ENGLISH -- PROBATIONARY OFFICER/CLERK
Directions (1-10): In the following passage there are Blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words/phrases are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word/phrase in each case.
Depending upon how humanity chooses to use it, technology can enhance or (1) any aspect of life. The realm of interpersonal communication generally feels this impact first.
Many times throughout history, humanity has changed its modes of communication as society itself has (2). As people began to spread out geographically, verbal communication turned to writing to make it more (3). Then, people invented ways of carrying both conversation and written communication between their communities to-keep in (4) with one another as travel became simpler. With the advent of the telephone, people began to wonder if picking up the receiver to call one another would eventually (5) out other forms of communication. So far, as families and friends have moved away from one another, the telephone even its cellular form, has allowed humanity to (6) the necessary links among its members.
Naturally, now that computers, instant and text messaging, and other forms o communication have found their way into the world, people not familiar with these technologies wonder what they will do to the human race. Etiquette experts and those raised on writing formal letters often (7) that e-mail and text message lingo will replace the language of pen and paper. This will not (8) and both methods of communication can survive to enhance humans’ enjoyment of one another’s company if the next generation learns how to (9) both. Each form of communication can survive with its own rules as people learn which situations in life (10) for which level of formality and which of the people they spend time with can connect better with which type of language.
1. (a) depressed b) finish c) problem d) hinder e) featured
2. a) evolved b) destroyed c) pledged d) extinguished e) waited
3. a) expensive b) subjective c) easier d) loud e) portable
4. a) lines b) faith c) distance d) touch e) check
5. a) pushed b) cancel c) shells d) try e) turn
6. a) maintain b) teleport c) cut d) curb e) regulation
7. a) dominate b) elate c) worry d) says e) mentioning
8. a) agree b) happen c) occurred d) exist e) possible
9. a) forms b) prove c) accomplish d) study e) example
10. a) take b) require c) jump d) stands e) call
Directions (11-15): Rearrange the following six sentences (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) and (F) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph; then answer the questions given below them.
a) When it comes to the number of tigers though, I think it comes to the number of tigers though, I think it is too small a number representing a species.
b) These days, everywhere I go, I see hoarding saying ‘Just 1411 Left’.
c) The three being, the Caspian, Balinese and Javan.
d) Besides the small number, we are steadily losing a few species of these animals as well.
e) Normally, I would groan and grumble on seeing this figure of 1411 on my shopping bills as it sounds too much;
f) At the end of the last century we had lost 3 out of 8 tiger species.
11. Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after rearrangement?
a) A b) B c) C d) D e) E
12. Which of the following should be the SECOND sentence after rearrangement?
a) F b) D c) C d) E e) A
13. Which of the following should be the THIRD sentence after rearrangement?
a) A b) B c) C d) D e) E
14. Which of the following should be the FIFTH sentence after rearrangement?
a) A b) B c) F d) D e) E
15. Which of the following should be the SIXTH (Last) sentence after rearrangement?
a) E b) D c) C d) B e) A
Directions (16-20): Which of the phrases (1), (2), (3) and (4) given below each sentence should replace the word/phrase printed in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct? if the sentence is correct as it is given and ‘No correction is required’, mark (5) as the answer.
16. Never the one to mince words when it comes speaking his mind, the captain criticised the hectic schedule of his team.
a) comes to speaking b) comes and speaks c) comes to speak
d) come for speak e) No correction required
17. Indians are far more transparent than the Americans.
a) farther b) furthermore c) greater d) many more
e) No correction required
18. He will not be joining the rat race, which starts around this time every years as the board exams draw a close.
a) draw to close b) drawing a closure c) draw to a does
d) draw a closer e) No correction required
19. Light will go out around the world with hundreds of people sets to take part in the Earth Hour climate change campaign.
a) set to take part b) set to be part c) sets for taking part
d) set for part e) No correction required
20. With nasty viral infections do the rounds in the city, you should give all it takes to protect yourself.
a) coming rounds b) roundabout c) doing the rounds d) done rounding
e) No correction required
Directions (21-25): Each question below has two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been Omitted. Choose the set of words for each blank which best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.
