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abase
v. ~ oneself/sb lower oneself/sb in dignity; degrade oneself/sb ;
abash
to destroy the self-possession or self-confidence of:disconcert
abate
v. make or become less
abbreviate
v. ~ sth shorten (a word, phrase, etc), esp by omitting letters
abdicate
v. resign from or formally renounce the throne
aberrant
adj. not following the normal or correct way
aberration
n. deviation from what is accepted as normal or right
abet
v. ~ sb (in sth) help or encourage sb to commit an offence or do sth wrong
abeyance
n. be in abeyance; fall/go into abeyance (of a right, rule, problem, etc) be suspended temporarily; not be in force or use for a time
abhor
v. feel hatred and disgust for (sb/sth); detest
abide
v. (esp with can/could, in negative sentences or questions can/could) tolerate (sb/sth); endure; bear
abject
adj. wretched; hopeless
abjure
v. promise or swear to give up (a claim, an opinion, a belief, etc); renounce formally
ablution
n. (fml or joc ) ceremonial washing of the body, hands, sacred vessels, etc
abnegation
n. denial or renunciation (of a doctrine)
abode
n. house; home
abolish
v. end the existence of
abominable
adj. ~(fml ) causing disgust; detestable
abominate
v. feel hatred or disgust for (sth/sb); detest; loathe
aboriginal
adj. inhabiting a land from a very early period, esp before the arrival of colonists
abortive
adj. coming to nothing; unsuccessful
abrasive
adj. that scrapes or rubs sth away; rough
abridge
v. make shorter, esp by using fewer words; condense
abrogate
v. cancel, repeal or annul (sth)
abscission
The act of cutting off, as in a surgical operation.
abscond
v. ~go away suddenly and secretly, esp in order to avoid arrest
absolute
adj. complete; total
absolve
v. ~ sb (fml esp law , ) clear sb (of guilt); declare sb free (from blame, a promise, a duty, etc)
abstain
v. ~ keep oneself from doing or enjoying sth, esp from taking alcoholic drinks; refrain ;
abstemious
adj. not taking much food or drink; not self-indulgent; moderate
abstinence
n. ~ abstaining, esp from food or alcoholic drinks
abstract
adj. existing in thought or as an idea but not having a physical or practical existence
abstruse
adj. difficult to understand
abusive
adj. criticizing harshly and rudely; insulting
abut
v. ~ on/against sth (of land or a building) have a common boundary or side with sth; adjoin sth
abysmal
adj. extremely bad
abyss
n. hole so deep that it seems to have no bottom
academic
adj. of schools, colleges, etc
accede
v. ~ (fml ) take office
accelerate
v. make move faster or happen earlier; increase the speed of
accessible
adj. ~ that can be reached, used, etc
accessory
n. thing that is a useful or decorative extra but that is not essential; minor fitting or attachment
acclaim
v. welcome (sb/sth) with shouts of approval; applaud loudly
acclimate
to adapt to a new temperature, altitude, climate, environment, or situation
acclivity
n. upward slope
accolade
n. praise; approval
accommodate
v. provide lodging or room for
accomplice
n. person who helps another to do sth wicked or illegal
accord
n. peace treaty; agreement
accost
v. approach and speak to (sb) boldly
accoutre
equip
accretion
n. growth or increase by means of gradual additions
accrue
v. ~ (from sth) come as a natural increase or advantage, esp financial; accumulate
acerbity
Sourness of taste, character, or tone.
acetic
adj. of, containing, producing, or derived from acetic acid or vinegar
acidulous
adj. rather sharp or bitter in taste or manner
acknowledge
v. accept the truth of admit (sth)
acme
n. highest stage of development; point of perfection
acne
n. inflammation of the oil-glands of the skin, producing red pimples on the face and neck
acoustics
n. qualities of a room, hall, etc that make it good or bad for carrying sound
acquiesce
v. ~ (fml ) accept sth without protest; offer no opposition (to a plan, conclusion, etc)
acquittal
n. judgement that a person is not guilty of the crime with which he has been charged
acrid
adj. having a strongly bitter smell or taste
acrimonious
adj. bitter
acrophobia
"acro'phobic adjectiv
actuarial
calculating; pertaining to insurance statistics
actuary
n. expert who calculates insurance risks and premiums
actuate
v. make (a machine, an electrical device, etc) move or work; make (a process) begin , ;
acuity
n. (esp of thought or the senses) sharpness; acuteness
acumen
n. ability to understand and judge things quickly and clearly; shrewdness
acute
adj. very great; severe
adage
n. traditional saying; proverb ;
adamant
adj. firmly or stubbornly determined; unwilling to be persuaded
adapt
v. ~ sth (for sth) make sth suitable for a new use, situation, etc; modify sth
addendum
n. thing that is to be added
addiction
n. ~ condition of taking drugs, etc habitually and being unable to stop doing so without suffering adverse effects
addle
v. confuse (sth/sb); muddle
address
n. details of where a person lives, works or can be found, and where letters, etc may be delivered
adept
adj. ~ ~ (at/in doing sth) expert or skilful in (doing) sth
adhere
v. ~ (to sth) remain attached (to sth); stick (as if) by means of glue or suction
adherent
n. supporter of a party or doctrine
adjacent
having a common endpoint or border also immediately preceding or following
adjoin
v. be next or nearest to and joined with
adjourn
v. stop (a meeting, etc) for a time; postpone
adjunct
n. ~ thing that is added or attached to sth else but is less important and not essential
adjuration
solemn urging
adjutant
n. army officer responsible for administrative work in a battalion
admonish
to express warning or disapproval to especially in a gentle, earnest, or solicitous manner
adore
v. love deeply and respect (sb) highly
adorn
v. ~ sth/sb/oneself add beauty or ornament to sth/sb/oneself
adroit
adj. ~ skilful; clever
adulation
n. excessive admiration or praise; flattery
adulterate
v. make poorer in quality by adding another substance
Advent
n. the ~ of sth/sb the approach or arrival of
adventitious
adj. not planned; accidental
adversary
n. opponent in a contest; enemy
adverse
adj. not favourable; contrary
adversity
n. unfavourable conditions; trouble
advert
n. = advertisement
advocacy
n. ~ giving of support (to a cause, etc)
advocate
v. speak publicly in favour of (sth); recommend; support
aegis
n. under the aegis of sb/sth with the protection or support of sb/sth, esp a public institution
aerie
= eyrie
aesthetic
adj. concerned with beauty and the appreciation of beauty
affable
adj. polite and friendly
affected
adj. not natural or genuine; pretended; artificial
affidavit
n. written statement that can be used as evidence in court, made by sb who swears that it is true
affiliation
n. affiliating or being affiliated
affinity
n. ~ ~ (between A and B) structural resemblance or similarity of character; relationship
affirmation
n. affirming
affix
v. ~ sth (fml ) stick, fasten or attach sth
affliction
n. pain; suffering; distress
affluence
n. abundance of money, goods or property; wealth
affront
n. ~ (to sb/sth) deliberately insulting or disrespectful remark, action, etc, esp in public
afterlife
n. existence that is thought by some to follow death
agape
adj. ~ (of the mouth) wide open, esp with wonder
agenda
n. matters of business to be discussed at a meeting, etc
agglomeration
n. action of agglomerating
aggrandize
to make appear great or greater:praise highly
aggregate
v. ~ sb (fml ) be formed or bring sb into an assembled group or amount
aghast
adj. ~ filled with horror or amazement
agility
nimbleness
agitate
v. cause anxiety to (a person, his feelings, etc); disturb; excite
agnostic
n. person who believes that nothing can be known about the existence of God or of anything except material things
agog
adj. eager; excited
agrarian
adj. of land
airy
adj. having plenty of fresh air moving about; well-ventilated
alacrity
n. prompt and eager readiness
alchemy
n. medieval form of chemistry, the chief aim of which was to discover how to turn ordinary metals into gold ,
alcove
n. small space in a room, etc formed by part of the wall being set back; recess
alias
n. name by which a person is called at other times or in other places; false name
alienate
v. ~ sb cause sb to become unfriendly or indifferent; estrange sb
alimentary
adj. of food and digestion
alimony
n. allowance that a court may order a man to pay to his wife or former wife before or after a legal separation or divorce
allay
v. make (sth) less; relieve
allege
v. state (sth) as a fact but without proof; give as an argument or excuse
allegiance
n. ~ (to sb/sth) support of or loyalty to a government, ruler, cause, etc
allegory
n. story, painting or description in which the characters and events are meant as symbols of purity, truth, patience, etc ,
alleviate
v. make less severe; ease
alliteration
n. occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of two or more words in succession, as in sing a song of sixpence or as thick as thieves , sing a song of sixpence as thick as thieves
allocate
v. ~ sth allot or assign sth (to sb/sth) for a special purpose
alloy
n. metal formed of a mixture of metals or of metal and another substance
allude
v. ~ to sb/sth (fml ) mention sb/sth briefly or indirectly
allure
v. tempt or attract (sb) by the expectation of gaining sth
allusion
n. ~ indirect reference
alluvial
adj. made of sand, earth, etc left by rivers or floods, esp in a delta
alms
n. money, clothes, food, etc given to poor people
aloft
adv. up in the air; overhead
aloof
adj. ~ cool and remote in character; unconcerned
altercation
n. (act of) quarrelling or arguing noisily
altruistic
(adj.) unselfish
amalgam
n. alloy of mercury with another metal
amalgamate
v. ~ (with sb/sth) (cause people or things to) combine or unite
amass
v. gather together or collect (sth), esp in large quantities
amazon
n. tall strong athletic woman
ambidextrous
adj. able to use the left hand or the right hand equally well
ambience
n. environment; atmosphere of a place
ambiguous
adj. having more than one possible meaning
ambivalence
the state of having contradictory or conflicting emotional attitudes
amble
v. ride or walk at a slow, leisurely pace
ambrosia
n. food of the gods
ambulatory
walking
ambush
n. waiting in a hidden position to make a surprise attack
ameliorate
v. (cause sth to) become better
amenable
adj. ~ (of people) willing to be influenced or controlled (by sth)
amend
v. correct an error in (sth); make minor improvements in; change slightly
amenities
[ amenity: ] [often pl] a useful or pleasant facility or service
amiable
adj. showing and inspiring friendliness; pleasant and good-tempered
amicable
adj. showing friendliness; without hostility
amiss
adj. , adv wrong(ly); inappropriate(ly)
amity
n. friendly relationship between people or countries
amnesia
n. partial or total loss of memory
amnesty
n. general pardon, esp for offences against the State
amok
adv. run amok rush about in a wild and angry frenzy
amoral
adj. not based on moral standards; not following any moral rules ;
amorous
adj. readily showing or feeling love; relating to love
amorphous
adj. having no definite shape or form; not organized
amphibian
n. animal able to live both on land and in water
amphitheater
oval building with tiers of seats
ample
adj. enough
amplify
v. increase (sth) in size or strength
amputate
v. cut off by surgical operation
amulet
n. piece of jewellery, etc worn as a charm1(
anachronism
n. mistake of placing sth in the wrong historical period
analgesia
n. loss of ability to feel pain while still conscious
analgesic
adj. n substance that relieves pain
analogous
adj. ~ partially similar or parallel; offering an analogy
analogy
n. ~ partial similarity between two things that are compared
anarchist
n. person who believes in anarchism
anarchy
n. absence of government or control in society; lawlessness
anathema
n. detested person or thing
anathematize
declare to be evil or anathema
ancestry
n. line of ancestors
anchor
n. heavy metal device attached to a rope, chain, etc and used to moor a ship or boat to the sea-bottom or a balloon to the ground
