Header Ads


General Awareness                                                             
·  The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)

This flagship Program of the Government of India touches the lives of the rural poor and promotes inclusive growth. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) aims at enhancing livelihood security of household in rural areas of the country by providing at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. It also mandates 33 per cent participation for women. The primary objective of the scheme is to augment wage employment.
The MGNREG Act was notified in 200 districts in the first phase with effect from 2 February, 2006 and then extended to an additional 130 districts in the financial year 2007-08. The Act has been notified throughout the country with effect from 1 April, 2008.
·  Swarnjayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY)

The Swarnjayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) is a major ongoing scheme launched in April 1999 to help poor rural families (Swarozgaris) cross the poverty line by assisting them to take up income-generating economic activities through a mix of bank credit and government subsidy. The scheme involves selection of key activities, planning of activity clusters, organization of the poor into self-help groups (SHGs), and building of their capacities through training and skill development, creation of infrastructure, and technological and marketing support.
The SGSY specially focuses on vulnerable sections among the rural poor with SCs/STs to account for at least 50 per cent and women 40 per cent of the swarozgaris. The share of minorities and disabled persons will be 15 per cent and 3 per cent respectively. Also, 15 per cent of the SGSY allocation is set apart for special projects that are implemented with different models of self-employment generation and to enhance the income-generating capacity of the rural poor.
·  Rural Self Employment Training Institute (RSETI)
A new initiative has also been taken up for setting up a Rural Self Employment Training Institute (RSETI) in each district of the country for basic and skill development training of rural BPL youth to enable them to undertake micro-enterprises and wage employment. The Government has approved 215 RSETIs out of which funds have been released to 149.
  • Swarn Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY)
The Swarn Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY) launched by the Government of India in December 1997 has been revamped with effect from April 2009. The scheme provides gainful employment to the urban unemployed and underemployed through encouraging the setting up of self-employment ventures or provision of wage employment, the revamped scheme has the following 5 components:
  • Urban Self Employment Program (USEP)
  • Urban Women Self-help Program (UWSP)
  • Skill Training for Employment Promotion amongst Urban Poor (STEPUP)
  • Urban Wage Employment Program (UWEP)
  • Urban Community Development Network (UCDN)
·  Aam Admi Bima Yojana (AABY)
Under this scheme, launched on 2 October, 2007, insurance is provided against natural as well as accidental and partial/permanent disability of the head of the family of rural landless households in the country.
  • Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY)
The Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) was launched on 1 October, 2007 to provide smart card-based cashless health insurance cover of Rs 30,000 per family per annum to BPL families (a unit of five) in the unorganized sector. The scheme became operational from 1 April, 2008.
The premium is shared on 75:25 basis by the Centre and State Governments. In the case of States of the north-east region and Jammu and Kashmir, the premium is shared on 90:10 basis. The scheme provides for smart card portability by splitting the card value for migrant workers. Till 31 January 2011, 27 States and Union Territories have initiated the process of implementing the scheme. Out of these 27 States/UTs, 25 States /UTs have started issuing smart cards.
·       The Unorganized Worker’s Social Security Act, 2008
The Act came into force from 16 May, 2009 with the objective of providing social security to unorganized workers. The Act provides for constitution of the National Social Security Board and Sate Social Security Boards which will recommend social security schemes for unorganized workers.
The National Social Security Board has since been constituted. As part of its mandate, The National Social Security Board constituted a Sub-Committee of the Board to explore the extension of social security scheme to unorganized workers. Subsequently, the Board recommended that social security scheme, namely the RSBY providing health insurance, Janashree Bima Yojana (JBY) providing death and disability cover, and Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS) providing old age pension, may be extended to building and other construction workers, MGNREGA workers, Asha workers, Anganwadi workers and helpers, porters/coolies/gang men, and casual and daily wagers.
  • Bilateral Social Security Agreements
Bilateral Social Security Agreements have been signed with Belgium, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Denmark to protect the interests of expatriate workers and companies on a reciprocal basis. Negotiations for a similar agreement have been completed with Norway. These agreements help workers by providing exemption from social security contribution in case of posting, totalization of contribution period, and exportability of pension in case of relocation to the home country or any third country.
  • Rural Infrastructure and Development
The Government of India has accorded highest priority to building rural infrastructure with objective of facilitating a higher degree of rural-urban integration and for achieving an even pattern of growth for the poor and disadvantaged sections of society.