21. Governments do not want to take a decision and resort to soft-pedaling, delay tactics and collusion, hoping that the judiciary will ____ in the relieve them of the ______ of decision - making.
a) come - enlightenment b) vouch - trouble c) barge - pleasure d) step-burden e) vote-task
22. The most important factor us the ____ of a wealthy Indian middle class which can now ___ to send their children abroad for education.
a) emergence - afford b) advent - focus c) decline - manage
d) rise - wish e) perception - go
23. Crores of public money is __ on parks in the city and yet most of them are out of ___ for the public
a) invested - limits b) spent - bounds c) bet-reach d) put-areas
24. Rules are for those who cannot ____ them and not for the rich and influence who can ____ to ignore them.
a) follow - demand b) set-opt c) break - suggest d) find - ask
e) challenge - choose
25. Experts cannot - enough on the benefits of _____ more fruit and vegetables in your daily diet,
a) pressure - involving b) strain - adding c) emphasize - contributing
d) stress-including e) state-mixing
Directions (26-35): Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error or idiomatic error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number of that part is the answer. If there is ‘No error’, the answer is (5). (Ignore errors of punctuation, if any).
26. The actor, who plays (1)/a detective in the film, alleged to have pushed the director (2)/ when he asked him to get into his costume (3)/as it was getting late (4) / No error (5)
27. Manish was advised an operation (1) / more than thirty years back, but (2) / due to his financial condition he (3) / could not undergoes the procedure (4) / No error (5)
28. India’s largest corporate house may be (1) / force to review the selection parameters after (2) / struggling to shortlist potential candidates (3) / for the past eight months (4) / No error (5)
29. This questions force us (1) / to face the unpleasant truth that (2) / the policies of social justice have (3) / reached a dead end. (4) / No error (5)
30. Many of the young people (1) / studying abroad agreed that (2) / returning home was always (3) / an attractive option (4) / No error (5)
31. The government needs to provide (1) / specific regulations that create an environment (2) / where trained scientific personnel enjoyed space and freedom (3) / to design new products benefiting society (4) / No error (5)
32. Though the book is not yet available on India (1) / previews published in this country suggest (2) / that it is a complex study-of (3) / an extremely complex personality (4) / No error (5).
33. Conventionally speaking (1) / men are supposed to earn while (2) / women are supposed to sit at home (3) / do housework and discipline the children (4) / No error (5)
34. The movement, which aims to 91) / raise awareness about climate change hopes (2) / to bring people together to think about (3) / what they can do for reduce harmful pollution. (4) / No error (5)
35. Workers battling to restore (1) / power supply to the damaged reactors (2) / have successful in (3) / reaching up to the second reactor (4) / No error (5)
Directions (36-40): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
India’s college and universities, with just a few exceptions, have become large, under-funded, ungovernable institutions. At many of them politics has intruded into campus life, influencing academic appointments and decisions across levels. Under investment in libraries, information technology, laboratories, and classrooms makes it very difficult to provide top-quality instruction or engage in cutting-edge research. The rise in the number of part-time teachers and the freeze on new full-time appointments in many places have affected morale in the academic profession. The lack of accountability means that teaching and research performance is seldom measured. The system provides few incentives to perform. Bureaucratic inertia hampers change. Student unrest and occasional faculty agitation disrupt operations. Nevertheless, with a semblance of normality, faculty administrators are able to provide teaching, coordinate examination, and award degrees.
Even the small top tier of higher education faces serious problems. Many IIT graduates, well trained in technology, have chosen not to contribute their skills to the burgeoning technology sector in India. Half leave the country immediately upon graduation to pursue advanced study abroad - and most do not return. A stunning 86 per cent of students in science and technology fields from India who obtain degrees in the United States do not return home immediately following their study. Another significant group, of about 30 per cent, decides to earn MBAs in India because local salaries are higher - and are lost to science and technology. A corps of dedicated and able teachers work at the IITs and IIMs, but the lure of jobs aboard and in the private sector makes in increasingly difficult to retain the best and brightest to the academic profession.