ancillary
adj. ~ helping in a subsidiary way
anecdote
n. short, interesting or amusing story about a real person or event ,
anemia
condition in which blood lacks red corpuscles
anesthetic
= anaesthesia, anaesthetic
anguish
n. severe physical or mental pain
angular
adj. having angles or sharp corners
animadversion
n. criticism
animated
adj. lively
animosity
n. ~ ~ (between A and B) (instance of) strong dislike or of hostility
animus
n. animosity shown in speech or action
annals
n. story of events year by year; historical records
anneal
v. make tough by cooling slowly after heating
annex
v. take possession of
annihilate
v. destroy completely
annotate
v. add notes to giving explanation or comment
annuity
n. fixed sum of money paid to sb yearly, usu for the remaining part of his lifetime
annul
v. declare (sth) no longer valid; abolish; cancel
anodyne
n, adj that can relieve pain
anoint
v. ~ sb apply oil or ointment to sb (esp as a religious ceremony)
anomalous
adj. different from what is normal; irregular
anomaly
n. anomalous thing; irregularity
anonymity
n. state of being anonymous
antagonism
n~ ~ (between A and B) (instance of) active opposition or hostility, esp between two people
antagonistic
adj. ~ showing or feeling antagonism; hostile
antecede
be earlier in time; go back further
antecedents
ancestr
antediluvian
adj. of the time before Noah's Flood
anthem
n. short musical composition, usu for a choir and an organ, to be sung in religious services, often with words taken from the Bible ,
anthology
n. collection of poems or pieces of prose on the same subject or by the same writer
anthropoid
adj. man-like in form
anthropologist
n. student of or expert in anthropology
anthropomorphic
adj. treating gods, animals, etc as human in form and personality ,
anticlimax
n. disappointing end to a series of events which had seemed likely to become more interesting, exciting or impressive
antidote
n. ~ substance that acts against the effects of a poison or disease
antipathy
settled aversion or dislike:DISTASTE
antiquated
adj. (of things) out of date, obsolete ,
antique
adj. belonging to the distant past
antiquity
n. ancient times, esp before the Middle Ages
antiseptic
n. substance that prevents a wound, etc from becoming septic, esp by destroying bacteria
antithesis
n. ~ (of/to sth/sb) direct opposite
antler
n. branched horn of a stag or of some other deer
anvil
n. iron block on which a smith shapes heated metal by hammering it
apathetic
adj. showing or feeling apathy
apathy
n. ~ lack of interest, enthusiasm or concern; indifference
ape
n. any of the four primates (gorilla, chimpanzee, orang-utan, gibbon) most closely related to man .
aperture
n. narrow opening
apex
n. top or highest point
aphasia
n. partial or total loss of ability to speak or understand spoken language, caused by damage to the brain
aphorism
n. short wise saying; maxim ;
apiarist
n. person who keeps bees
apiary
n. place with a number of hives where bees are kept
apiculture
the cultivation of bees on a commercial scale for the production of honey
aplomb
n. confidence and self-control; poise
apocalyptic
adj. prophesying great and dramatic events like those in the Apocalypse
apocryphal
adj. not likely to be genuine; untrue or invented
apogee
n. position in the orbit of the moon, a planet or a satellite when it is at its greatest distance from the earth ,
apolitical
adj. not interested or involved in politics
apologist
n. person who defends a doctrine by logical argument
apoplexy
n. sudden inability to feel or move, caused by the blockage or rupture of an artery in the brain ,
apostate
n. person who renounces his former beliefs, etc
apothecary
n. person who prepares and sells medicines and medical goods
apothegm
= apophthegm
apotheosis
n. (of a human being) making or becoming a god or a sain
appall
to overcome with consternation, shock, or dismay
apparent
adj. clearly seen or understood; obvious
apparition
n. appearance, esp of sth startling, strange or unexpected ,
appease
v. make quiet or calm, usu by making concessions or by satisfying demands
appellation
n. name or title; system of naming ;
append
v. ~ sth (fml ) attach or add sth (esp in writing)
application
n. ~ (to sb) (for sth) formal request
apposite
adj. ~ (of a remark, etc) very appropriate (for a purpose or an occasion)
appraise
v. assess the value or quality of
appreciate
v. understand and enjoy (sth); value highly
apprehend
v. seize (sb); arrest
apprehensive
adj. ~ ~ (that.../for sb/sth) feeling anxiety; fearful; uneasy
apprise
v. ~ sb of sth inform sb of sth
approbation
n. approval; consent
appropriate
adj. ~ suitable; right and proper
appurtenances
[ appurtenance: ] a secondary or less significant thing or part
apropos
adv, adj appropriate or relevant to what is being said or done
aptitude
n. ~ natural ability or skill
aquiline
adj. of or like an eagle
arable
n. , adj suitable for ploughing and for growing crops
arbiter
n. ~ person who has power to decide what will be done, accepted, etc with regard to sth
arbitrary
adj. based on personal opinion or impulse, not on reason
arbitrate
v. ~ (between A and B) make a judgement about or settle (a dispute) between two parties (usu when asked by them to do so)
arboreal
adj. of or living in trees
arboretum
n. place where trees are grown for scientific study or for display
arcade
n. covered passage or area, esp one with an arched roof and shops along one or both sides
arcane
requiring secret or mysterious knowledge
arch-
comb form chief; most important
archaeology
n. study of ancient civilizations by scientific analysis of physical remains found in the ground
archaic
adj. of a much earlier or an ancient period in history
archetype
n. original or ideal model from which others are copied; prototype ;
archipelago
n. (sea surrounding a) group of many islands
archives
n. historical documents or records of a government, town, etc
ardor
extreme vigor or energy:INTENSITY
arduous
adj. needing much effort or energy; laborious
argot
n. words and phrases used by a particular group and not intended to be understood by others; cant ;
aria
n. song for one voice, esp in an opera or oratorio
arid
adj. having little or no rainfall; dry
aristocracy
n. highest social class; the nobility
armada
n. large fleet of ships
aromatic
adj. having a pleasant, distinctive smell; fragrant
arraign
v. ~ sb (law ) bring a criminal charge against sb; bring sb to court for trial
array
v. place (esp armed forces, troops, etc) in battle order
arrears
n. money that is owed and should have been paid earlier
arrhythmic
lacking rhythm or regularity
arrogance
a feeling or an impression of superiority manifested in an overbearing manner or presumptuous claims
arroyo
a brook; a creek a water-carved gully or channel
arsenal
n. place where weapons and ammunition are made or stored
artery
n. any of the tubes carrying blood from the heart to all parts of the body
artful
adj. cunningly clever at getting what one wants; crafty
articulate
adj. able to express one's ideas clearly in words
artifacts
something created by humans usually for a practical purpose; especially :an object remaining from a particular period
artifice
n. clever trickery; deception
artisan
a manually skilled worker
artless
adj. simple and natural; without deceit
ascendancy
n. ~ (position of) having dominant power or control
ascertain
v. discover (sth) so that one is certain; get to know
ascetic
adj. not allowing oneself pleasures and comforts; having or involving a very austere life
ascribe
v. ~ sth to sb/sth consider sth to be caused by, written by or belonging to sb/sth
aseptic
adj. free from bacteria that cause a thing to become septic; surgically clean
ashen
adj. like ashes in colour; very pale
asinine
adj. stupid or stubborn
askance
adv. look
askew
adj. , adv not in a straight or level position; crooked
asperity
n. harshness or severity, esp of manner
aspersion
slanderous remark
aspirant
n. ~ (fml ) person who is ambitious (for fame, promotion, success, etc)
aspiration
n. ~ ~ (to do sth) strong desire or ambition
aspire
v. ~ after/to sth desire strongly to achieve sth; have ambition for sth
assail
v. ~ sb (fml ) attack sb violently or repeatedly
assay
n. testing of esp metals for quality
assent
n. ~ (fml ) agreement; approval
assert
v. make others recognize (sth) by behaving firmly and confidently
assessment
n. action of assessing
assiduous
adj. showing constant and careful attention
assimilate
v. (cause sth to) become absorbed into the body after digestion
assuage
v. make (sth) less severe; soothe
assumption
n. thing accepted as true or as sure to happen, but not proved
assurance
n. confident belief in one's own abilities and powers
asteroid
n. any of many small planets revolving round the sun, esp between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
astigmatism
n. defect in an eye or a lens that prevents correct focusing
astral
adj. of or from the stars
astringent
n. substance, used medically or in cosmetics, that makes skin or body tissue contract and so stops bleeding
astronomical
adj. of astronomy
astute
adj. clever and quick at seeing how to gain an advantage; shrewd
asunder
adv. into pieces; apart
asylum
n. safety; refuge
asymmetric
adj. not having parts that correspond to each other in size, shape, etc; lacking symmetry
atavism
n. reappearance in a person of a characteristic or quality that has not been seen in his family for many generations
atheistic
adj.
atone
v. ~ (fml ) act in a way that compensates for a previous wrong, error, etc
atrocity
n. great wickedness or cruelty
atrophy
n. wasting away of the body or part of it through lack of nourishment or use
attentive
adj. ~ giving attention (to sb/sth); alert and watchful
attenuate
v. make (sth/sb) thin or slender
attest
v. ~ (to) sth be or give clear proof of sth
attire
n. clothes; dress
attribute
v. ~ sth to sb/sth regard sth as belonging to, caused by or produced by sb/sth
attrition
n. process of gradually weakening sb's strength and confidence by continuous harassment
atypical
adj. not representative or characteristic of its type; not typical
audacious
adj. showing a willingness to take risks; daring; fearless
audit
n. official examination of accounts to see that they are in order
augment
v. make (sth) larger in number or size; increase
augury
omen; prophecy
august
majestic, venerable
aureole
sun's corona; halo
auroral
[ aurora: ] an atmospheric phenomenon consisting of bands, curtains, or streamers of light, usually green, red, or yellow, that move across the sky in polar regions.
auspicious
adj. showing signs of future success; favourable; promising
austere
adj. severely and strictly moral; having no pleasures or comforts
austerity
n. quality of being austere
authenticate
Rractical experience of sth
authoritarian
adj. favouring complete obedience to authority before personal freedom
authoritative
adj. having authority; that can be trusted; reliable
autocrat
n. ruler of an autocracy
autocratic
adj.
automaton
n. = robot 1
autonomous
adj. self-governing; acting independently
autopsy
n. examination of a dead body to learn the cause of death; post-mortem ()
auxiliary
adj. giving help or support; additional
avalanche
n. mass of snow, ice and rock that slides rapidly down the side of a mountain
avarice
n. greed for wealth or gain
avenge
v. take or get revenge for
aver
v. (fml ) state (sth) firmly and positively; assert ;
averse
adj. ~ to sth not liking sth; opposed to sth
aversion
n. ~ strong dislike
avert
v. ~ sth turn sth away
aviary
n. large cage or building for keeping birds in, eg in a zoo ,
avid
adj. ~ eager; greedy
avocation
secondary or minor occupation
avow
v. declare (sth) openly; admit
avuncular
adj. of or like an uncle, esp in manner
awe
n. feeling of respect combined with fear or wonder
awful
adj. extremely bad or unpleasant; terrible
awl
n. small pointed tool for making holes, esp in leather or wood
awry
adv. crookedly; out of position; askew ;
axiom
n. statement that is accepted as true without further proof or argument
azure
n. , adj bright blue, as of the sky



