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WORD LIST -- O TO R

oaf
n. stupid, clumsy and awkward person (usu male)
oath
n. (words used in making a) solemn promise to do sth or solemn declaration that sth is true (usu appealing to God, etc as a witness)
oatmeal
n. meal made from crushed oats, used in porridge, oatcakes, etc
obdurate
adj. impossible to change; stubborn
obeisance
n. deep bow (of respect or obedience)
obelisk
n. tall pointed stone pillar with four sides, set up as a monument or landmark
obese
adj. (of people) very fat
obfuscate
v. (deliberately) make (sth) confused or difficult to understand
obituary
n. printed notice (eg in a newspaper) of a person's death, often with a short account of his life and achievements
objective
adj. not influenced by personal feelings or opinions; unbiased; fair
obligatory
adj. required by rule, law or custom; compulsory
oblique
adj. not horizontal or vertical; sloping; slanting
obliterate
v. remove all signs of (sth); rub or blot out
oblivion
n. state of forgetting; state of being unaware or unconscious
oblivious
adj. ~ of/to sth unaware of or not noticing sth; having no memory of sth
obloquy
n. public shame or disgrace; abuse; discredit ;
obnoxious
adj. very unpleasant; nasty; offensive
obscure
adj. not easily or clearly seen or understood; indistinct; hidden
obsequious
adj. ~ (to sb) too willing to obey or serve; too respectful (esp in the hope of getting a reward or favour from sb)
obsequy
exequies; funeral; interment
obsession
n. ~ state of being obsessed
obsessive
adj. of or having an obsession
obsidian
black volcanic rock
obsolete
adj. no longer used; out of date
obstetrician
n. doctor who specializes in obstetrics
obstinate
adj. refusing to change one's opinion or chosen course of action; stubborn
obstreperous
adjnoisy and uncontrolled; unruly
obtrude
v. ~(on/upon sb/sth) (fml ) force (oneself, one's opinions, ideas, etc) upon sb/sth, esp when unwanted
obtrusive
adj. very noticeable or obvious; inclined to obtrude
obtuse
adj. slow to understand; stupid
obviate
v. remove (sth); get rid of
Occident
n. the Occident the countries of the West, ie Europe and America
occlude
to close up or block off:OBSTRUCT
occult
adj. only for those with special knowledge or powers; hidden, secret
oculist
n. specialist in treating diseases and defects of the eye
odds
n. probability or chance
odious
adj. disgusting; hateful
odium
n. general or widespread hatred or disgust felt towards a person or his actions
odoriferous
giving off an order
odorous
adj. having a (pleasant or unpleasant) smell
odyssey
n. long adventurous journey
offensive
adj. upsetting or annoying; insulting
offhand
adj. too casual; abrupt
officious
adj. too ready or willing to give orders, offer advice or help, or use one's authority; bossy and interfering
ogle
v. ~ at sb look or stare at (esp a woman) in a way that suggests sexual interest
olfactory
adj. of or concerned with the sense of smell
oligarchy
n. form of government in which a small group of people hold all the power
ominous
adj. suggesting that sth bad is about to happen; threatening
omnipotent
adj. having unlimited or very great power
omnipresent
adj. present everywhere
omniscient
adj. knowing everything
omnivorous
adj. (of animals) eating both plants and animal flesh
onerous
adj. needing effort; burdensome
onomatopoeia
n. combination of sounds in a word that imitates or suggests what the word refers to eg hiss, cuckoo, thud ; hiss cuckoo thud
onslaught
n. ~ fierce attack
onus
n. the onus duty or responsibility (for doing sth); burden
ooze
v. ~ from/out of sth; ~ out/away come or flow out slowly
opalescent
adj. changing colour like an opal; iridescent
opaque
adj. not allowing light to pass through; not transparent
opiate
n. drug containing opium, used to relieve pain or to help sb sleep
opportune
adj. (of time) suitable or favourable for a purpose
opportunist
n. person who acts like this
opprobrium
n. public disgrace and shame
optician
n. person who makes and sells optical instruments, esp contact lenses and glasses
optimist
n. person who is always hopeful and expects the best in all things
optimum
adj. best or most favourable
optional
adj. that may be chosen or not, as one wishes; not compulsory
optometrist
one who fits glasses to remedy visual defects
opulence
n. opulently
opus
n. musical composition numbered as one of a composer's works (work1 5b) (usu in order of publication)
oracular
adj. of or like an oracle; with hidden meaning
orator
n. person who makes formal speeches in public
oratorio
n. musical composition for solo voices, chorus and orchestra,usu with a Biblical theme
ordain
v. make a priest or minister
ordeal
n. difficult or painful experience
ordinance
n. order, rule or law made by a government or an authority
ordination
n. ceremony of ordaining (a priest or minister)
orgy
n. wild party, usu with a lot of drinking and/or sexual activity
orient
n. the Orient countries of the (Far) East (eg Japan, China)
orientation
n. activity of orientating oneself; state of being orientated
orifice
n. outer opening in the body, etc
ornate
adj. richly decorated
ornithologist
n. expert in ornithology
orthodox
adj. generally accepted or approved
orthography
n. (study or system of) spelling
oscillate
v. move repeatedly and regularly from one position to another and back again
osseous
adj. of bone; having bones; bony ;
ossify
v. (fml ) (cause sth to) become hard like bone; change into bone ;
ostensible
adj. stated though perhaps not true; apparent
ostentatious
adj. showing or liking ostentation
ostracize
exclude from public favor; ban
oust
v. ~ sb (fml ) remove sb (from a position, job, etc) sometimes in order to take his place
outcast
n, adj ~ (person) driven away from home, friends, society, etc; homeless and friendless (person)
outfit
n. all the equipment or articles needed for a particular purpose; kit
outgoing
adj. going out; leaving
outlandish
adj. looking or sounding strange
outlaw
n. person who has broken the law and is hiding to avoid being caught
outlook
n. ~ view on which one looks out
outmoded
adj. no longer fashionable
outrage
n. (act of) great violence or cruelty
outskirts
n. outlying districts (esp of a city or large town); outer areas
outspoken
adj. ~ saying openly exactly what one thinks; frank
outstrip
v. run faster than (sb in a race) and leave him behind
outwit
v. win or defeat (sb) by being cleverer or more cunning than him
ovation
n. great applause or cheering expressing welcome or approval
overbearing
adj. forcing others to do what one wants (without caring about their feelings); domineering
overblown
adj. past their best; too fully open
overhaul
v. examine carefully and thoroughly and make any necessary repairs
oversee
v. watch over and control (sb/sth); supervise
overt
adj. done or shown openly or publicly; not secret or hidden
overthrow
v. cause the downfall or defeat of (sb/sth); put an end to
overture
n. ~ (fml ) friendly approach, proposalor offer made (to sb) with the aim of starting discussions
overturn
v. turn over or upside-down; upset
overweening
adj. showing too much self-confidence or conceit
overwhelm
v. cover (sth/sb) completely by flowing over or pouring down on it/him; submerge suddenly
overwrought
adj. in a state of nervous excitement, anxiety, etc; tense and upset
ovoid
adj. n egg-shaped (object)
pachyderm
n. any of varioustypes of thick-skinned, four-footed animal, eg an elephant or a rhinoceros
pacifist
n. person who believes in pacifism
pacify
v. calm or soothe the anger or distress of (sb)
padre
n. (used esp as a form of address ) clergyman in the armed forces
paean
n. (fml) song of praise or triumph
painstaking
adj. done with, requiring or taking great care or trouble
palatable
adj. pleasant to taste
palate
n. roof of the mouth
palatial
adj. like a palace
paleontology
study of prehistoric life