Some of the initiatives taken by the Government to facilitate building of rural infrastructure and development include the PMGSY, Bharat Nirman, Total Sanitation Campaign, and NRHM.
  • Bharat Nirman
This Program, launched in 2005-06 for building infrastructure and basic amenities in rural areas, has six components, namely rural housing, irrigation potential, drinking water, rural roads, electrification, and rural telephony. It is an important initiative for reducing the gap between rural and urban areas and improving the quality of life of people in rural areas.
  • Rural Roads
Rural Roads have been identified as one of the six components of Bharat Nirman and a goal has been set to provide connectivity to all villagers with a population of 1000 (500 in hilly or tribal areas) with all-weather roads. New connectivity is proposed to be provided to a total of 54,648 habitations under Bharat Nirman. This will involve construction of 1,46,184 km of rural roads. In addition to new connectivity, Bharat Nirman envisages upgradation/renewal of 1,94,130 km of existing rural roads.
  • Rural Drinking Water
Supply of safe drinking water in uncovered, slipped back and quality-affected habitations is one of the components of Bharat Nirman. Habitations with arsenic and fluoride content in water have been accorded highest priority followed by those with iron, salt, and nitrate content.
In order to give effect to the policy initiatives mentioned in the Eleventh Five Year Plan document, the guidelines for the rural water supply Program have been revised. The revised Program called the National Rural Drinking Water Program (NRDWP) has a budgetary provision of Rs. 9000 crore for 2010-11 against which Rs. 7103.56 crore has been utilized so far.
Considering the importance of the Bharat Nirman Program and its implementation status at the end of 2008-09, the Government has extended Phase II of the Program up to 2012. The implementation status of the NRDWP under Bharat Nirman Phase II shows that against a physical target of 76,316 habitations to be covered up to 2010-11, a total of 43,193 habitations have been covered as on 31 December 2010. All the uncovered and quality-affected habitations that may still be uncovered by the end of 2010-11 are targeted to be covered during 2011-12.

o             Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC)
The Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) one of the flagship Programs of the Government of India. The TSC follows a community-led and people-centered approach. It places emphasis on information, education, and communication (IEC) for demand generation for sanitation facilities. It also places emphasis on school sanitation and hygiene education (SSHE) for changing the behavior of people from a young age. The components of the TSC include smart-up activities, IEC, individual household latrines (IHHL), community sanitary complexes (CSC), SSHE, Anganwadi toilets, alternate delivery mechanism, in the form of rural sanitary marts (RSMs) and production centers (PCs), and administrative charges.
  • Urban Infrastructure and Development
The Government of India is playing an important role in shaping policies and Programs related to urban infrastructure, housing, and sanitation in the country as a whole. Apart from deciding national policy issues, the Central Government is also allocating resources to State Governments through various centrally sponsored schemes and providing finances through national financial institutions in the country as a whole. Some of the initiatives taken by the Government in this area are as follows:
  • Jawahar Lal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM)
The Jawahar Lal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), a seven year Program launched in December 2005, provides financial assistance to cities for infrastructure, housing, development, and capacity development. Two of its four components-Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BSUP) for 65 select cities and Integrated Housing and Slum Development Program (IHSDP) for other cities and towns-are devoted to shelter and basic service needs of the poor.
The Jawahar Lal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) also emphasis the implementation of the following three mandatory pro –poor key reforms to enhance the capacity of urban local bodies (ULBs):
Ø  Internal earmarking within local body budgets for basic services to the urban poor;
Ø  Earmarking at least 20-25per cent of development land in all housing projects (both public and private agencies) for the economically weaker section (EWS)/ lower income group (LIG) category; (iii) implementation of seven–point charter for provision of seven basic entitlements/services.
As the first national flagship Program For urbanization, the JNNURM has significantly triggered the creation of many innovative ideas in States that will increase their ability to maintain the momentum of the urban transformation they have initiated.
  • Affordable Housing In Partnership (AHIP)
The Government has launched the Affordable Housing In Partnership (AHIP) scheme with an outlay of Rs. 5000 crore for construction of one million houses for the EWS/LIG/ middle income group (MIG) with at least 25 per cent for the EWS category. The scheme aims at partnership between various agencies/ Government/ parastatals/ ULBs/ developers for realizing the goal of affordable housing for all.
  • Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY)
The Government has announced the vision of a ‘slum-free India’ through a new scheme, the Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY). Subsequently to this announcement, extensive consultations have been held with various Ministries, experts, State Governments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), financial and urban experts, and private industry to frame the guidelines. These draft guidelines have been critically appraised by an expert committee. The preparatory phase of RAY, called the slum Free City Planning Scheme has been implemented.
  • Skill Development
As mentioned above in the Economic Survey 2009-10, a three-tier structure for coordinated action on skill development has been set up. The three-tier structure consists of:
(i)                 The Prime Minister’s National Council on Skill Development,
(ii)               The National Skill Development Coordination Board (NSDCB),
(iii)             The National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC).
The Prime Minister’s National Council has outlined the core operating principles which, inter alia, advocate the need for co-created solutions for skill development based on partnerships between States, civil society and community leaders. The emphasis is on making skills bankable for all sections of society including the poorest of the poor.
  • National Skill Development Council
The Prime Minister’s National Skill Development Council (NSDC) has been operating as a three-tier structure with the apex council being chaired by the Prime Minister, a coordination unit chaired by the Dy. Chairman, Planning Commission and a NSDC located in Ministry of Finance specifically focusing on supporting the private sector.
The Planning Commission will be the nodal agency for providing administrative, logistic, planning and budgeting support to the office of Advisor to the Prime Minister as well As for handling Parliament-related responses.
S. Ramdorai was on January 31, 2011 appointed as advisor to the Prime Minister in the National Skill Development Couincil in the rank of Cabinet Minister.
To advise the PM and supervise the following areas:
Ø  Develop a strategy for skill development at the National level along with variations at the state level.
Ø  Map the gaps in the area of skill development and develop strategies to address the skill deficit.
Ø  Identify new areas for employability and promote skill development in such sectors.
Ø  Advice on remodeling of existing skill development programmes run by various ministries.
Ø  Promote greater use of information Communications Technology in the area of skill development.
Ø  Develop and implement an action plan for skill development to maximize job generation within the country and create human resources for global needs.
Ø  Provide guidance through the National Council for activities to be undertaken by the centre and the National Skill Development Council.
  • National Knowledge Network
Kapil Sibal, Union Minister for Communication and Information Technology (C&IT) launched the logo and website of the National Knowledge Network (NKN) in Delhi on February 05, 2011. NKN is a significant step towards ushering a knowledge revolution in the country.
National Knowledge Network (NKN) envisages connecting all higher centers of learning and research by bringing together all stakeholders from science, technology, higher education, healthcare, agriculture and governance to a common platform.
The implementation of NKN is currently underway and aims to accomplish connectivity to approximately 550+ institutions across the country by March, 2011. In Phase-I, the Services Providers are connecting the NKN Points of Presence (PoPs) with 2.5 Gigabits bandwidth links. The bandwidth of these PoP’s shall be enhanced from 2.5 G to 10G in the next year. So far, 76 links for the creation of the backbone for NKN project have been established. Also, connectivity with 200 edge links for various institutions has been accomplished.
Initially, the decision to set up NKN was announced in 2008-09 with an allocation of Rs. 100 crore to the Department of Information Technology, Ministry of Communications and IT. President of India, Pratibha  Patil inaugurated the NKN in April 2009. Since then this vision has translated into a concrete implementation plan with approval from Cabinet in March, 2010. An outlay of Rs. 5,990 crore has been approved for this project and it shall be implemented by NIC over a period for next two years and operated for over next 10 years.
  • Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI)
Significant progress has been made since the UIDAI was created through a notification issued by the Government in January 2009. Phase-II of the UIDAI now referred to as the “Aadhaar Program”  commenced in July 2010 for enrolling 10 crore residents through  multiple registrars and for setting up of other infrastructural requirements for the project phase of five years ending March 2014.
The scheme was formally launched on 29 September, 2010 at Thembali village of Nandurbar district in Maharashtra when all the residents in the village were enrolled making it the first ‘Aadhaar Gaon’. All the 35 States and UTs have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the UIDAI. MoUs have also been signed with the Ministry of Human Resource Development,
Ministry of Rural Development, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Department of Post, 23 Public Sector Banks, the Life Insurance Corporation of India, Indira Gandhi national Open University, and the National Coalition of Organizations for Security of Migrant workers.