babble
v. talk in a way that is difficult or impossible to understand
bacchanal
n. (dated or fml ) bout of noisy, drunken merrymaking . bacchana-lian adj
bacchanalia
orgiastic rites associated with Bacchus
bacchanalian
[ bacchanalia: ] [often cap] orgiastic rites associated with Bacchus
backslide
v. lapse from good ways into one's former bad ways of living
badger
n. animal of the weasel family, grey with black and white stripes on its head, living in holes in the ground and moving about at night .
badinage
n. playful teasing; banter ;
baffle
v. be too difficult for to understand; puzzle
bait
n. food or imitation food put on a hook to catch fish or placed in nets, traps, etc to attract prey
baleful
adj. threatening evil or harm; menacing
balk
n. thick, roughly-squared wooden beam
ballast
n. heavy material placed in a ship's hold to keep it steady
balm
n. sweet-smelling oil or ointment obtained from certain types of tree, used for soothing pain or for healing ,
balmy
adj. (of air) gentle and pleasantly warm
banal
adj. commonplace; uninteresting
bandy
v. (idm ) bandy `words (with sb) (dated ) exchange words, etc, esp when quarrelling
bane
n. the bane of sb's existence/life cause of sb's ruin or trouble
bank
n. land sloping up along each side of a river or canal; ground near a river
bantering
adj. playfully teasing
bar
n. piece of solid material
barb
n. point of an arrow, a fish-hook, etc curved backwards to make it difficult to pull out .
bard
n. minstrel
barefaced
adj. impudent; shameless
bargain
n. agreement in which both or all sides promise to do sth for each other
baroque
adj. n highly ornate style fashionable in the arts (esp architecture) in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries ,
barrage
n. barrier built across a river to store water for irrigation, prevent flooding, etc
barrister
n. lawyer who has the right to speak and argue as an advocate in higher lawcourts
barterer
[ barter: ] to trade (goods, services, etc.) in exchange for other goods, services, etc., rather than for money
base
n. lowest part of sth, esp the part on which it rests or is supported
bask
v. ~ sit or lie enjoying warmth
bastard
n. illegitimate child
bastion
n. part of a fortification that projects from the rest
bate
let down; restrain
battalion
n. army unit composed of several companies and forming part of a regiment or brigade
bauble
n. showy ornament of little value
bawdy
adj. amusing in a coarse or indecent way
bearing
n. way of standing, walking, etc; deportment
beatific
adj. showing or giving great joy and serenity; blissful
beatitude
n. great happiness; blessedness ;
bedizen
dress with vulgar finery
bedraggle
wet thoroughly
beeline
the most direct route between two places
befuddle
confuse thoroughly
beget
v. (arch ) be the father of (sb)
begrudge
v. resent or be dissatisfied with
beguile
charm (sb)
behemoth
huge creature; something of monstrous size or power
beholden
adj. ~ to sb (dated or fml ) owing thanks or indebted to sb
behoove
n. suited to ; incumbent upon
belabor
to explain or insist on excessively
belated
adj. coming very late or too late
beleaguer
v. besiege
belie
v. give a wrong or an untrue idea of (sth)
belittle
v. make seem unimportant or of little value
bellicose
adj. eager to fight; warlike; aggressive
belligerent
adj. waging war; engaged in a conflict
bemoan
v. show sorrow for or complain about (sb/sth)
bemused
adj. bewildered or confused
benediction
n. blessing, esp one said before a meal or at the end of a church service
benefactor
n. person who gives money or other help to a school, hospital, charity, etc
beneficent
adj. showing active kindness; generous; charitable
beneficial
adj. ~ having a helpful or useful effect; advantageous
beneficiary
n. person who receives sth, esp one who receives money, property, etc when sb dies
benefit
n. profit; gain; future good (used esp with the vs and preps shown)
benevolent
adj. ~ being, or wishing to be, kind, friendly and helpful
benign
adj. kindly; gentle
benison
blessing
bent
n. ~ (for sth/doing sth) natural skill (at sth); liking or inclination (for sth/doing sth)
bequeath
v. ~ sth (to sb) arrange, by making a will, to give (property, money etc) (to sb) when one dies
berate
v. scold sharply
bereaved
[ bereave: ] [usually foll by of] to deprive (of) something or someone valued, esp. through death
bereavement
n. state of being bereaved
bereft
adj. ~ (fml ) deprived of (a power or quality)
berserk
adj. wild with rage
beseech
v. ~ sb (for sth) ask sb earnestly; implore sb; entreat sb
beset
v. (fml ) surround (sb/sth) on all sides; trouble constantly; threaten
besiege
v. surround with armed forces in order to make it surrender
besmirch
v. dishonour (sb/sth); slander
bestial
adj. of or like a beast; brutish; cruel
bestow
v. ~ sth (fml ) present sth as a gift (to sb); confer
betoken
v. be a sign of (sth); indicate
betray
v. ~ sb/sth hand over or show sb/sth disloyally (to an enemy)
betroth
become engaged to marry
bevy
n. large group
beware
v. ~ (of sb/sth) be cautious (of sb/sth); take care (about sb/sth) ;
bewitch
v. put a magic spell on
bicameral
adj. having two legislative chambers
bicker
v. ~ (over/about sth) quarrel about unimportant things
bid
v. ~ (sth) (for sth); esp US ~ (sth) (on sth) offer (a price) in order to buy sth, esp at an auction
biennial
adj. happening every second year
bifurcated
[ bifurcate: ] to fork or divide into two parts or branches
bigot
n. person who holds strong beliefs and opinions, and is intolerant of anyone who disagrees
bigotry
n. bigoted attitude or behaviour
bilious
adj. caused by or suffering from too much bile
bilk
v. ~ sb of sth) avoid paying money to sb; cheat sb (out of sth)
billow
n. large wave
billowing
[ billow: ] a large sea wave
bitter
adj. having a sharp taste like aspirin or unsweetened coffee; not sweet
bivouac
n. temporary camp without tents or any other cover, esp used by soldiers or mountaineers
bizarre
adj. strange in appearance or effect; grotesque; eccentric ;
blackball
v. prevent from joining a club or group by voting against him in a ballot
blanch
v. prepare by putting briefly in boiling water; scald
bland
adj. gentle or casual in manner; showing no strong emotions; suave ;
blandishment
n. (fml ) flattering or coaxing words and actions
blare
v. ~ make a loud harsh sound like a trumpet
blasphemous
adj. showing contempt or irreverence for God and sacred things
blasphemy
n. blasphemous behaviour or language
blatant
adj. very obvious; unashamed; flagrant
bleak
adj. (of a landscape) bare; exposed; wind-swept
blemish
n. mark or stain that spoils the beauty or perfection of sb/sth
blight
n. disease that withers plants
blighted
(adj.) causing frustration or destruction
bliss
n. perfect happiness; great joy
blithe
adj. happy and carefree; casual
bloated
adj. swollen with fat, gas or liquid
blotch
n. large discoloured m
n. mark or stain that spoils the beauty or perfection of sb/sth
blight
n. disease that withers plants

