Monetary policy of RBI -Important parameters
Monetary Policy of RBI
Monetary policy is a tool with RBI to regulate to regulate the interest rate and money supply expansion that prevail in the economy. RBO is vested with the powers for formulating, supervising and controlling the monetary and banking system.
Instruments: There are 2 categories of instruments of monetary policy.
(1) Under the general category, it has powers to conduct open market operations (OMO), change the reserve ratios and alter the discount rates.
(2) Under special category it can have various credit direction program (priority sector, export credit, food credit etc.) and specifying margins and level of credit in special categories (selective credit control).
Easy or tight money Policy:
(1) An easy money policy is intended to increase the money supply. It help bring about a reduction in interest rates. Lower interest rates are expected to stimulate a sluggish economy. RBI buys securities from banks or reduces reserve ratio or the bank rate. RBI usually follows an easy policy in times of recessions and economic slowdown.
(2) Tight policy is intended to cool down an overheated economy by limiting credit availability or making it very costly. For this, RBI employs measures which would reduce the overall money supply, which basically are the reverse of what is adopted for an easy money policy. A tight money policy is implemented when economy suffers from inflationary pressures.
Open market operations: It refers to buying and selling of govt. securities by RBI in the open market. By its impact on the reserves of banks, OMO helps control the money supply in the economy. When RBI sells Govt. securities to banks, the lendable resources of the banks are reduced and banks are forced to reduce or contain their lending, thus curbing the money supply. When money supply is reduced, the consequent increase in the interest rates tends to limit spending and investment.
Varying Reserve Ratios: An increase in CRR or SLR would force banks to deploy a larger part of their lendable resources as reserves. As banks reduce their market lending operations, consequent decline in money supply would increase interest rate.
Bank rate / Repo Rate: When these are increase, banks reduce their borrowing from RBI, which lowers their lendable resources. The decline in money supply increases the interest rates. The opposite happens when RBI reduces these rates.
Of 3 kinds of general monetary instruments, OMO is more flexible and preferred.
MONETARY & LIQUIDITY AGGREGATES
Money stock measures were introduced by RBI during 1970 and the working group under YB Reddy suggested major changes in the money stock measures, which gave its recommendations (during Dec 1997) and implemented during June 1998. The current measures are monetary (M) and liquidity (L) aggregates.
M 0 (called reserve money) = Currency in circulation + bankers’ deposits with RBI + other deposits with RBI (including primary dealers’ balance) (there is weekly report).
M 1 (called Narrow money) = currency with public + current deposits with banking system + 15% of demand liabilities portion of saving deposits with banks system + other deposits with RBI. (fortnightly report).
M 2 = M 1 + time liabilities portion (i.e. remaining 85%) of saving deposits with banking system + certificates of deposits issued by banks + term deposits (excluding FCNR-B deposits) with a contractual maturity of up to and including one year with banking system (fortnightly report).
M 3 (called broad money) = M 2 + term deposits (excluding FCNR-B) with a contractual maturity of over one year with the banking system + call borrowings from non-depository financial corporations by the banking system. (fortnightly report)
Important points regarding monetary aggregates:
1. M 0 is essentially the monetary base, compiled from the balance sheet of RBI.
2. M1 purely reflects the non-interest bearing monetary liabilities of banking system.
3. M2, besides currency and current deposits, includes saving and short term deposits reflecting the transaction balances of entitles.
4. M3 has been redefined to reflect, in addition to M2, the call funding that the banking system obtains from other financial institutions.
L I = M 3 + all deposits with post office saving banks (excluding NSCs)
L 2 = Li + term deposits with term lending institutions and refinancing institutions (FIs) + term borrowing by FIs + certificate of deposits issued by FIs and
L 3 = L 2 + public deposits of NBFCs.
INDIAN ECONOMY - IMPORTANT PARAMETERS
RBI's growth estimate for 2013-14 : 6.1-6.7%
GDP growth-2011-11 (revised estimate) : 8.4%
GDP at factor cost 2013-14 (Cr) :11371886
Sh;: re of service sector in GDP : 64.5%
Share of manufacturing sector in GDP : 18.2%
Share of agriculture sector in GDP : 17.3%
Wholesale Price Index (Dec 2012) : 7.18%
Money Supply (M3) expansion Dec 2012 : 12.9%
Exports during 2011-12 : 291.3 bn
Imports during (2011-12) : 347.4 Bn
Export target - 2012-13 (in $) 15% growth : 360 bn
Food grain production (2007-08) -Estimate : 227.3
Fiscal Deficit Target (2013-14) 4.8% of GDP : 542499 cr
Revenue Deficit Target (2013-141 : 379838 cr
Tax-GDP ratio Target (2013-14) : 11.7%
Apr-Dec 2012:Export 214.09 bn Imports : 361.3 bn
Poverty line ratio (2004-05) : 27.5%
Per capita Income 2010-11 (Rs.) : 61564
Indian economy’s ranking in world in PPP : 3rd
Indian economy’s ranking in world in value : 10th
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