palette
n. thin board on which an artist mixes colours when painting, with a hole for the thumb to hold it by
palimpsest
n. manuscript from which the original writing has been removed in order to create space for new writing
pall
v. ~ become uninterestingor boring by being experienced too often
pallet
n. large wooden or metal tray or platform for carrying goods, esp one that can be raised using a fork-lift truck
palliate
v. make(esp a pain or disease) less severe or unpleasant, withoutremoving its cause; alleviate ,
pallid
adj. pale, esp because of illness
palm
n. inner surface of the hand between the wrist and the fingers
palpable
adj. that can be felt or touched
palpitate
v. beat rapidly
paltry
adj. very small; unimportant
pan
n. wide flat (usu metal) container, with a handle or handles, used for cooking food in
panacea
n. ~ remedy for all diseases or troubles
panache
n. confident stylish manner
pandemic
n, adj disease occurring over a whole country or the whole world
Pandemonium
n. wild and noisy disorder or confusion
pander
v. pander to sth/sb (derog ) try to satisfy (a vulgar, weak or immoral desire, or sb having this); gratify sth/sb
panegyric
n. speech or piece of writing praising sb/sth
pang
n. sudden sharp feeling of pain
panoramic
adj. a panoramic view from the top of the tower
pantomime
n. type of play with music, dancing and clowning, based on a traditional story or fairy-tale and usu performed at Christmas
papyrus
n. tall reed-like water-plant with thick fibrous stems used by the Ancient Egyptians to make paper
parable
n. story told to illustrate a moral or spiritual truth
paradigm
n. set of all the different forms of a word
paradox
n. statement that seems to be absurd or contradictory but is or may be true
paragon
n. ~ of sth person who is a perfect example of a quality (used esp in the expression shown)
parallel
adj. (of two or more lines) having the same distance between each other at every point
parallelism
n. state of being parallel; similarity
parameter
n. quantity that does not vary in a particular case but does vary in other cases
paramount
adj. having the greatest importance or significance; supreme
paramour
illicit lover
paranoia
n. mental illness in which a person is obsessed by mistaken beliefs, esp that he is being badly treated by others or that he is somebody very important
paraphernalia
n. numerous small articles or personal belongings, esp the equipment needed for a hobby or sport
paraphrase
n. re-wording of a piece of writing, statement, etc, esp in order to make it easier to understand
parasite
n. animal or plant (eg mistletoe) that lives on or in another and gets its food from it
parched
[ parch: ] to deprive or be deprived of water; dry up
parchment
n. heavy paper-like material made from the skin of sheep or goats and used for writing on
pare
v. trim by cutting away the edges
pariah
n. social outcast
parish
n. area within a diocese, having its own church and clergyman
parity
n. state of being equal; equality
parlance
n. particular way of speaking or use of words; phraseology
parley
n. (esp formerly) meeting between enemies or opponents to discuss terms for peace, etc
parochial
adj. of or relating to a church parish
parody
n. ~ (piece of) speech, writing or music that imitates the style of an author, composer, etc in an amusing and often exaggerated way; comic imitation
paroxysm
n. sudden attack or outburst
parquet
n. flooring made of wooden blocks arranged in a pattern
parry
v. turn aside or ward off (a blow or an attack) by using one's own weapon or one's hand to block it
parsimonious
adj. very careful in spending money or using resources; mean
parsimony
n. excessive carefulness in spending money or using resources; meanness ;
partial
adj. of or forming a part; not complete
partiality
n. ~ being partial(
partisan
n. enthusiastic and often uncritical supporter of a person, group or cause
partition
n. action of dividing or state of being divided into parts, esp the division of one country into two or more nations
parvenu
n. person who has suddenly risen from a low social or economic position to one of wealth or power
passive
adj. not active; submissive
paste
n. moist soft mixture, esp of a powdery substance and a liquid
pastiche
n. literary, musical or artistic work in the style of another author, composer, etc
pastoral
adj. relatingto or portraying country life, the countryside or shepherds, esp in an idealized way
pastry
n. mixture of flour, fat and water baked in an oven and used as a base or covering for tarts, pies, etc
patent
adj. ~ obvious; clear; evident
pathetic
adj. causing one to feel pity or sadness
pathological
adj. of or relating to pathology
pathos
n. quality, esp in speech, writing, acting, etc that causes a feeling of pity or sadness
patina
n. green coating that forms on the surface of old bronze or copper
patois
n. dialect spoken by the common people of a region and differing from the standard language of the country
patriarch
n. male head of a family or tribe
patrician
n. member of the aristocracy
patrimony
n. property inherited from one's father or ancestors
patronize
to be kind or helpful to, but in a haughty or snobbish way, as if dealing with an inferior
paucity
n. ~ (fml ) smallness of number or quantity
pauper
n. very poor person
peccadillo
n. small unimportant offence or sin
pecuniary
adj. of or concerning money
pedagogue
n. teacher
pedagogy
n. study or science of ways and methods of teaching
pedant
n. person who attaches too much importance to detail or to rules, esp when learning or teaching
pedantic
adj. of or like a pedant
peddle
v. go from house to house to sell goods; be a pedlar ;
pedestal
n. base of a column
pedestrian
n. person walking in the street
pediatrician
expert in children's diseases
pedigree
n. line of ancestors
peer
n. person who is equal to another in rank, status or merit
peerless
adj. superior to all others; without equal ;
peevish
adj. easily annoyed (esp by unimportant things); irritable ;
pejorative
adj. expressing criticismor scorn; derogatory; disparaging
pell-mell
adv. in a hurrying, disorderly manner; headlong
pellucid
adj. transparentor translucent; very clear
pen
n. instrument for writing with ink, consisting of a pointed piece of split metal, a metal ball, etc, fixed into a metal or plastic holder
penance
n. ~ punishment that one imposes on oneself to show that one is sorry for having done wrong
penchant
n. ~ for sth liking or taste for sth
pendant
n. ornament that hangs from a chain worn round the neck
pending
adj. waiting to be decided or settled
pendulous
adj. hanging down loosely so as to swing from side to side
penetrate
v. ~ sth make a way into or through sth
penitent
adj. feeling or showing regret or remorse for having done sth wrong
penology
n. study of crime and its punishment, and the management of prisons
pensive
adj. thinking deeply about sth, esp in a sad or serious way
penumbra
n. partly shaded area around the shadow of an opaque object (esp around the total shadow of the moon or earth in an eclipse)
penurious
adj. very poor
penury
n. extreme poverty
peon
n. person employedas a messenger
perceptive
adj. quick to notice and understand things
percussion
n. striking of two (usu hard) objects together
perdition
n. everlasting punishment of the wicked after death
peregrination
n. travelling
peremptory
adj. (esp derog ) (of a person, his manner, etc) insisting on immediate obedience or submission; domineering
perennial
adj. lasting for a long time
perfidious
adj. ~ (fml ) treacherous, deceitful or disloyal
perforate
v. make a hole or holes through
perfunctory
adj. a) (of an action) done as a duty or routine, without care or interest
perigee
n. point in the orbit of the moon, a planet or a spacecraft at which it is nearest to the earth
perimeter
n. outer edge of a closed geometric shape
peripatetic