blighted
(adj.) causing frustration or destruction

bliss
n. perfect happiness; great joy

blithe
adj. happy and carefree; casual

bloated
adj. swollen with fat, gas or liquid

blotch
n. large discoloured mark, usu irregular in shape

blowhard
a very boastful and talkative person

bludgeon
n. short thick stick with a heavy end, used as a weapon

blue
adj. having the colour of a clear sky or the sea on a sunny day

blues
[ blue: ] any of a group of colours, such as that of a clear unclouded sky, that have wavelengths in the range 490--445 nanometres. Blue is the complementary colour of yellow and with red and green forms a set of primary colours

bluff
v. try to deceive by pretending to be stronger, braver, cleverer, etc than one is

blunder
n. stupid or careless mistake

blunt
adj. without a sharp edge or a point

blurt
v. blurt sth out say sth suddenly and tactlessly

blush
v. ~ (at sth) become red in the face (because of sth)

bluster
v. blow fiercely or in strong gusts

bode
v. be a sign of (sth coming)

bog
n. wet spongy ground formed of decaying vegetation

bogus
adj. not genuine; false

Bohemian
n, adj having or displaying a very informal and unconventional way of life ,

boisterous
adj. noisy, lively and cheerful

bolster
n. long pillow, usu shaped like a roll, across the head of a bed

bolt
n. metal bar that slides into a socket to lock a door, window, etc

bombardment
n.