The UIDAI is partnering with financial institutions to both augment enrolments through them and to provide bank accounts to residents during Aadhar enrolment. Enrolment statistics indicate that about 80 percent of residents  have given consent for opening bank accounts during enrolment. In order to simplify the process of opening Aadhaar-enabled bank accounts for the marginalized population, the Aadhar-based Know Your Resident (KYR) leading to issue of Aadhaar numbers has been accepted as a equivalent to banks’ Know Your Customer (KYC) norms.
  • Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009 (RTE Act)
Free education to all children between the age of 6 and 14 years has been made a fundamental right under the RTE Act 2009. While the RTE Act was notified o 27 August, 2009 for general information, the notification for enforcing the provisions of the Act with effect from 1 April, 2010 was issued on 16 February, 2010.
  • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)
The scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), a national flagship program, is being implemented in all districts of the country. The aim of SSA is to provide useful and relevant elementary education for all children in the 6-14 age group by 2010. The scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) was launched in 2001.
The goals of SSA are as follows:
  • All 6-14 age children in school/EGS(Education Guarantee Scheme) centre/Bridge Course by 2005.
  • Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010.
  • Universal retention by 2010.
  • Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life.
The assistance under the program of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) was on a 85:15 sharing arrangement during the Ninth Plan, 75:25 sharing arrangement during the Tenth Plan, and 50:50 sharing thereafter between the Central Government and the State Government except for 8 NE states, where 15% of the assistance is met by Ministry of DONER for the two years 2005-06 and 2006-07.
  • Mid- Day Meal Scheme
With a view to enhance enrollment, retention and attendance and simultaneously improving nutritional levels among children, the National Program of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NPNSPE) was launched as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme on 15th August, 1995 initially in 2408 blocks in the country. By the year 1997-98 the NPNSPE was introduced in all blocks of the country.
Under the Program cooked mid-day meal is provided to all the children attending Classes I-VIII in Government, Local body, Government aided and National Child Labor Project schools. At present the cooked midday meal provides an energy content of 450 calories and protein content of 12 grams at primary stage and an energy content of 700 calories and protein content o f20 grams at upper primary stage. Adequate quality of micro-nutrients like iron, folic acid and vitamin A are also recommended for convergence with the NRHM.
  • District Primary Education Program (DPEP)
The Centrally-Sponsored Scheme of District Primary Education Program (DPEP) was launched in 1994 as a major initiative to revitalize the primary education system and to achieve the objective of universalization of primary education. Presently DPEP is in operation in nine States covering 123 districts. DPEP at its peak was operational in 273 districts in 18 States. However, with the progressive closure of the program, it now exists only in 123 districts.
  • Mahila Samakhya Scheme
Pursuant to the objectives of the NPE, 1986, the Mahila Samakhya Scheme was started in 1989 to translate the goals enshrined in the NPE into a concrete program for the education and empowerment of women in rural areas particularly those from socially and economically marginalized groups. The MS scheme recognizes the centrality of education in empowering women to achieve equality.
The Mahila Samakhya Scheme is currently being implemented in nine states viz., Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand spread over 83 districts and covering more than 21,000 villages. From the current financial year the program is being extended to two new States i.e. Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.
  • National Bal Bhavan
The National Bal Bhavan is an autonomous organization fully funded by the Ministry of Human Resources Development. Since its inception in 1956, the Bal Bhavan as a movement has grown by leaps and bounds throughout the length and bounds throughout the length and breadth of the country and today there are 68 State Bal Bhavans and 10 Bal Kendra’s that are affiliated to National Bal Bhavan.
Through affiliated Bal Bhavans and Bal Kendra’s, National Bal Bhavan reaches out to school drop-outs, children of socially and economically backward class, street children and also the special children.
  • Prarambhik Shiksha Kosh
A two per cent Education Cess was levied on all major Central taxes through the Finance (No.2) Act, 2004, to help finance Government’s commitment to quality basic education. In order to receive the proceeds of this Education cess, the creation of a dedicated, non-lapsable fund called Prarambhik Shiksha Kosh (PSK) in the Public Account was approved by Government on 6-10-2005. Formal orders constituting PSK were issued on 14-11-2005.
The funds available in the PSK were utilized exclusively for Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and National Program for Nutritional Support of Primary Education (MDS Scheme).
  • National Literacy Mission
The National Literacy Mission, set up in May 1988, aims to attain a sustainable threshold level of 75 per cent literacy by 2007 by imparting functional literacy to non-literates in the age group of 15-35 years, which is the productive and reproductive age group and constitutes a major segment of the work force.