adj. going from place to place
peripheral
adj. ~ of secondary or minor importance (to sth)
periphery
n. boundary of a surface or an area
perjury
n. action of perjuring oneself
permeable
adj. that can be permeated by fluids or gas; porous ;
permissive
adj. allowing great freedomof behaviour, esp to children or in sexual matters
pernicious
adj. ~ (to sb/sth) having a very harmful or destructive effect (on sb/sth)
peroration
n. last part of a speech; summing up
perpetrate
v. commit (a crime, etc)
perpetual
adj. continuing indefinitely; permanent
perpetuate
v. cause to continue
perquisite
n. (fml ) (infml perk) money or goods given or regarded as a right in addition to one's pay
persevere
v. ~ ~ (with sb) (usu approv ) continue trying to do sth, esp in spite of difficulty
persist
v. ~ continue to do sth, esp in an obstinate and determined way and in spite of opposition, argument or failure
personable
adj. having a pleasant appearance or manner
personify
v. treat (sth) as if it were a human being
perspicacious
adj. having or showing great insight or judgement; discerning
perspicuity
plain to the understanding especially because of clarity and precision of presentation
perspicuous
adj. expressed clearly
pert
adj. not showing respect; cheeky
pertinacious
adj. holding firmly to an opinion or a course of action; determined
pertinent
adj. ~ (fml ) relevant (to sth); to the point
perturb
v. make (sb) very worried; disturb
peruse
v. read (sth), esp carefully or thoroughly
pervasive
adj. present and perceived everywhere; pervading
perverse
adj. (of a person) deliberately continuing to behave in a way that is wrong, unreasonable or unacceptable
perversion
n. changing sth from right to wrong; perverting
pervert
v. turn away from its proper nature or use
pessimism
n. tendency to be gloomy and believe that the worst will happen
pest
n. annoying person or thing
pestilential
causing plague; baneful
pestle
n. heavy round-ended tool used for crushing and grinding things to powder, esp in a special bowl
petrify
take away power to feel through terror; turn to stone
petty
adj. (derog ) small or trivial; unimportant
petulant
adj. unreasonably impatient or irritable
phalanx
n. (in ancient Greece) close formation, esp of infantry ready for battle
pharisaical
pertaining to the Pharisees who paid scrupulous attention to tradition; hypocritical
pharisee
(Judaism) a member of an ancient Jewish sect that was opposed to the Sadducees, teaching strict observance of Jewish tradition as interpreted rabbinically and believing in life after death and in the coming of the Messiah
phenomena
observable facts; subjects of scientific investigation
philanderer
n. man who does this
philanthropist
n. person who helps others, esp through charitable work or donations of money
philatelist
n. person who collects postage stamps
Philistine
n. person who has no interest in or understanding of the arts, or is hostile to them; uncultured person
philology
n. science or studyof the development of language or of a particular language
phlegmatic
adj. calm and even-tempered; showing the quality of phlegm
phobia
n. extreme or abnormal dislike or fear of sth; aversion
phoenix
n. mythical bird of the Arabian desert, said to live for several hundred years before burning itself and then rising born again from its ashes ,
phylum
n. (biology ) major division in the animal or plant kingdom
physiognomy
n. features of a person's face
physiological
adj. of or concerning physiology
piebald
adj. covered with irregularly-shaped patches of two colours, usu black and white ,
piecemeal
adv. piece by piece; a part at a time
pied
adj. having mixed colours, esp black and white
piety
n. devotion to God and respect for religious principles; being pious
pigment
n. colouring matter used for making dyes, paint, etc
pilfer
v. ~ (from sb/sth) steal (sth, esp of small value or in small quantities)
pillage
n. (esp formerly) stealing or damaging of property, esp by soldiers in war ,
pillory
n. wooden framework with holes for the head and hands, into which wrongdoers were locked in former times, so that they could be publicly ridiculed .
pinch
v. take or hold (sth) in a tight grip between the thumb and finger
pine
n. (also `pine tree) any of several types of evergreen tree that bear cones and have needle-shaped leaves growing in clusters
pinion
n. outer segment of a bird's wing
pinnace
n. small motor boat carried on a ship for taking people ashore, loading goods, etc ,
pinnacle
n. small pointed ornament built on to a roof or buttress
pious
adj. having or showing a deep devotion to religion
piquant
adj. having a pleasantly sharp taste
pique
v. hurt the pride or self-respect of (sb); offend
piscatorial
adj. of or concerning fishing or fishermen
pitfall
n. unsuspected danger or difficulty
pith
n. soft spongy substance that fills the stems of certain plants, eg reeds ,
pithy
adj. concise and full of meaning; terse
pittance
n. very small or insufficient amount of money paid or received as wages or an allowance
pivotal
adj. of or forming a pivot
placate
v. make less angry; soothe or pacify
placebo
n. (medical ) harmless substance given as if it were medicine to calm a patient who mistakenly believes he is ill
placid
adj. calm and peaceful; undisturbed
plagiarize
to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own:use (another's production) without crediting the source
plaintive
adj. sounding sad; sorrowful
plait
v. weave or twist (three or more lengths of hair, straw, etc) under and over one another to make one rope-like length
plane
n. (geometry ) surfacesuch that a straight line joining any two points in it touches it at all points
plaster
n. soft mixture of lime, sand, water, etc that becomes hard when dry and is used for making a smooth surface on walls and ceilings
plasticity
n. state or quality of being able to be moulded or shaped
platitude
n. commonplace remark or statement, esp when it is said as if it were new or interesting
platonic
adj. Platonic of or concerning the Greek philosopher Plato or his teachings
plaudit
n. (fml ) applause, praise or some other sign of approval
plausible
adj. seeming to be right or reasonable; believable
plebeian
adj. of the lower social classes
plebiscite
n. (decision made by a) direct vote by all qualified citizens on an important political matter
plenary
adj. attended by all who have the right to attend
plenitude
a full supply
plethora
n. quantity greater than what is needed; over-abundance
pliable
adj. easily bent, shaped or twisted; flexible
pliant
adj. bending easily; supple
plight
n. serious and difficult situation or condition
ploy
n. words or actions, eg in a game, intended to win an advantage over one's opponent
pluck
v. ~ sth gather or remove sth by pulling; pick sth
plumage
n. feathers covering a bird's body
plumb
n. piece of lead that is tied to a cord and used to find the depth of water or test whether a wall, etc is vertical ,
plumber
n. person whose job is to fit and repair water-pipes, water-tanks, cisterns, etc in buildings
plume
n. feather, esp a large one used as a decoration
plummet
n. plumb-line
plump
adj. (esp of an animal, a person, parts of the body) having a full rounded shape; fleshy
plutocracy
n. government by a rich and powerful class
podiatrist
n. = chiropodist
podium
n. small platform for the conductor of an orchestra, a lecturer, etc to stand on
poignancy
n. state or quality of being poignant
poise
v. be or keep balanced or suspended
polar
adj. of or near the North or South Pole
polarity
n. possession or location of negative and positive poles
polarize
to break up into opposing factions or groupings
polemic
n. ~ (against/in favour of sth/sb) speech, piece of writing, etc containing very forceful arguments (against or for sth/sb)
polemical
adj. of polemics
politic
adj. (of actions) well judged; prudent
polity
n. form or process of government