bombast
n. pompous and meaningless words

bombastic
adj. pompous and empty

bookish
adj. fond of reading; studious

boon
n. request or favour (used esp with the vs shown)

boor
n. rough, rude or insensitive man

boorish
adj. of or like a boor

boost
v. increase the strength or value of help or encourage (sb/sth)

botch
v. ~ sth spoil sth by poor or clumsy work; repair sth badly

bouillon
n. thin clear soup or broth; stock ;

bound
v. form the boundary of (sth); limit

bountiful
adj. giving generously

bourgeois
adj. of or relating to the property-owning middle class

bout
n. ~ short period of a specified activity

bovine
adj. of or relating to cattle

bowdlerize
expurgate

brackish
adj. slightly salty

brag
v. ~ (about/of sth) talk with too much pride (about sth); boast

braggadocio
a:empty boasting b:arrogant pretension:COCKINESS

braggart
n. person who brags

braid
n. number of threads of silk, cotton, etc woven together in a narrow band for decorating clothes and material

brand
n. particular make of goods or their trade mark

brandish
v. wave in a triumphant or threatening way; display

bravado
n. display of boldness

brave
adj. (of a person) ready to face and endure danger, pain or suffering; having no fear; courageous

brawl
n. noisy quarrel or fight

brawn
n. strong muscles; muscular strength

brawny
adj. strong and muscular

brazen
adj. shameless; insolent

breach
n. breaking or neglect

breadth
n. distance or measurement from side to side; width

breed
v. (of animals) produce young

brevity
n. shortness or briefness

bridle
n. part of a horse's harness that goes on its head, including the metal bit for the mouth, the straps and the reins

brim
n. top edge of a cup, bowl, glass, etc

brindled
adj. brown with streaks of another colour

brink
n. edge at the top of a steep high place, eg a cliff

brisk
adj. quick; active; energetic

bristle
n. short stiff hair

bristling
rising like bristles; showing irritation

brittle
adj. hard but easily broken; fragile

broach
v. make a hole in to draw off the liquid inside; open (a bottle, etc) to use the contents

brocade
n. fabric woven with a raised pattern, esp of gold or silver threads

brochure
n. booklet or pamphlet containing information about sth or advertising sth

broil
v. cook (meat) on a fire or gridiron; grill

bromide
n. chemical compound of bromine, used in medicine to calm the nerves

brooch
n. ornament with a hinged pin and clasp, worn on women's clothes ,

brood
n. all the young birds or other animals produced at one hatching or birth

brook
n. small stream

browbeat
v. ~ sb (into doing sth) frighten sb with stern looks and words; bully ; intimidate

browse
v. examine books in a casual, leisurely way

bruise
n. injury caused by a blow to the body or to a fruit, discolouring the skin but not breaking it

brunt
n. bear the brunt of sth

brusque
adj. rough and abrupt; curt

buccaneer
n. pirate

bucolic
adj. of country life or the countryside; rustic ;

buffet
n. counter where food and drink may be bought and consumed, esp in a railway station or on a train

buffoon
n. ridiculous but amusing person; clown

buffoonery
n. ridiculous behaviour; clowning ;

bugaboo
bugbear; object of baseless terror

bulge
n. rounded swelling; outward curve

bulk
n. size, quantity or volume, esp when great

bullion
n. gold or silver in bulk or bars, before it is made into coins, etc

bully
n. person who uses his strength or power to frighten or hurt weaker people

bulwark
n. wall, esp of earth, built as a defence

bump
v. ~ against/into sb/sth knock or strike sth with a dull-sounding blow; collide with sth

bungle
v. do badly or clumsily; spoil (a task) through lack of skill

buoyant
adj. (of an object) able to float

bureaucracy
n. system of government through departments managed by State officials, not by elected representatives

burgeon
v. (of a plant) put out leaves; sprout

burlesque
n. comic or exaggerated imitation; parody

burly
adj. with a strong heavy body; sturdy

burnish
v. make smooth and shiny by rubbing; polish

bust
n. sculpture of a person's head, shoulders and chest

buttress
n. support built against a wall .

buxom
adj. (of women) plump and healthy-looking; having a large bosom ;