  • Shiksha Karmi Project (SKP)
SKP aims at universalization and qualitative improvement of primary education in remote, arid and socio-economically backward villages in Rajasthan with primary attention to girls. It is noteworthy that in Shiksha Karmi Schools, most of the students are from SCs, Sts, and OBCs.
  • Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas
Under the scheme of Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas (KGBVs), 750 residential schools are being set up in difficult areas with boarding facilities to the SC, ST, OBC and minorities. The scheme is being implemented in the EBBs where rural female literacy is below 30 per cent and in select urban areas where female literacy is below the national average.
The KGBV scheme was merged with the (SSA) with effect from 1 April, 2007.
  • Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA)
The RMSA was launched in March 2009 with the objective of enhancing access to secondary education and improving its quality. The implementation of the scheme started from 2009-10. It envisages raising the enrolment rate at secondary stage from 52.56 per cent in 2005-06 to 75 per cent within five years by providing a secondary school within reasonable distance of any habitation.
The Central Government and State Government bear 75 per cent and 25 per cent of the project expenditure respectively during the Eleventh Five Year Plan. The funding pattern is in the ratio 10:10 for the North- Eastern  States.
  • National Program for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL)
The NPEGEL is a focused intervention of the Government of India to reach the ‘Hardest to Reach’ girls. It is an important component of SSA, which provides additional support for enhancing girl’s education over and above the normal SSA interventions. The program provides for setting up of a ‘modal school’ in every cluster with more intense community mobilization and supervision of girls’ enrolment in schools.

  • Inclusive Education for the Disabled at Secondary Stage (IEDSS)
The IEDSS scheme was launched in 2009-10 replacing the earlier scheme of Integrated Education for Disable Children (IEDC). It provides 100 per cent Central assistance for inclusive education of disabled children studying in class IX-XII in Government, local body, and Government-aided schools. The aim of the scheme is to facilitate continuation of education of children with special needs up to higher secondary level.
  • Saakshar Bharat
In the context of the Government’s overall policy aimed at empowerment of women and in recognition of the fact that literacy is a prerequisite for socioeconomic development, the National Literacy Mission has been recast as ‘Saakshar Bharat’ with prime focus on female literacy. This flagship program of the Government will cover all adults in the age group of 15 and above through its primary focus will be on women.
The Jan Shiksha Kendras (adult education centers-AECs) will be set up to coordinate and manage all programs within their territorial jurisdiction. The state governments, as against the districts in the earlier versions, and Panchyati Raj institutions, along with communities, will be the valued stakeholders. The budgetary support has also been substantially enhanced.
  • National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)
The NRHM was launched in 2005 to provide accessible, affordable, and accountable quality health services to rural areas which emphasis on poor persons and remote areas. It is being operationalised throughout the country, with special focus on 18 states, which include 8 empowered action groups rates (Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Odisha, and Rajasthan), 8 north-eastern States, Himachal Pradesh, and Jammu and Kashmir.
The NRHM aims to provide an overarching umbrella to the existing programs of Health and Family Welfare including the Reproductive Child Health Project (RCH-II) and Malaria, Blindness, Iodine Deficiency, Filarial, Kala Azar, TB, Leprosy, and Integrated Disease Surveillance Programs by strengthening the public health delivery system at all levels. Further, the Mission addresses the issue of health in the context, of a sector – wide approach addressing sanitation and hygiene, nutrition, and safe drinking water as the basic determinants of good health. Keeping this in view, it seeks greater convergence among the related social-sector departments, namely AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga, and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homoeopathy), Women & Child Development, Sanitation, Elementary Education, Panchayati Raj, and Rural Development.
  • Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY)
The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) is a centrally sponsored scheme aimed at reducing maternal and infant mortality rates and increasing institutional deliveries in below poverty line (BPL) families. The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) which falls under the overall umbrella of National Rural Health Mission (External website that opens in a new window), covers all pregnant women belonging to households below the poverty line, above 19 years of age and up to two live births.
The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), launched in 2003, modifies the existing National Maternity Benefit Scheme (NMBS). While the National Maternity Benefit Scheme (NMBS) was connected with providing a better diet for pregnant women from below poverty line (BPL) families, the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) integrates help in the form of cash with antenatal care during pregnancy period, institutional care during delivery as well as post- partum care.