polygamist
man who practices this
polyglot
adj. knowing, using or written in many languages
pomposity
n. being pompous
ponderous
adj. slow and awkward because of great weight
pontifical
adj. of the Pope
pore
n. any of the tiny openings in the surface of the skin or of a leaf, through which moisture can pass
porous
adj. allowing liquid or air to pass through, esp slowly
porridge
n. soft food made by boiling a cereal in water or milk
portend
v. be a sign or warning of (sth in the future); foreshadow
portent
n. ~ (fml ) sign or warning of a future (often unpleasant) event; omen
portly
adj. (esp of an older person) having a stout body; fat
pose
v. ~ (for sb) sit or stand in a particular position in order to be painted, drawn or photographed
poseur
n. (derog) person who behaves in an unnatural affected way in order to impress others
posterity
n. following or future generations
posthumous
adj. happening or given after death
postmortem
occurring after death
postulate
v. put (sth) forward as a fact or accept (sth) as true, esp as a basis for reasoning or argument
posture
n. attitude or position of the body
potable
adj. fit for drinking; drinkable ;
potent
adj. (of drugs, etc) having a strong effect
potentate
n. ruler with direct power over his people; autocratic monarch
potential
adj. that can or may come into existence; possible
potion
n. drink of medicine, poison or a liquid used in magic
potpourri
heterogeneous mixture;
poultice
n. soft heated mass spread on a cloth and put on a sore place on the body to soothe pain, reduce swelling, etc
practicable
adj. that can be put into practice; workable
practical
adj. concerned with practiceand action rather than theory
pragmatic
adj. treating things in a sensible and realistic way; concerned with practical results
pragmatist
n. person who acts in a practical way
prance
v. move jerkily by raising the forelegs and springing forward from the hind legs
prank
n. playful or mischievous trick
prate
v. ~ (on about sth) talk or chatter too much (about sth)
prattle
v. ~ (away) (of a child) talk in a simple way; babble
preamble
n. ~ opening statement explaining the purpose of the book, document, lecture, etc that follows
precarious
adj. depending on chance; uncertain
precedent
n. earlier decision, case, event, etc that is regarded as an example or rule for what comes later
precept
n. rule or guide, esp for behaviour
precinct
n. area enclosed by definite boundaries, esp the walls of a cathedral, church or college
precipice
n. very steep or vertical face of a cliff, mountain or rock
precipitant
Moving onward quickly and heedlessly.
precipitate
v. cause (sth) to happen suddenly or soon(er); hasten
precipitous
adj. dangerously high or steep
precise
adj. stated clearly andaccurately
preclude
v. ~ sb from doing sth prevent (sth, or sb doing sth); make (sth) impossible
precocious
adj. (of a child) having developed certain abilities at an earlier age than usual
precursor
n. ~(of sth) person or thing that comes before sth; forerunner
predator
n. animal that kills and eats other animals
predatory
adj. (living by) killing other animals for food
predecessor
n. person who held an office or position before sb else
predetermine
v. decide or fix (sth) in advance; prearrange
predicament
n. difficult or unpleasant situation, esp one in which sb is uncertain what to do
predilection
n. ~ (for sth) special liking (for sth); preference
predispose
v. ~ sb to/towards sth influence sb (in a specified way) in advance
preeminent
having paramount rank, dignity, or importance:OUTSTANDING
preempt
to replace with something considered to be of greater value or priority:take precedence over
preen
v. clean or smooth (its feathers or itself) with its beak
prefatory
adj. acting as a preface; introductory
prefigure
v. represent beforehand (sth that will happen in the future); foreshadow
prehensile
adj. able to grasp and hold things
prelate
n. high-ranking clergyman, eg a bishop or an archbishop
prelude
n. ~ action or event that happens before another larger or more important one and forms an introduction to it
premeditate
v. plan in advance
premise
n. statement or idea on which reasoning is based; hypothesis
premonition
n. ~ feeling that sth unpleasant is going to happen
premonitory
adj. giving a warning
preponderance
superiority of power, quantity
prepossessing
adj. makinga good impression; attractive
preposterous
adj. completely contrary to reason or common sense; absurd or outrageous
prerogative
n. right or privilege, esp one belonging to a particular person or group
presage
n. sign that sth (esp sth unpleasant) will happen; omen ;
prescience
foreknowledge of events:a:divine omniscience b:human anticipation of the course of events:FORESIGHT
presentiment
n. vague feeling that sth (esp sth unpleasant) will happen; foreboding
prestige
n. respect based on good reputation, past achievements, etc
presume
v. suppose to be true; take (sth) for granted
presumptuous
adj. (of a person or his behaviour) too bold or self-confident
pretend
v. make oneself appear to be sth in order to deceive others or in play
pretension
n. ~ (making of a) claim
pretentious
adj. claiming merit or importance; pompous or showy
preternatural
adj. beyond what is natural or normal; unusual
pretext
n. ~ reason given (for doing sth) that is not the real reason; excuse
prevail
v. ~ exist or happen generally; be widespread
prevalent
adj. ~ (among/in sth/sb) existing or happening generally; widespread
prevaricate
v. try to avoid telling the (whole) truth by speaking in an evasive or a misleading way; equivocate
prey
n. animal, bird, etc hunted and killed by another for food
prim
adj. (usu derog ) (of a person) disliking anything that is improper, rude or rough; prudish
primal
adj. first or original; primeval
primary
adj. earliest in time or order of development
primate
n. archbishop
prime
adj. most important; chief; fundamental
primogeniture
n. fact of being a first-born child
primordial
adj. existing at or from the beginning, esp of the world or the universe; primeval
primp
v. (derog ) tidy (oneself, one's hair, etc) in a fussy way
pristine
adj. in its original condition; unspoilt
privation
n. lack of things necessary for life; deprivation
privy
adj. private; secret
prize
n. award given to the winner of a competition, race, etc
probe
n. tool for examining a place whichcannot be reached otherwise, esp a thin implement with a blunt end used by a doctor for examining a wound
probity
n. quality of being honest and trustworthy; integrity ;
problematic
adj. difficult to deal with or to understand
proclivity
n. ~ (fml ) natural inclination to do sth (esp sth bad); tendency
procrastinate
v. delay or postpone action
procurement
n. obtaining
prod
v. ~ (at sb/sth) push or poke (sb/sth) with a finger or some other pointed object
prodigal
adj. spending money or resources too freely; extravagant
prodigious
adj. very great in size, amount or degree, so as to cause amazement or admiration; enormous
prodigy
n. person with unusual or remarkable qualities or abilities
profane
adj. not sacred; secular
profligate
adj. recklessly extravagant or wasteful
profound
adj. deep, intense or far-reaching; verygreat
profusion
n. ~ of sth abundant supply of sth
progenitor
n. ancestor (of a person, an animal or a plant)
progeny
n. offspring
prognosis
n. (medical) forecast of the likely course of a disease or an illness
prognosticate
v. tell (sth) in advance; predict
prohibitive
adj. intended to or tending to prevent the use or purchase of sth
projectile
n. object (to be) shot forward, esp from a gun
proletarian
member of the working class
proliferate
v. produce new growth or offspring rapidly; multiply ;
prolific
adj. producing much fruit or many flowers or offspring
prolix
adj. (of a speech, writer, etc) using too many words and so boring to listen to or read
prolixity
n.