cabal
n. secret political plot
cache
n. place for hiding food, treasure or weapons
cacophonous
(adj.) sounding jarring
cacophony
n. loud unpleasant mixture of discordant sounds
cadaver
n. dead body of a person; corpse ;
cadaverous
adj. looking like a corpse; very pale and gaunt ;
cadence
n. rhythm in sound
cadet
n. young person training to become a policeman or an officer in the armed forces
cajole
v. ~ sb(into/out of sth); ~ sb (into/out of doing sth) persuade sb (to do sth) by flattery or deceit; coax sb
calamity
n. serious misfortune or disaster
calculated
undertaken after considering the likelihood of success or failure
caldron
= cauldron
caliber
ability; capacity
calligraphy
n. beautiful handwriting
callous
adj. cruelly insensitive or unsympathetic
callow
adj. immature and inexperienced
callus
n. area of thick hardened skin
calorific
adj. of or producing heat
calumny
n. false statement about sb, made to damage his character
camaraderie
n. friendship and mutual trust; comradeship ;
cameo
n. small piece of hard stone with a raised design, esp one with two coloured layers so that the background is of a different colour from the design
camp
n. place where people (eg holiday-makers, Scouts or explorers) live temporarily in tents or huts
canard
n. false report or rumour
candor
unreserved, honest, or sincere expression:FORTHRIGHTNESS
canine
adj. of, like or relating to dogs
canker
n. disease that destroys the wood of plants and trees
canny
adj. shrewd and careful, esp in business matters
cant
n. insincere talk, esp about religion or morality; hypocrisy ;
cantankerous
adj. bad-tempered; quarrelsome ;
cantata
n. short musical work, often on a religious subject, sung by soloists and usu a choir, accompanied by an orchestra
canter
n. (of a horse) movement that is faster than a trot but slower than a gallop
canto
n. any of the main divisions of a long poem
canvass
v. ~ (for sth) go around an area asking (people) for (political support)
capacious
adj. that can hold much; roomy
capacity
n. ability to hold or contain sth
capillary
n. any of the very narrow blood vessels connecting arteries and veins in the body
capitulate
v. ~ surrender (to sb), esp on agreed conditions
caprice
n. sudden change in attitude or behaviour with no obvious cause; whim ;
capricious
adj. characterized by sudden changes in attitude or behaviour; unpredictable; impulsive
capsize
v. overturn or be overturned
caption
n. short title or heading of an article in a magazine, etc ,
captious
adj. fond of criticizingor raising objections about unimportant matters; quibbling ;
carafe
n. glass container in which wine or water are served at meals .
carapace
n. shell on the back of a tortoise or crustacean
carat
n. unit of weight (
carcinogenic
[ carcinogen: ] "carcino'genic adjective
cardinal
adj. most important; chief; fundamental
cardiologist
n.
careen
v. turn on its side (esp for cleaning or repairing)
career
n. profession or occupation with opportunities for advancement or promotion
carefree
adj. without responsibilities or worries; cheerful
caricature
n. picture,description or imitation of sb/sth that exaggerates certain characteristics in order to amuse or ridicule
carillon
n. set of bells sounded either from a keyboard or mechanically
carnage
n. killing of many people
carnal
adj. of the body; sexual or sensual
carnivorous
adj. flesh-eating
carousal
(noisy party with) drinking and merry-making
carping
adj. tending to make petty complaints; fault-finding
carrion
n. dead and decaying flesh
cartographer
n. person who draws maps and charts
cascade
n. waterfall, esp one of a series forming a large waterfall
caste
n. any of the hereditary Hindu social classes
castigation
severe punishment
castrate
v. remove the testicles of (a male animal or person); geld
casual
adj. happening by chance
casualty
n. person who is killed or injured in war or in an accident
cataclysm
n. sudden violentchange or disaster, eg a flood, an earthquake, a revolution or a war
catalyst
n. substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without itself changing
catapult
n. Y-shaped stick with a piece of elastic attached to it, used esp by children for shooting stones .
cataract
n. large steep waterfall
catastrophe
n. sudden great disaster or misfortune
catcall
n. shrill whistle expressing disapproval
catechism
n. summary of the principles of a religion in the form of questions and answers
categorical
adj. unconditional; absolute; explicit
cater
v. ~ (for sth/sb) provide food and services, esp at social functions
catharsis
n. (instance of the) release of strong feelings through the effect of art, esp drama
cathartic
adj. causing catharsis; purgative ; n. purgative drug
catholic
adj. = Roman Catholic (Roman)
caucus
n. (meeting of the) parliamentary members of a particular political party or any other legislature
caulk
v. make (esp a boat) watertight by filling the seams or joints with waterproof material
causal
adj. of or forming a cause; relating to cause and effect ;
caustic
adj. that can burn or destroy things by chemical action
cauterize
burn with hot iron or caustic
cavalcade
n. procession of people on horseback, in cars, etc
cavalier
n. Cavalier supporter of Charles I in the English Civil War
cavil
v. ~ (at sth) (fml ) make unnecessary complaints (about sth)
cede
v. ~ sth give up one's rights to or possession of sth
celerity
n. quickness
celestial
adj. of the sky
celibate
adj. remaining unmarried, esp for religious reasons
cemetery
n. area of land, not a churchyard, used for burying the dead ,
censor
n. person authorized toexamine books, films, plays, letters, etc and remove partswhich are considered indecent, offensive, politically unacceptable or a threat to security
censorious
adj. tending to find faults in people or things; severely critical ;
censure
v. ~ sb criticize sb severely; rebuke sb formally
centaur
n. one of a tribe of creatures with a man's head, arms and upper body on a horse's body and legs
centigrade
adj. of or using a temperature scale with the freezing-point of water at 0 and the boiling-point at 100
centrifugal
adj. moving away from the centre or axis
centrifuge
n. rotating machine using centrifugal force to separate substances, eg milk and cream
centripetal
adj. moving towards the centre or axis
centurion
n. officer commanding a unit of 100 soldiers
cerebral
adj. of the brain
cerebration
n. working of the brain; thinking ;
ceremonious
adj. full of ceremony; very formal ;
certitude
n. feeling of certainty; lack of doubt ;
cessation
n. action or act of ceasing; pause
cession
n. action of ceding sth, esp land or rights
chafe
v. ~ become irritated or impatient (because of sth)
chaff
n. outer covering of corn, etc, separated from the grain by threshing or winnowing
chaffing
(n.) banter; teasing
chagrin
n. feeling of disappointment or annoyance
chalice
n. large cup for holding wine, esp one from which consecrated wine is drunk at the Eucharist
chameleon
n. any of various types of small lizard that can change colour according to its surroundings
champion
n. person, team, animal or plant that has defeated or excelled all others in a competition
championship
n. contest to decide who is the champion
chancellor
n. head of government in Austria etc
chant
n. simple tune to which psalms or canticles are fitted by singing several syllables or words to the same note
chaotic
adj. in a state of chaos; completely disorganized
chapel
n. small building or room used for Christian worship, eg in a school, prison, large private house, etc
chaperon
n. older person, usu a woman, who looks after a girl or a young unmarried woman on social occasions
chaplain
n. clergyman attached to the chapel of a school, prison, etc, or serving in the armed forces
char
v. (cause sth to) become black by burning; scorch
charisma
n. power to inspire devotion and enthusiasm
charlatan
n. person who falsely claims to have special knowledge or skill, esp in medicine
charm
n. power of pleasing, fascinating or attracting people; attractiveness
chary
adj. ~ (of sth) cautious; wary
chase
v. ~ sb/sth run after in order to capture or overtake sb/sth
chasm
n. deep opening in the ground; abyss; gorge ;
chassis
n. framework on which the body and working parts of a vehicle, radio or television are built , ; .
chaste
adj. not having had sexual intercourse; virgin ;
chasten
v. punish in order to correct or improve; discipline ;
chastise
v. punish (sb) severely, esp by beating
chauvinist
n, adj displaying or feeling chauvinism
check
v. ~ (up) make sure of sth by examining or investigating it
checkered
adj. chequered
cherubic
adj. with a plump and innocent face
chicanery
n. use of clever but misleading talk in order to trick sb, esp in legal matters; dishonest practice
chide
v. ~ sb (for sth) (dated or fml ) rebuke; scold
chimerical
adj. unreal; fanciful
chip
n. thin piece cut or broken off from wood, stone, china, glass, etc
chisel
n. tool with a sharp cutting edge at the end, for shaping wood, stone or metal
chivalrous
adj. showing the qualities of a perfect knight
choice
n. ~ act of choosing between two or more possibilities
choir
n. organized group of singers, esp one that performs in church services
choleric
adj. easily angered; bad-tempered ;
chore
n. small routine task
choreography
n. steps for ballet and dancing on stage
chortle
n. loud chuckle of pleasure or amusement
chorus
n. group of singers; choir
chronic
adj. lasting for a long time; continually recurring
chronicle
n. record of historical events in the order in which they happened
chuckle
v. laugh quietly or to oneself
churlish
adj. It seems churlish to refuse such a generous offer
ciliated
having minute hairs
cipher
n. (method of) secret writing in which a set of letters or symbols is used to represent others; code
circlet
n. circular band, eg of precious metal, flowers, etc, worn round the head as an ornament
circuit
n. line, route or journey round a place
circuitous
adj. long and indirect; roundabout
circumlocution
n. use of many words to say sth that could be said in a few words
circumscribe
v. restrict (sth) within limits; confine
circumspect
adj. considering everything carefully before acting; cautious; wary ;
circumvent
v. find a way of overcoming or avoiding (sth)
cistern
an artificial reservoir (as an underground tank) for storing liquids and especially water (as rainwater)