Two critical mechanisms of maternal death reviews and name based tracking of every pregnant women and child immunized have been initiated to bring down the maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. The name based tracking system will result in creating a database of all pregnant women with their address and telephone numbers. The Mother and Child tracking system are already operational in Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu whilst the other States are in the implementation phase.
  • Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY)
The Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY) has been launched with the objectives of correcting regional imbalances in the availability of affordable/reliable tertiary healthcare services and augmenting facilities for quality medical education in the country. The Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY) has two components in its first phase.
The first phase is the setting up of six All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) like institutions. The of residential complexes in Rishikesh and Patna is expected to be completed by March 2011 whereas in Bhopal and Bhubaneswar, it is likely to be completed by June 2011 and August 2011 respectively.
The second is up-gradation of 13 existing Government Medical College Institutions. Civil works under this component have been completed in the Medical Colleges in Trivandrum, Salem, Bangalore, and Lucknow, and is on the verge of completion in Hyderabad, Kolkata, Jammu, Triupati, and Mumbai, and in Varanasi, Srinagar, Ahmadabad, and Ranchi are likely to be completed by mid-2011.
In the second phase of the Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY) , two more AIIMS-like institutions will be set up and up-gradation of six more medical colleges is being taken up.
  • Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS)
This was launched in 1975 for holistic development of children below 6 years of age and for proper nutrition and health education of pregnant and lactating mothers with 33projects and 4891 anganwadi centers (AWCs). It has been continuously expanded to uncovered areas and has now been universalized with the Government of India cumulatively approving 7076 projects and 14 lakh AWCs including 20, 000 anganwadis ‘on demand’.
Apart from universalizing the ICDS Scheme, the Government has taken various steps, such as revision in financial norms of existing interventions including the Supplementary Nutrition Program (SPN), revision in nutritional and feeding norms of supplementary nutrition, and introduction of new WHO growth standards.
In the addition, the Government of India also introduced cost-sharing between the Center and State from 2009-10 in the ratio of 90:10 for all components including the SNP for the north-east. This ratio will be 50:50 for the SNP and 90:10 for all other components for all States other than north-east.
  • Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (RGSEAG) or SABLA Scheme
The Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (RGSEAG) or SABLA Scheme was launched on 19 November, 2010 with the objective of empowering adolescent girls in the age group 11-18 years by bringing improvement in their nutritional and health status and up-grading various skills like home skills, life skills, and vocational skills.
To start with, it will be implemented in 200 selected districts across the country on a pilot basis. The Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (RGSEAG) or SABLA Scheme would be implemented through State Governments/ UT Administrations with 100 per cent financial assistance from the Central Government for all inputs other than nutrition provision for which 50 per cent Central assistance to states/UTs would be provided.
Anganwadi Centers will be the focal point for delivery of services. Nearly 100 lakh adolescent girls in 200 districts are expected to be benefited per annum under the scheme. In these 200 districts, Kishori Shakti Yojna (KSY) and the Nutrition Program for Adolescent Girls (NPAG) have been merged in the Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (RGSEAG) or SABLA Scheme. In the remaining districts, the Kishori Shakti Yojna (KSY) will continue as before.
  • Rajiv Gandhi National Creche Scheme
The Rajiv Gandhi National Creche Scheme provides for day-care facilities to 0-6 year old children of working mothers by opening crèches and development services, i.e., supplementary nutrition, health-care inputs like immunization, polio drops, basic health monitoring, and recreation. The combined monthly income of both parents should not exceed Rs. 12000 for availing of the facilities. The scheme is presently  being implemented through the Central Social Welfare Board (CSWB) and Indian Council For Child Welfare (ICCW).
  • Integrated Child Protection Scheme (ICPS)
The Integrated Child Protection Scheme (ICPS) was launched in 2009-10 with the objective of providing a safe and secure environment for comprehensive development of children in the country who are in need of care and protection as well as children in conflict with the law.
The Integrated Child Protection Scheme (ICPS) provides preventive and statutory care and rehabilitation services to any vulnerable child including, but not limited to, children of potentially vulnerable families and families sat risk, families living in extreme poverty, families at risk, children of socially excluded groups like migrant families, families living in extreme poverty, families subjected to or affected by discrimination and minorities, children infected and / or affected by HIV/AIDS, orphans, child drug abusers, children of substance abusers, child beggars, trafficked or sexually exploited children, children of  prisoners, and street and working children.