prologue
n. ~ introductory part of a poem or play
prolong
v. make longer, esp in time; extend
prominent
adj. jutting out; projecting
promiscuous
adj. not carefully chosen; indiscriminate or casual
promontory
n. area of high land jutting out into the sea or a lake; headland ; .
promote
to contribute to the growth or prosperity of:FURTHER
prompt
adj. done without delay; punctual
promulgate
v. make (sth) widely known; disseminate
prone
adj. lying flat, esp face downwards
prong
n. each of the two or more long pointed parts of a fork
pronounced
adj. very noticeable
prop
n. rigid support, esp a piece of wood, used to prevent sth falling or sagging
propagate
v. increase the number of by a natural processfrom the parent stock
propellant
n. propelling agent, eg an explosive that propels a bullet from a weapon, a fuel that provides thrust for a rocket, or compressed gas that forces out the contents of an aerosol container
propensity
n. ~ (for doing/to do sth) (fml ) inclination or tendency
prophetic
adj. of or like a prophet or prophets
prophylactic
adj. tending to prevent a disease or misfortune
propinquity
n. nearness in space or time
propitiate
v. win the favour or forgiveness of (sb) (esp when he is angry) by a pleasing act; appease or placate
propitious
adj. ~ (fml ) giving or indicating a good chance of success; favourable
proponent
n. ~ person who supports a cause, theory, etc
propound
v. put (sth) forward for consideration or solution
propriety
n. state of being correct in one's social or moral behaviour
propulsive
adj. that drives sth (esp a vehicle) forward
prosaic
adj. uninspired; unimaginative
proscenium
n. the part of the stage in front of the curtain
proscribe
v. state officially that (sth) is dangerous or forbidden
proselytize
to recruit or convert especially to a new faith, institution, or cause
prosody
n. science of verse forms and poetic metres
prosper
v. be successful; thrive
prosperity
n. state of being successful or rich; good fortune
prosperous
adj. successful or thriving, esp financially
prostrate
adj. stretched out on the ground face downward, esp because of exhaustion or in order to show submission, respect, etc
protagonist
n. (fml ) chief character in a drama; hero
protean
adj. that can change quickly and easily; variable ;
protocol
n. system of rules governing formal occasions, eg meetings between governments, diplomats, etc; official etiquette
prototype
n. first or original example of sth that has been or will be copied or developed; model or preliminary version
protract
v. make (sth) last a long time or longer; lengthen or prolong
protrude
v. ~ (from sth) (cause sth to) jut or stick out from a surface; (cause sth to) project
protuberance
n. being protuberant
provenance
n. (place of) origin
provender
n. food for horses and cattle, eg hay or oats; fodder
proverb
n. short well-known saying that states a general truth or gives advice, eg `It takes two to make a quarrel' or `Don't put all your eggs in one basket'
providence
n. way in which God or nature cares for and protects all creatures
provident
adj. having or showing wisdom for future needs; thrifty
provincial
adj. of a province (1)
provision
n. ~ of sth giving, lending, supplying or making sth available; providing sth
provisional
adj. for the presenttime only, with the possibility of being changed, etc later; temporary
proviso
n. clause, etc that is insisted on as a condition of an agreement
provocative
adj. tending or intended to arouse anger, annoyance, controversy, etc
provoke
v. make (sb) angry or annoyed
prowess
n. outstanding skill or ability; expertise
proximity
n. ~ (to sth) nearness in space or time; closeness
proxy
n. person authorized to act on behalf of another
prude
n. person who behaves in an extremely or unnaturally proper manner, esp one who is (too) easily shocked by sexual matters
prudent
adj. acting with or showing care and foresight; showing good judgement
prune
n. dried plum
prurient
adj. having or showing excessive interest in sexual matters
pry
v. ~ (into sth) inquire too curiously or rudely about other people's private affairs
pseudonym
n. person's name that is not his real name, esp one used by an author; pen-name
psyche
n. human soul or mind
psychiatrist
n. specialist in psychiatry
psychic
adj. concerned with processes and phenomena that seem to be outside physical or natural laws
psychopathic
adj. of or suffering from a severe emotional or mental disorder
psychosis
n. severe mental illness that affects the whole personality
psychosomatic
adj. caused or made worse by mental stress
pterodactyl
n. extinct flying reptile
pucker
v. ~ (up) (cause sth to) form small folds or wrinkles
pudding
n. (Brit) (dish of) sweet food eaten at the end of a meal; dessert
puerile
adj. showing immaturity; childish and silly
pugilist
n. professionalboxer
pugnacious
adj. inclined or eager to fight; aggressive
pugnacity
n.
puissant
powerful; strong; potent
pulchritude
physical comeliness
pulmonary
adj. of, in or affecting the lungs
pulpit
n. raised and enclosed platform in a church, where a clergyman stands when he is preaching .