citadel
fortress
cite
quote; commend
civil
adj. of or relating to the citizens of a country
clairvoyant
n, adj having such power
clamber
v. climb, esp with difficulty or effort, using the hands and feet
clamor
shout, complain with a lot of noise
clandestine
adj. done secretly; kept secret; surreptitious
clangor
make a loud resonant noise
clap
v. ~ sth (together) strike (the palms of one's hands) together
clapper
n. piece of metal, etc fixed loosely inside a bell and making it sound by striking the side
clarion
adj. loud, clear and rousing
clasp
n. device for fastening things together
claustrophobia
n. abnormal fear of being in an enclosed space
clavicle
n. collar-bone .
cleave
v. break or split, esp along a natural line
cleft
n. crack or split occurring naturally
clemency
n. mildness (esp of weather)
cliche
n. phrase or idea which is used so often that it has become stale or meaningless
clientele
n. customers or clients as a group
climactic
adj. forming a climax
clime
n. (arch or joc ) country; climate(1b)
clip
n. any of various wire or metal devices used for holding things together
clipper
n. clippers instrument for clipping nails, hair, hedges, etc
clique
n. small group of people, often with shared interests, who associate closely and exclude others from their group
cloister
n. covered passage around an open court or quadrangle, with a wall on the outer side and columns or arches on the inner side, esp within a convent or college, or attached to a cathedral
clot
n. half-solid lump formed from a liquid, eg from blood when it is exposed to the air
clout
n. heavy blow with the hand or a hard object
clown
n. comic entertainer who paints his face and dresses in a ridiculous way and performs funny or foolish tricks
cloying
adj. sickeningly sweet
coagulate
v. change from a liquid to a thick and semi-solid state; clot
coalesce
v. combine and form one group, substance, mass, etc
coalition
n. action of uniting into one body or group
coax
v. (~ sb sth) persuade sb gently or gradually
coda
n. final passage of a piece of music
coddle
v. treat with great care and tenderness
codicil
n. later addition to a will, esp one that changes part of it
codify
v. arrange (laws, rules, etc) systematically into a code(3a)
coercion
n. coercing or being coerced
coeval
adj. ~ (fml ) existing at the same time or having the same age as sb/sth else; contemporary ;
cog
each of a series of teeth on the edge of a wheel, that fit between those of a similar wheel, so that each wheel can cause the other one to move
cogent
adj. convincing; strong
cogitate
v. ~ sth (fml or joc ) think deeply about sth
cognate
adj. ~ (linguistics ) (of a word or language) having the same source or origin as another one
cognitive
adj. of or relating to cognition
cognizance
n. knowledge; awareness
cohabit
v. ~ (fml ) (usu of an unmarried couple) live together
cohere
v. stick together in a mass or group
cohesion
n. tendency to stick together; unity
cohorts
[ cohort: ] one of the ten units of between 300 and 600 men in an ancient Roman Legion
coiffure
n. way in which (esp a woman's) hair is arranged; hairstyle ;
coin
n. piece of metal used as money
coincidence
n. occurrence of similar events or circumstances at the same time by chance
coincident
adj. happening at the same time by chance
colander
n. metal or plastic bowl with many small holes in it, used to drain water from vegetables, etc, esp after cooking
collaborate
v. ~ (on sth) work together (with sb), esp to create or produce sth
collage
n. fixing pieces of paper, cloth, photographs, etc to a surface
collate
v. ~ A and B/~ A with B examine and compare in order to find the differences between them
collateral
adj. side by side; parallel ;
collation
n. action of collating
collected
adj. in control of oneself; calm
colloquial
adj. belonging to or suitable for normal conversation but not formal speech or writing
colloquy
n. conversation
collusion
n. ~ ~ (between sb and sb) (fml ) secret agreement or co-operation between two or more people with the aim of deceiving or cheating others
colossal
adj. very large; immense; huge
colossus
n. statue much larger than life size
coma
n. state of deep unconsciousness, usu lasting a long time and caused by severe injury or illness
comatose
adj. in a coma; deeply unconscious ;
combustible
adj. that can catch fire and burn easily
comeback
a return to a former position, status, etc.
comely
having a pleasing appearance:not homely or plain
comestible
something fit to be eaten
comeuppance
desert punishment
comity
friendly social atmosphere:social harmony
commandeer
v. take possession or control of forcibly or for official (esp military) purposes
commemorate
v. keep (a great person, event, etc) in people's memories
commemorative
adj. helping to commemorate
commensurate
adj~(fml ) in the right proportion (to sth); appropriate
commiserate
v. ~ (on/over sth) (fml ) feel, or say that one feels, sympathy
commodious
adj. having a lot of space available for use; roomy
commonplace
adj. ordinary; not interesting
commonwealth
n. independent State or community
communal
adj. for the use of all; shared
commune
v. ~ ~ (together) talk to sb intimately; feel close to sb/sth
compact
adj. closely packed together
compartment
n. any of the sections into which a larger area or enclosed space, esp a railway carriage, is divided
compassion
n. ~ pity for the sufferings of others, making one want to help them
compatible
adj. ~ (of people, ideas, arguments, principles, etc) suited; that can exist together
compelling
adj. extremely interesting and exciting, so that one has to pay attention
compendium
n. ~ (of sth) brief but full account; summary
compilation
n. compiling
compile
v. ~ sth (for/from sth) collect (information) and arrange it in a book, list, report, etc
complacency
n. ~ (usu derog ) calm feeling of satisfactionwith oneself, one's work, etc
complacent
adj. ~ (usu derog ) calmly satisfied with oneself, one's work, etc
complaisant
adj. ready to please; obliging
complement
n. ~ thing that goes well or suitably with sth else, or makes it complete
complementary
adj. ~ combining well to form a balanced whole
compliance
n. ~ action in accordance with a request or command; obedience
compliant
adj. ~ (usu derog ) (too) willing to comply (with other people, with rules, etc)
complicity
n. ~ action of taking part with another person (in a crime or some other wrongdoing); shared responsibility
component
n. any of the parts of which sth is made
comport
v. ~ oneself with sth conduct oneself in the specified way; behave
compost
n. mixture of decayed organic matter, manure, etc added to soil to improve the growth of plants
composure
n. state of being calm in mind or behaviour
compound
n. thing made up of two or more separate things combined together
comprehend
v. understand fully
comprehensive
adj. that includes everything
compress
v. ~ sth press sth together; force sth into a small(er) space
comprise
v. have as parts or members; be made up of
compromise
n. giving up of certain demands by each side in a dispute, so that an agreement may be reached which satisfies both to some extent
compulsion
n. ~ compelling or being compelled
compulsive
adj. extremely interesting; fascinating
compulsory
adj. that must be done; required by the rules, etc; obligatory
compunction
n. ~ (fml ) (usu in negative sentences ) feeling of guilt or regret for one's action
compute
v. ~ sth calculate sth with a computer
concatenate
to link together in a series or chain
concave
adj. curved inwards like the inner surface of a sphere or ball .
concede
v. ~ sth admit that sth is true, valid, proper, etc
conceit
n. excessive pride in oneself or in one's powers, abilities, etc
concentric
adj. ~ (of circles) having the same centre
conception
n. conceiving or being conceived
concerted
adj. arranged or done in co-operation
concession
n. ~ conceding
conciliatory
adj. intended or likely to conciliate
concise
adj. giving a lot of information in few words; brief
conclave
n. private meeting
conclusive
adj. convincing; ending doubt
concoct
v. make (sth) by mixing ingredients (esp ones that do not usu go together)
concomitant
adj. ~ (fml ) accompanying; happening together
concord
n. harmony between people; lack of quarrelling and unfriendliness
concordat
n. agreement, esp between a State and the Church on church affairs
concur
v. (fml ) ~ (with sb/sth) (in sth) agree; express agreement
concurrent
adj. ~ existing, happening or done at the same time
condescend
v. do sth that one regards as undignified or below one's level of importance
condign
adj. (of punishment, etc) severe and well deserved
condiments
[ condiment: ] any spice or sauce such as salt, pepper, mustard, etc.
condole
v. ~ with sb (fml ) express sympathy (for a misfortune, bereavement, etc) ,
condone
v. treat or regard as if it were not serious or wrong; overlook; forgive
conducive
adj. ~ to sth allowing or helping sth to happen
conduit
n. large pipe through which liquids flow
confidant
n. trusted person to whom one speaks about one's private affairs or secrets
confide
v. ~ sth to sb tell (a secret) to sb
confidence
n. ~ (in sb/sth) firm trust (in sb, in sb's ability, or in what is said, reported, etc)
confidential
adj. to be kept secret; not to be made known to others
confine
v. ~ sb/sth keep (a person or an animal) in a restricted space
confiscate
v. take possession of by authority, without payment or compensation
conflagration
n. great and destructive fire
confluence
n. place where two rivers flow together and become one
conformist
n. person who conforms to accepted behaviour, the established religion, etc
conformity
n. ~ (fml ) (behaviour, etc) conforming to established rules, customs, etc ,
confound
v. puzzle and surprise (sb); perplex
congeal
v. (cause to) become thick or solid, esp by cooling
congenial
adj. pleasing because of similarities in temperament, interests,etc
congenital
adj. present from or before birth
conglomerate
n. materials gathered together into a rounded mass
conglomeration
n. assortment of different things gathered together or found in the same place
congruence
correspondence of parts; harmonious relationship
congruent
adj. having the same size and shape
conifer
n. type of tree that bears cones (cone 3)
conjecture
