or by way of balance in a current account with RBI (18)
• Permits banks to form subsidiary company for certain purposes (19)
• No banking company shall hold shares in any company, whether as pledgee, mortgagee or absolute owners of any amount exceeding 30% of its own paid up share capital + reserves or 30% of the paid up share capital of that company whichever is less. (19(2).
• Restrictions on banks to grant loan to person interested in management of the bank (20)
• Power to Reserve Bank to issue directive to banks to determine policy for advances (21)
• Every bank to maintain a percentage of its demand and time liabilities by way of cash, gold, unencumbered securities 25%-40% as on last Friday of 2nd preceding fortnight (24).
• Return of unclaimed deposits (10 years and above) (26)
• Every bank has to publish its balance sheet as on March 31st (29).
• Balance sheet is to be got audited from qualified auditors (30 (i))
• Publish balance sheet and auditors report within 3 months from the end of period to which they refer. RBI may extend the period by further three month (31)
• Prevents banks from producing any confidential information to any authority under Indl Disputes Act. (34A)
• RBI authorised to undertake inspection of banks (35).
• Amendment carried in the Act during 1983 empowers Central Govt to frame rules specifying the period for which a bank shall preserve its books (45-y), nomination facilities (45ZA to ZF) and return a paid instrument to a customer by keeping a true copy (45Z).
Certain returns are also required to be sent to RBI by banks such as monthly return of liquid assets and liabilities (24-3), quarterly return of assets and liabilities in India (25), return of unclaimed deposits i.e. 10 years and above (26) and monthly return of assets and liabilities (27-1).

Source: http://www.bankingindiaupdate.com/bra.html

Qn. infra bonds
what are infrastructure bonds / infra bonds?
In 2010, the government introduced a new section 80CCF under the Income Tax Act, 1961 ("Income Tax Act") to provide for income tax deductions for subscription to long-term infrastructure bonds and pursuant to that the Central Board of Direct Taxes passed Notification No. 48/2010/F.No.149/84/2010-SO(TPL) dated July 9, 2010.
These long term infrastructure bonds offer an additional window of tax deduction of investments up to 20,000 for the financial year 2010-11. This deduction is over and above the 1 lakh deduction available under sections 80C, 80CCC and 80CCD read with section 80CCE of the Income Tax Act. Infrastructure bonds help in intermediating the retail investor's savings into infrastructure sector directly.

Long term infrastructure bonds by IDFC
IDFC has earlier issued two tranches of these long term infrastructure bonds in October 2010 and January 2011. This is the third public issue of long-term infrastructure bonds by IDFC in the nature of secured, redeemable, non-convertible debentures of the Company of face value of Rs. 5,000 each, having benefits under section 80 CCF of the Income Tax Act for an aggregate amount not exceeding 21,716.7 million ("Tranche 3 Bonds") issued pursuant to the Prospectus - Tranche 3 dated February 21, 2011("Prospectus – Tranche 3") (the "Issue"). These bonds have got rating of LAAA by rating agency ICRA and AAA (ind) by FITCH.
SOURCE: http://www.idfc.com/infra-bonds/index.htm
Qn Bancon -- Annual Bankers’ Conference (Bancon)
Over the years, the Annual Bankers’ Conference (Bancon), has emerged as a powerful platform for the Indian banking fraternity to discuss, deliberate, brainstorm and perhaps, conclude on varied issues, affecting the banking industry in particular and the financial sector in general.
I am delighted to welcome you on behalf of Central Bank of India, the host of this year’s Bankers' Conference "Bancon 2010" with the organizational support of Indian Banks’ Association (IBA). As you are aware, Bancon 2010 is scheduled on the 3rd & 4th of December 2010 at the Taj Lands End, Bandstand, Bandra (W), Mumbai 400 050.
Bancon 2010 also marks the beginning of our Centenary Year, a landmark event in the history of the Bank, which has successfully carved its presence in the hearts of the people, aptly captured the motto "Central to you since 1911".
This year’s Bancon 2010 theme is "Transform to Outperform: Ideate, Innovate & Inspire". The theme seeks to ignite the belief in us bankers, to transform ourselves in tune with the fast changing global environment and the challenges of global competition. Globally, the banking industry in the recent past is witness to the fall of many big names and many are still striving to survive in the wake of the economic turmoil, yet the Indian banking industry withstood this economic tornado. The world has since acknowledged the resilience of the Indian economy and the banking sector, ably supported by deft handling of a combination of economic stimulus, countercyclical regulatory and risk management action.
Nonetheless, as the world gropes to a more secure economic future, the Indian banking industry cannot afford to be complacent but need to constantly transform itself to ideate, to innovate in tune to the fast changing environment, to inspire excellence and efficient operational and administrative functioning in its business process, policies and practices.
Bancon 2010 seeks to offer itself as a humble contributor to this process. A range of topics has been proposed for deliberation and discussion to create the groundswell of thoughts. This brochure contains all that you need to know about Bancon 2010.
M/s McKinsey & Company is part of this event as the Knowledge Partner, a role, which they have executed with distinction in the past.


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