pulsate
v. expand and contract rhythmically; throb
pulse
n. regular beating of the arteries as blood is pumped through them by the heart, esp as felt at the wrist
pulverize
to reduce (as by crushing, beating, or grinding) to very small particles:ATOMIZE
pummel
v. strike (sb/sth) repeatedly, esp with the fist(s); beat
punctilious
adj. very careful to carry out one's duties, etc correctly; very attentive to details of behaviour or ceremony
pundit
n. very learned Hindu
pungency
n. quality or state of being pungent
pungent
n. having a sharp or strong taste or smell
punitive
adj. intended as punishment
puny
adj. (usu derog ) small, weak and underdeveloped
purchase
n. (action of) buying sth
purgatory
n. (in Roman Catholic teaching) place or condition in which the souls of the dead are purified by suffering in preparation for Heaven
purge
v. ~ sb ~ sth (away) make sb clean or pure by removing (evil, sin, etc)
purport
n. ~ (fml ) general meaning or intention (of sth)
purported
adj. alleged; supposed; rumoured
purse
n. small bag for money
purveyor
n. person or firm that supplies goods or services
pushy
adj. (also pushing) adj (infml derog , ) trying constantly to draw attention to oneself and gain an advantage; self-assertive
pusillanimous
adj. cowardly; timid ;
putative
adj. generally supposed to be; reputed
putrefy
v. (cause sth to) rot or decay; become or make putrid
putrescent
adj. inthe process of rotting
putrid
adj. (esp of animal or vegetable matter) that has become rotten; decomposed
puzzle
n. questionthat is difficult to understand or answer; mystery
pyre
n. large pile of wood, etc for burning a dead body as part of a funeral ceremony
pyromaniac
n. person who suffers from pyromania
quack
interj, n harsh sound made by a duck
quadruped
n. four-footed animal
quaff
v. drink (sth) by swallowing large amounts at a time, not taking small sips
quagmire
n. area of soft wet ground; bog or marsh
quail
n. small bird, similar to a partridge .
quaint
adj. attractively odd or old-fashioned
qualified
adj. having completed the relevant training or examination
qualify
v. ~ (sb) (for/as sth) have or give (sb) the qualities, training, etc that are necessary or suitable (for sth)
qualms
[ qualm: ] a sudden feeling of sickness or nausea
quandary
n. state of not being able to decide what to do; awkward or difficult situation
quarantine
n. isolation for people or animals that may carry an infectious disease, until it is known that there is no danger of the disease being passed on to others
quarry
n. animal or bird that is being hunted
quash
v. reject (by legal procedure) as not valid; declare (sth) not to be enforceable by law
quay
n. landing-place, usu built of stone or iron, for loading and unloading ships
queasy
adj. having a tendency to feel sick; feeling sick
queer
adj. different from what is expected; strange, esp in an unpleasant way
quell
v. put an end to (sth); suppress
quench
v. extinguish (fire, flames, etc), esp with water
querulous
adj. complaining; irritable
query
n. question
queue
n. line of people, vehicles, etc waiting for sth or to do sth
quibble
n. objection or criticism, esp atrivial one
quicksilver
n. = mercury
quiescent
adj. inactive; passive; quiet
quietude
n. stillness; calm ;
quintessence
n. the ~ of sth essential part of (a theory, speech, condition, etc)
quip
n. witty or sarcastic remark
quirk
n. habit or action that is peculiar to sb/sth
quisling
n. traitor, esp one who helps an enemy occupying his country ,
quiver
v. tremble slightly or vibrate
quixotic
adj. noble, unselfish or gallant in an extravagant or impractical way
quizzical
adj. in a questioning manner, esp when amused
quorum
n. minimum number of people who must be present at a meeting (of a committee, etc) before it can proceed and its decisions, etc can be considered valid
quotidian
adj. everyday; commonplace
rabble
n. disorderly crowd; mob ;
rabid
adj. suffering from rabies
rabies
n. fatal virus disease causing madness in dogs, foxes and other animals, transmitted to humans usu by a bite ,
raconteur
n. person who tells stories skilfully and wittily
raffle
n. lottery with an article as the prize
rag
n. odd cloth, usu torn, frayed, etc
ragamuffin
n. person, esp a small boy, in dirty untidy clothes
rail
n. level or sloping bar or connected series of bars of wood or metal, eg forming part of a fence, the top of a banister, a protective barrier, etc
raiment
n. clothing
rake
n. long-handled tool with a row of prongs at the end for drawing together fallen leaves, smoothing soil, etc
rakish
adj. of or like a rake
rally
v. ~ (round/to sb/sth); ~ (round) (of people) come together, esp to make new efforts, eg after a defeat or when there is danger, need, etc
ram
n. uncastrated male sheep .
ramble
v. walk for pleasure with no special destination
ramification
n. part of a complex structure; secondary consequence, esp one that complicates
ramify
v. (fml ) (cause sth to) branch out in many directions; make or become a network
ramp
n. slope joining two levels of ground, a floor, a road, etc
rampant
adj. flourishing excessively; unrestrained
rampart
n. defensive wall round a fort, etc consisting of a wide bank of earth with a path for walking along the top
ramshackle
adj. almost collapsing
rancid
adj. tasting or smelling bad because of staleness
rancor
bitter deep-seated ill will
random
adj. done, chosen, etc without method or conscious choice; haphazard
rank
n. position in a scale of responsibility, quality, social status, etc
rankle
v. cause lasting bitterness or resentment
ransack
v. ~ sth search (a place) thoroughly
rant
v. ~ (derog ) speak loudly, violently or theatrically
rapacious
adj. greedy, esp for money; grasping
rapport
n. ~ sympathetic and harmonious relationship
rapt
adj. ~ so intent or absorbed that one is unaware of other things; spellbound
rapture
n. intense delight
rare
adj. not often happening or seen, etc; unusual
rarefied
adj. less dense than is normal; thin
rasp
n. coarse file with rows of sharp points on its surface
raspy
adj. rough; grating
ratify
v. make (an agreement, a treaty, etc) officially valid, usu by signing it
ratiocination
n. process of logical and methodical reasoning
ration
n. fixed quantity, esp an official allowance of food, etc in times of shortage
rational
adj. able to reason
rationale
n. fundamental reason for or logical basis of sth
rationalize
to provide plausible but untrue reasons for conduct
raucous
adj. loud and hoarse; harsh-sounding
ravage
v. damage badly; destroy
rave
v. ~ talk wildly or furiously as if in a fever or mad
ravel
v. ~ (sth) (up) (cause threads or fibres to) tangle and become knotted
ravenous
adj. very hungry
ravine
n. deep narrow steep-sided valley between mountains
raze
to destroy to the ground:DEMOLISH
reactionary
n, adj opposing (esp political) progress or reform
realm
n. kingdom
reaper
n. person who reaps
rebate
n. amount by which a debt, tax, etc can be reduced; discount or partial refund
rebuff
n. unkind or contemptuous refusal or rejection (of an offer, request, friendly gesture, etc); snub
rebuke
v. ~ sb express sharp or severe disapproval to sb, esp officially; reprove sb
rebus
n. puzzle in which a word or phrase has to be guessed from pictures or diagrams representing the letters or syllables in it
rebuttal
n. act of rebutting or being rebutted
recalcitrant
adj. resisting authority or discipline; disobedient
recant
v. formally reject (a former opinion, belief, etc) as being wrong
recapitulate
v. state again or summarize the main points of
recast
v. ~ sth (as sth) put (sth written or spoken) into a new form
receptive
adj. ~ able or quick to receive new ideas, suggestions, etc
recess
n. (US also vacation) period of time when work or business is stopped, esp in Parliament, the lawcourts, etc
recession
n. temporary decline in economic activity or prosperity
recidivism
a tendency to relapse into a previous condition or mode of behavior; especially :relapse into criminal behavior
recipient
n. ~ person who receives sth
reciprocal
adj. given and received in return; mutual
reciprocate
v. give and receive (sth) in return; exchange (sth) mutually ;
recital
n. public performance of music, dance, etc by a soloist or a small group
recite
v. ~ (to sb) say (a poem, passage, etc) aloud from memory, esp to an audience