v. ~ (fml ) form (and express) an opinion not based on firm evidence; guess
conjugal
adj. of marriage or the relationship between a husband and a wife
conjure
v. do clever tricks which seem magical, esp with quick movements of the hands
connivance
n. ~ conniving (at a wrong action)
connoisseur
n. person with good judgement on matters in which appreciation of fineness or beauty is needed, esp the fine arts
connotation
n. idea which a word makes one think of in addition to the main meaning
connubial
adj. of marriage; of husband and wife
consanguineous
adj. Descended from the same parent or ancestor.
consanguinity
n. relationship by being descended from the same family
conscientious
adj. careful to do what one ought to do, and do it as well as one can
conscript
v. ~ sb force sb by law to serve in the armed forces
consecrate
v. bring into religious use or (sb) into a religious office by a special ceremony
consensus
n. ~ agreement in opinion; collective opinion
consequential
adj. following as a result or an effect (esp indirect)
conservatory
n. room with glass walls and roof used to protect plants from cold, built against an outside wall of a house, and with a door into the house .
consign
v. ~ sb/sth to sb/sth hand over sb/sth to sb/sth; give sb/sth up to sb/sth
consistency
n. (approv ) quality of being consistent(1)
console
v. ~ sb give comfort or sympathy to (sb who is unhappy, disappointed, etc)
consolidation
n. consolidating or being consolidated
consonance
n. harmony
consonant
n. speech sound produced by completely or partially obstructing the air being breathed out through the mouth
consort
n. husband or wife, esp of a ruler
conspiracy
n. ~ act of conspiring, esp joint planning of a crime
conspire
v. ~ (against sb); ~ (together) (against sb) make secret plans (with others), esp to do wrong
consternation
n. surprise and anxiety; great dismay
constituency
n. (body of voters living in a) district having its own elected representative in parliament
constituent
adj. forming or helping to make a whole
constitution
n. laws and principles according to which a state is governed
constraint
n. con-straining or being constrained
construe
v. ~ sth (fml ) explain the meaning of (words, sentences, actions, etc); interpret sth
consummate
adj. highly skilled; perfect
contagion
n. spreadingof disease by being close to or touching other people
contaminate
v. ~ sth/sb make sth/sb impure by adding dangerous or disease-carrying substances
contempt
n. ~ (for sb/sth) feeling that sb/sth is completely worthless and cannot be respected
contend
v. ~ with/against sb/sth; ~ for sth struggle in order to overcome a rival, competitor or difficulty
contention
n. ~ contending (contend 1); competition
contentious
exhibiting an often perverse and wearisome tendency to quarrels and disputes
contest
dispute
context
writings preceding and following passage quoted
contiguous
adj. ~ (fml ) touching; neighbouring; near
continence
n. control of one's feelings, esp in sexual matters
contingent
adj. ~ on/upon sth dependent on sth that may or may not happen
contortions
[ contortion: ] the act or process of contorting or the state of being contorted
contraband
n. goods brought into or taken out of a country illegally
contravene
v. act or be contrary to (a law, etc); break
contrite
adj. filled with or showing deep regret for having done wrong; repentant
contrivance
n. ~ device or tool, esp one made by an individual for a particular purpose
contrive
v. plan (sth) cleverly or deceitfully; invent; design
contrived
adj. planned in advance rather than being spontaneous or genuine
controvert
v. deny the truth of (sth); argue about
contumacious
adj. obstinate and disobedient
contusion
n. bruise
conundrum
n. question, usu with a pun in its answer, that is asked for fun; riddle ;
convene
v. summon to come together; arrange (a meeting, etc)
convention
n. conference of members of a profession, political party, etc
conventional
adj. (often derog ) based on convention(2a)
converge
v. ~ ~ (at sth) (of lines, moving objects, etc) (come towards each other and) meet at a point
conversant
adj. ~ with sth having knowledge of sth; familiar with sth
converse
v. ~ (about sth); ~ (together) (fml ) talk
convert
v. ~ (sth) (from sth) (into/to sth) change (sth) from one form or use to another
convex
adj. with a curved surface like the outside of a ball
conveyance
n. conveying
conviction
n. ~ the convicting of a person for a crime
convivial
adj. cheerful and sociable; fond of being with others
convoke
v. call together or summon (a meeting, etc)
convoluted
adj. coiled; twisted
convulsion
n. sudden violent uncontrollable body movement, caused by contraction of muscles
copious
adj. plentiful; abundant
coquette
n. girl or woman who flirts
cordial
adj. sincere and friendly
cordon
n. line or ring of policemen, soldiers, etc, esp one which guards sth or prevents people entering or leaving an area
cornice
n. ornamental moulding, eg in plaster, round the walls of a room, just below the ceiling .
cornucopia
n. ornamental animal's horn shown in art as overflowing with flowers, fruit and corn, symbolizing abundance ,
corollary
n. ~ (fml ) natural consequence or result; thing that logically must be so, once sth else has been established
coroner
n. official who investigates any violent or suspicious death
corporeal
adj. of or for the body; bodily
corpulent
adj. (of a person or his body) fat
corpus
n. collection of written (or sometimes spoken) texts
corpuscle
n. any of the red or white cells in the blood
correlate
v. ~ ~ A and/with B have a mutual relation or connection, esp of affecting or depending on each other; (try to) show such a relation or connection between sth and sth else
correlation
n. ~ ~ (between A and B) mutual relationship
corroborate
v. confirm or give support to
corrode
v. ~ (away) be destroyed or destroy (sth) slowly, esp by chemical action
corrosive
n, adj that corrodes
corrugated
adj. folded, wrinkled or furrowed
cosmic
adj. of the whole universe or cosmos
coterie
n. small group of people with shared activities, interests, tastes, etc, esp one that tends to be exclusive
countenance
n. (expression on sb's) face
countermand
v. cancel (a command or an order already given), esp by giving a new and opposite one ,
counterpart
n. person or thing that corresponds to or has the same function as sb or sth else
coup
n. surprising and successful action
couple
n. two people or things that are seen together or associated, esp a man and woman together
courier
n. person employed to guide and assist a group of tourists
court
n. place where trials or other law cases are held
covenant
n. formal agreement that is legally binding
covert
adj. concealed; not open; secret
covetous
adj. ~ (derog ) having or showing a strong desire to possess (esp sth that belongs to sb else)
cow
n. fully-grown female of any animal of the ox family, esp the domestic kind kept by farmers to produce milk and beef
cower
v. crouch down or move backwards in fear or distress
coy
abbr. = company
cozen
cheat; hoodwink; swindle
crabbed
adj. small and difficult to read
craft
n. occupation, esp one that needs skill in the use of the hands; such a skill or technique
crass
adj. (fml derog , ) complete; very great; utter
crave
v. ~ sth have a strong desire for sth
craven
adj. cowardly
credence
n. attach/give credence to sth (fml ) believe (gossip, reports, etc)
credential
something that entitles a person to confidence, authority, etc.
credo
n. creed
credulity
n. too great a readiness to believe things
creed
n. system of beliefs or opinions, esp religious beliefs
creep
v. move slowly, quietly or stealthily, esp crouching low
cremate
v. burn to ashes, esp ceremonially at a funeral
crescendo
adj. adv of or with increasing loudness
crest
n. tuft of feathers on a bird's head
crestfallen
adj. sad because of unexpected failure, disappointment, etc
crevice
n. narrow opening or crack in a rock, wall, etc ,
cringe
v. ~ move back or lower one's body in fear; cower
crinkle
n. wrinkle or thin crease, esp in material such as tin foil or paper, or in skin ,
criteria
n. (pl of criterion) standard by which sth is judged
crochet
n. method of making fabric by looping thread into a pattern of connected stitches, using a hooked needle (called a crochet-hook)
crone
n. ugly withered old woman
cross
n. mark made by drawing one line across another, eg x or + +
crossbreed
Also: interbreed to breed (animals or plants) using parents of different races, varieties, breeds, etc.
crotchety
adj. bad-tempered
crust
n. hard outer surface of a loaf of bread; pastry covering of a pie, tart, etc
crux
n. most vital or difficult part of a matter, an issue, etc
crypt
n. room beneath the floor of a church
cryptic
adj. with a meaning that is hidden or not easily understood; mysterious
cubicle
n. small compartment made by separating off part of a larger room, eg for dressing, undressing or sleeping in
cue
n. ~ thing said or done to signal sb's turn to say or do sth, esp in a theatrical or other performance
cuisine
n. (style of) cooking
culinary
adj. of or for cooking
cull
v. kill (a certain number of usu weaker animals) in a herd, in order to reduce its size
culmination
n. eventual conclusion or result
culpable
adj. ~ deserving blame; blameworthy
culprit
n. person who has done sth wrong; offender
culvert
n. drain that crosses beneath a road, railway, etc; underground channel for electrical cables ;
cumbersome
adj. heavy and difficult to carry, wear, etc
cumulative
adj. gradually increasing in amount, force, etc by one addition after another
cunning
adj. clever at deceiving people
cupidity
n. greed, esp for money or possessions
curator
n. person in charge of a museum, an art gallery, etc
curb
n. ~ thing that restrains or controls
curfew
n. signal or time after which people must stay indoors until the next day
curmudgeon
n. bad-tempered person
cursive
adj. with letters rounded and joined together
cursory
adj. done quickly and not thoroughly; (too) hurried
curtail
v. make shorter or less; reduce
cynical
adj. of or like a cynic
cynosure
n. person or thing that attracts everybody's attention or admiration; centre of attraction
word list -- A TO C Reviewed by sambasivan srinivasan on 7:32:00 PM Rating: 5

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