The scheme is Centrally Sponsored and is being mainly implemented through state Governments / UT Administrations from 2009-10 and 33 states / UTs have signed the MOUs for implementation of this Scheme.
  • Support to Training and Employment Program for Women (STEP) Scheme
The Support to Training and Employment Program for Women (STEP) Scheme seeks to provide updated skills and new knowledge to poor women in 10 traditional sectors for enhancing their productivity and income generation. It is being implemented through public-sector organization, State corporations, cooperatives, federations, and registered voluntary organizations with minimum existence of the three years.
With a view to expanding the reach of the program and further strengthening implementation and monitoring, the norms and parameters of this scheme have been received in November 2009.
  • Dhanlakshmi
Dhanlakshmi is a conditional cash transfer scheme for the girl child which was launched as a pilot project in March 2008. The objective is to encourage families to educate girl children and to prevent child marriage. The scheme provides for cash transfer to the family of a girl child on fulfilling certain specific conditionality’s related to birth and registration, immunization, and enrolment and retention in school up to Class VIII.
  • Bal Bandhu
Bal Bandhu Scheme (BBS) for protection of children in areas of civil unrest is being implemented through the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) with the great Sanctioned from the Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund.
  • Swadhar
Swadhar scheme for providing temporary accommodation, maintenance, and rehabilitative services to women and girls rendered homeless and women in difficult circumstances.
  • Ujjawala
Ujjawala , a comprehensive scheme for prevention of trafficking with five specific components (prevention, rescue, rehabilitation, reintegration, and repatriation of victims) was launched on 4 December, 2007. Under this scheme, 134 projects including 73 rehabilitation homes, spread over 16 states, have been sanctioned.
  • National Mission For Empowerment of Women (NMEW)
The National Mission For Empowerment of Women (NMEW) has been set up with a view to empowering Women socially, economically, and educationally. The Mission aims to achieve empowerment of women on all these fronts by securing convergence of schemes / programs of different Ministries / Departments of the Government of India as well as State Governments.

  • Rashtriya Mahila Kosh(RMK)
Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK) was created in 1993 with a corpus fund of Rs. 31 crore. Since, its creation, Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK) has established itself as a  premier micro- credit agency of the country, with its focus on poor women and their empowerment through the provision of credit for livelihood-related activities.
The Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK)provides micro-credit in a quasi-informal manner, lending to intermediate micro-credit organizations (IMOs) (for example NGOs / voluntary organizations, women development corporations, women’s cooperative societies, and suitable Government / local bodies).
  • Sanchar Shakti Project (SSP)
The Sanchar Shakti Project (SSP) of the Department of Telecommunications was launched by President Pratibha Patil on March 7, 2011. The project is a suite of mobile value added services (VAS) to provide a variety of useful information to women and women’s self-help groups about government schemes and health and social issues, besides inputs related to and training in livelihood, over the mobile phone. Financed by the Universal Service Obligation Funds (USOFs), the scheme envisages empowering women, especially in rural areas, with the help of NGOs and other national and international organizations working for the uplift of women.
Sanchar Shakti Project (SSP) envisages bringing together the combined efforts and contributions of Department of Telecommunication (DoT), Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF), mobile and Mobile Value Added Service Providers, telecom Equipment Manufacturers and their partner NGOs to use ICT (Information & Communication Technologies) to empower rural women. NABARD and UN women have also been involved in the development of this scheme.
The Sanchar Shakti scheme includes four categories of projects aimed at rural women’s SHGs:
  • Provision of subsidized mobile VAS subscription to SGHs with a service validity/warranty of at least one year.
  • Setting up of SHG run mobile repair centers in rural areas.
  • Setting up of SHG run modem repair centers in rural areas.
  • Setting up of SHG run solar based mobile / CDMA FWT charging centers in rural areas.
The projects are aimed at the facilitating women’s SHG’s access to ICT enabled services.
  • Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY)
The Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) is a scheme by government of India to achieve 4% growth rate in agriculture during the Eleventh Five year Plan  (2007-2012).
The Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) will be implemented in the coming year (2011-12) with a budget of Rs. 7860 crore and nine Sub-schemes. Three of the sub-schemes were introduced in 2010-11 and will be continued this year also. The sub-schemes are as follows:
Extending Green Revolution to the Eastern Region of the Country Sub-scheme targets improvement in the rice based cropping system in 7 states. Promotion of OIL Palm seeks to give special attention will be paid to oil palm as it is one of the most efficient oil crops. Initiative on Vegetables Clusters will establish an efficient supply chain to make quality vegetables available at competitive prices. Nutri-cereals will promote balanced nutrition and higher production of bajra, jowar, ragi and other millets in the arid and semi-arid regions of the country. Integrated Development of 60,000 Pulses Villages in Rain fed Areas aims at attending self-sufficient in production of pulses within the next three years.
  • Youth Employability Skill Project (YES)
Ajay Maken, the Union Minister of State (I/C) for Youth Affairs and Sports, inaugurated Youth Employability Skill Project (YES) at Imphal, Manipur, on April 4, 2011 by enrolling 100 youths for skill development. Under the Project, skill related training would be given to the youths in the North-Eastern Region to boost their chances of finding jobs or starting their own enterprises. The scheme has been launched keeping in view the Prime Minister’s vision to create 500 million certified and skilled persons by the year, 2022 throughout the country.
The National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), which has been co-promoted by the Ministry of Finance to catalyze Private sector involvement in skill development, would partner the Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports (M/o YAS) for the Youth Employability Skill Project (YES) venture. The Youth Employability Skill Project (YES) initiative would see training in employable skills being provided to unemployed youth in 59 districts of 8 North Eastern states.
  • National Rollout of e – District Mission Mode Project
The Cabinet Committee on Infrastructure has approved the scheme of National Rollout of e – District Mission Mode Project on April 21, 2011. The estimated total project cost for the nation-wide rollout of e – district MMP is Rs. 1663.08 crore spread over years 2011-1012to 2014-2015. The Government of India’s Share is estimated to be Rs. 1233.08 crore and State’s share Rs. 430 crore.
The project will be implemented in all 640 districts (including the 41 districts where e- districts Pilot Projects have already been initiated) of the country for a period of 4 years.
The Government had in May 2006, approved the National e Governance Plan (NeGP) with the following vision;
“Make all Government Services accessible to the common man in his locality, through common services delivery outlets and ensure efficiency, transparency and reliability of such services at affordable costs to realize the basic needs of the common man”.
  • National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM)
The National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM), is one of the major new initiatives under the Ministry of Rural Development to bring the poorest of the poor above the poverty line by ensuring viable livelihood opportunities to them was launched by the UPA Chairperson Sonia Gandhi at a function in Banswara, Rajasthan on June 3, 2011.
The Mission aims to ensure that at least one member from identified rural poor household, preferably a woman, is brought under the Self Help Group (SHG) network in a time bound manner. The National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) would reach out, mobilize and support 7 Crore Below Poverty Line (BPL) households across 600 districts, 6000 blocks, 2.5 lakh Gram Panchayats in 6 lakh villages across the country into their self-managed Self Help Groups (SHGs) and their federal institutions and livelihoods collectives.
It would support them financially and institutionally in their efforts to get them out of poverty. The poor would be helped to achieve increased access to their rights, entitlements and public services, diversified risk and better social indicators of empowerment.
The National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) has been mandated to ensure adequate coverage of vulnerable sections of the society such that 50 % of the beneficiaries are SC/STs, 15% are minorities and 3% are persons with disability, while keeping in view the ultimate target of 100% coverage of Below Poverty Line (BPL) families. A unique feature of the new initiative is that it would be led by the poor themselves.
  • Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS)
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 19 November, 2007 launched the Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS) for providing a monthly pension to people over 65 years and living below the poverty line. The Center would give a monthly pension of Rs. 200 to each beneficiary and expects the States to contribute an equal amount.
The Union Cabinet on June 9, 2011 approved lowering the age limit for the Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS) from 65 years to 60 years and increasing the rate of pension from Rs. 200 to Rs. 500 to persons of 80 years and above. The revised norms would come into effect from 1 April, 2011.
For availing the benefit of this scheme, the age of the applicant ( male and female ) shall be 60 years or higher. The applicant must also belong to a household below poverty line.
Now, the central assistance under Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS) will be provided at the rate of Rs. 200 per month per beneficiary in the age group of 60 – 79 years and Rs. 500 per month per beneficiary for beneficiaries who are 80 years and above.
With rapid urbanization, breakdown of the joint family system, growth of nuclear families and increasing longevity, the elderly people were finding it difficult to sustain themselves. In the midst of all this, the launching of the Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS) is considered as a good step.

No comments

Powered by Blogger.