reckon
v. ~ sb/sth among sth; ~ sb/sth as sth (not used in the continuous tenses ) be of the opinion or consider that sb/sth is as specified
recline
v. lean or lie back in a horizontal or near-horizontal position
recluse
n. person who lives alone and avoids other people
reconcile
to make consistent or congruous
recondite
adj. (of subjects) little known or understood; obscure
reconnaissance
n. exploration or a survey of an area, esp for military purposes
recount
v. ~ sth give a detailed account of sth; tell about sth
recourse
n. possible source of help, eg in an emergency
recreant
n, adj (person who is) cowardly, unfaithful or treacherous
recrimination
n. accusation in response to an accusation from sb else; countercharge
rectify
v. put (sth) right; correct
rectitude
n. moral correctness or straightforwardness; honesty
recumbent
adj. (esp of a person) lying down; reclining
recuperate
v. ~ (fml ) recover from illness, exhaustion or loss, etc
recurrent
adj. recurring often or regularly
redolent
adj. ~ of/with sth smelling strongly of sth
redoubtable
adj. to be feared and respected; formidable
redress
v. put right (a wrong); compensate for (sth)
reduce
v. ~ sth (to/by sb) make sth smaller in size, number, degree, price, etc
redundant
adj. not needed; superfluous; unnecessary
reek
n. strong bad smell
refectory
n. dining-hall in a monastery, convent, college, school, etc ,
referendum
n. referring of a political issue to a general vote by all the people of a country for a decision; vote thus taken
refraction
n. refracting or being refracted .
refractory
adj. difficult to control or discipline; wilful or unmanageable
refrain
n. lines of a song or poem which are repeated, esp at the end of each verse
refulgent
adj. gloriously bright; shining ;
refurbish
v. make clean or bright again; redecorate
refuse
n. waste or worthless material; rubbish
refute
v. prove to be wrong
regal
adj. of, like or fit for a king or queen; royal
regale
v. ~ sb with sth amuse or entertain sb (with stories, jokes, etc)
regatta
n. sporting event at which races are held between rowing-boats or yachts
regeneration
spiritual rebirth
regent
n. person appointed to rule a country while the monarch is too young, old, ill, etc, or is absent
regicide
n. crime of killing a king
regime
n. method or system of government
regimen
n. set of rules about diet, exercise, etc aimed at improving sb's health and physical well-being
regiment
n. (artillery and armour) unit divided into batteries or squadrons
rehabilitate
v. restore to a normal life by retraining, medical treatment, etc, esp after imprisonment or illness
reimburse
v. ~ sth ~ sb (for sth) (usu fml ) pay back to sb (money that he has spent, lost, etc); refund sth
reinstate
v. ~ sb restore sb to a previous (esp important) position
reiterate
v. say or do (sth) again or repeatedly
rejoinder
n. what is said in reply; retort
rejuvenate
v. restore youthful appearance, strength, etc to
relapse
v. ~ fall back into a previous condition or a worse state after making an improvement
relegate
banish; consign to inferior position
relent
v. decide to be less strict, determined or harsh
relevant
adj. ~ (to sth/sb)connected with what is being discussed, what is happening,what is being done, etc
relic
n. trace or feature surviving from a past age and serving to remind people of it
religious
adj. of religion
relinquish
v. give up or cease to practise, feel, etc (sth); abandon
relish
n. ~ great enjoyment of food, etc; zest
remediable
adj. that can be remedied
reminiscence
n. recalling of past events and experiences; reminiscing ;
reminiscent
adj. ~ of sb/sth reminding one of or suggesting sb/sth
remiss
adj. ~ (fml ) careless of one's duty; lax
remission
n. pardoning or forgiveness of sins by God
remit
v. (fml ) refrain from inflicting (a punishment, etc)
remittance
n. remitting of money
remnant
n. small remaining quantity or part or number of things or people
remonstrance
n. remonstrating; protest ;
remonstrate
v. ~ with sb; ~ against sth make a protest or complaint about sb/sth
remorse
n. ~ sense of deep and bitter regret for having done sth wrong
remote
adj. ~ (from sth) far away from other communities, houses, etc; isolated
remunerative
adj. profitable
rend
v. (arch or fml ) tear (sth) apart forcibly; split
render
v. ~ sth (for sth); ~ sth (to sb) give sth in return or exchange, or as sth which is due
rendezvous
n. ~ (with sb) (place chosen for a) meeting at an agreed time
rendition
n. way in which a dramatic role or piece of music, etc is performed; rendering
renegade
n. person that deserts a cause, political party, religious group, etc
renege
v. ~ (on sth) fail to keep a promise, one's word, etc
renounce
v. agree to give up ownership or possession of (sth), esp formally
renovate
v. restore to good condition
renown
n. fame or distinction
rent
n. regular payment made for the use of land, premises, a telephone, machinery, etc; sum paid in this way
reparable
adj. (of a loss, etc) that can be made good ,
reparation
n. ~ (for sth) compensating for damage; making amends for loss
repartee
n. sharp clever retorts
repast
meal
repeal
v. withdraw officially; revoke ;
repel
v. drive (sb/sth) back or away; repulse
repellent
adj. ~ arousing distaste or disgust; repulsive
repercussion
n. indirect effect or result of an event, etc; consequence
repertoire
n. all the plays, songs, pieces, etc which a company, actor, musician, etc knows and is prepared to perform
repine
v. ~ (fml ) feel or show discontent; fret
replenish
v. ~ sth fill sth again
replete
adj. ~ (fml ) well-fed or full; gorged
replica
n. exact copy, esp one made by an artist of one of his own pictures, etc
replicate
v. be or make a copy of (sth); reproduce
repose
v. rest; lie
repository
n. place where things are stored or may be found, esp a warehouse or museum
reprehensible
adjdeserving to be reprehended
repress
v. restrain or suppress (an impulse); check
reprieve
v. postpone or cancel a punishment for (sb), esp the death sentence
reprimand
v. ~ sb rebuke sb (for a fault, etc), esp officially
reprisal
n. returning an injury, esp political or military, done to oneself; retaliation
reprise
recurrent action; musical repetition; repeat performance
reproach
v. ~ sb/oneself (for sth) criticize sb/oneself, esp for failing to do sth
reprobate
adj. n immoral or unprincipled (person)
reprobation
severe disapproval
reprove
v. ~ sb (fml ) blame or rebuke sb; censure
repudiate
v. refuse to have any more to do with (sb); disown ;
repugnance
n. ~ strong aversion or disgust
repulse
v. drive back (an attacker or an attack) by fighting; repel ;
repulsion
n. ~ feeling of loathing or aversion; disgust
reputable
adj. having a good reputation; respected or trustworthy
reputed
adj. generally said or considered to be sth/sb
requiem
n. (also requiem `mass) special mass for the repose of the soul of a dead person
requisite
adj. required by circumstances or necessary for success
requisition
n. ~ (for sth) official, usu written, demand for (esp) the use of property or materials by an army in wartime or by certain people in an emergency
requite
v. ~ sth (with sth) give sth in return for sth else; repay sth
rescind
v. cancel or repeal (a law, contract, etc); annul
resentment
n. resenting sb/sth
reserve
v. ~ sth put aside or keep sth for a later occasion or special use
residual
adj. left over as a residue(1); remaining
residue
n. ~ (of sth) what remains after a part or quantity is taken or used
resign
v. ~ give up (one's job, position, etc)
resignation
n. ~ (instance of) resigning
resilient
adj. springing back to its original form after being bent, stretched, crushed, etc; springy ,
resolution
n. quality of being resolute or firm; determination
resolve
v. ~ on/upon/against sth/doing sth decide firmly; determine
resonant
adj. continuing to echo; resounding
resort
v. ~ to sth make use of sth for help; adopt sth as an expedient
resound
v. ~ (through/throughout sth) (of a sound, voice, etc) fill a place with sound; produce echoes
resourceful
adj. clever at finding ways of doing things
respiration
n. (single act of) breathing air
respite
n. ~ interval of rest or relief
resplendent
adj. ~ (fml ) brilliant with colour or decorations; splendid
responsiveness
n.
restitution
n. ~ (fml ) restoration of a thing to its proper owner or original state
restive
adj. restless or uneasy
restraint
n. restraining or being restrained
resumption
n. (instance of) resuming (resume 1)
resurge
(rare)
resurgent
adj. rising or reviving after destruction, defeat, disappearance, etc
resurrect
v. bring (sb) back to life again
resuscitate
v. bring (sb/sth) back to consciousness
retain
v. keep (sth) in one's possession or use
retaliate
v. ~ repay an injury, insult, etc with a similar one
retard
v. make (sth) slow or late
retentive
adj. having the ability to remember facts, impressions, etc ,
reticent
adj. ~ not revealing one's thoughts or feelings easily; reserved
retinue
n. group of attendants accompanying an important person
retiring
adj. avoiding society; shy
retort
v. make a quick, witty or angry reply, esp to an accusation or challenge
retract
v. withdraw (a statement, charge, etc)
retraction
n. retracting
retrench
v. make economies or reduce expenses
retribution
n. ~ (fml ) deserved punishment or compensation for injury, etc
retrieve
v. ~ sth (esp fml ) get possession of sth again
retroactive
adj. effective from a past date
retrograde
adj. going backwards
retrospective
adj. looking back on the past
revelry
n. noisy celebrations; revels
reverberate
v. ~ echo or resound repeatedly
reverend
adj. deserving to be treated with respect, esp because of age, etc ,
reverent
adj. feeling or showing reverence
reverie
n. idle and pleasant thoughts
revert
v. ~ to sth return to (a former state or condition)
revile
v. criticize (sb/sth), in angry and abusive language ,
revoke
v. withdraw or cancel (a decree, permit, etc)
revulsion
n. ~ feeling of disgust or horror
rhapsodize
recite a rhapsody ; say (something) with great enthusiasm
rhapsody
n. (often in titles ) romantic composition in irregular form
rhetoric
n. using language impressively or persuasively, esp in public speaking
ribald
adj. humorous in a vulgar, obscene or disrespectful way
rickety
adj. weak or shaky, esp in the joints; likely to fall or collapse
riddle
n. puzzling question, statement or description, esp one intended to test the cleverness of those wishing to solve it
rider
n. person who rides a horse, bicycle, etc
rife
adj. (esp of bad things) widespread; common
rift
n. split, crack, break, etc
rig
v. ~ sth (with sth) fit (a ship or boat) with masts, spars, ropes, sails, etc
righteous
adj. doing what is morally right
rightful
adj. just, proper or legal
rigid
adj. stiff; not bending or yielding
rigor
severity
rile
v. annoy (sb); irritate
rip
v. divide or make a hole in (sth) by pulling sharply
rivet
n. metal pin or bolt for fastening twopieces of metal together, its headless end being hammered or pressed flat to prevent slipping
riveting
adj. that holds the attention; enthralling
rivulet
n. small stream
robust
adj. vigorous; healthy and strong
rococo
adj. of a style of decorationin furniture, architecture, music, etc with much elaboratedecoration, common in Europe in the 18th century 18
roil
to stir up:DISTURB, DISORDER
rolling
having gentle rising and falling slopes; undulating
romp
v. play about together in a lively way, running, jumping, etc
rooster
n. = cock 1
roseate
adj. deep pink
roster
n. (esp in the army, etc) list of names showing duties to be performed and the times at which those named are to perform them
rostrum
n. raised platform from which public speeches are made
rote
n. by `rote by heart; from memory, without thinking of the meaning
rotund
adj. (of a person) rounded; plump; fat
rotunda
n. type of round building or hall, esp one with a domed roof
rotundity
n. state of being rotund
rousing
adj. vigorous; giving encouragement
rout
n. utter defeat
rubble
n. bits of broken stone, rock or bricks
rubric
n. words put as a heading, esp to show or explain how sth should be done, etc
ruddy
adj. (approv ) (of a person's face) having a fresh healthy colour
rudimentary
adj. existing in an imperfect or undeveloped form
rue
n. type of evergreen shrub with bitter leaves formerly used in medicine
rueful
adj. showing or feeling good-humoured regret
ruffian
n. violent lawless man
rumble
v. make a deep heavy continuous sound
ruminant
n, adj that chews the cud, eg a cow
ruminate
v. ~ think deeply; meditate; ponder
rummage
v. ~ (for sth); ~ (about/around) turn things over or disarrange them while searching for sth
run-down
n. act of running down (an industry, a company, etc); reduction of the size of an industry, etc
runic
adj. of runes; written in or inscribed with runes
ruse
n. deceitful way of doing sth or getting sth; trick
rustic
adj. typical of the country or country people
rusticate
v. send (a student) away from university temporarily, as a punishment
rustle
v. make a dry light sound, esp by friction or rubbing together
ruthless
adj. having or showing no pity or compassion; cruel
WORD LIST -- O TO R Reviewed by sambasivan srinivasan on 6:06:00 PM Rating: 5

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