Few in India are thinking creatively about higher education. There is no field higher education research. Those in government as well as academic leaders seem content to do the “same old thing.” Academic institutions and systems have become large and complex. They need good data, careful analysis, and creative ideas. In China, more than two-dozen higher education research centres, and several government agencies are involved in higher education policy for optimum planning.
India has survived with an increasingly mediocre higher education system for decades. Now as India strives to compete in a globalised economy in areas that require highly trained professionals, the quality of higher education becomes increasingly important. So far, India’s large educated population base and its reservoir of at least moderately well-trained university graduates have permitted the country to move ahead. But the competition is fierce. China in particular is heavily investing in improving its best universities with the aim of making a small group of them world class in the coming decade, arid making a larger number internationally competitive research universities.
To compete successfully in the knowledge - based economy of the 21st century, India needs enough universities that not only produce bright graduates for export but can also support sophisticated research in a number of scientific and scholarly fields and produce at least some of the knowledge and technology needed for an expanding economy. How can India build a higher education system that will permit it to joint developed economies? The newly emerging private sector in higher educatioen cannot spearhead academic growth. Several of the well-endowed and effectively managed private institutions maintain reasonably high standards, although it is not clear whether these institutions will be able to sustain themselves in the long run. They can help produce well-qualified graduates in such fields as management, but they cannot form the basis for comprehensive research universities. This sector lacks the resources to build the facilities required for quality instruction and research in the sciences. Most of the private institutions do not focus on advanced training in the sciences.
Only public universities have the potential to be truly world class institutions. But these institutions have not been adequately or consistently supported. The top institutions require sustained funding from public sources. Academic salaries must be high enough to attract excellent scientists and scholars. Fellowships and other grants should be available for bright students. An academic culture that is based on merit-based norms and competition for advancement and research funds is a necessary component, as is a judicious mix of autonomy to do creative search and accountability to ensure productivity. World class universities require world class professors and students and a culture to sustain and stimulate them.
36. What, according to the author, is the shortfall of our government officials as well as academicians when it comes to higher education?
a) They are of the opinion that India has the best system of higher education in the world.
b) They believe that it is the responsibility of private institutions to bring about a change in higher education.
c) They are unaware of the new developments in the field of higher education.
d) They are unwilling to invest money in higher education despite getting sufficient grants for the purpose.
e) They do not think innovatively in the direction of bringing about a change in higher education and are struck in a rut.
37. Which of the following is/are problem/s faced by Indian colleges and universities?
A) Political interference in decision making
B) Lack of funding necessary for improvement in classrooms, libraries, etc.
C) Hiring of teachers on a part-time basis only.
a) Only (A) b) Only (B) and (C) c) Only (C) d) Only (A) and (B)
e) All (A), (B) and (C)
38. Which of the following steps has China taken to improve higher education?
A) Their education policy formation involves many governmental bodies for thoughtful planning.
B) They are sanctioning grants to their teachers to facilitate the improvement process
C) They are investing in universities to make them internationally competitive.
a) Only (B) b) Only (A) and (C) c) Only (C) d) Only (B) and (C)
e) All (A), (B) and (C)
39. How, according to the author, has India progressed despite a mediocre higher education system?
a) By borrowing ideas as well as technology from the west.
b) By convincing the world that it is more knowledgeable than it actually is
c) On the basis of its fairly competent graduates and a large number of educated population.
d) Because of its sound and progressive economic policies
e) On the basis of the goodwill accumulated by it over the years.
40. Which of the following is possibly the most appropriate title for the passage?
a) Literacy in India b) State of Higher Education in India
c) Top Universities of India d) Educational Institutes in India
e) Comparative Study of Higher Education in India and China
41. Which of the following problems do top institutes in India face in terms of contribution to academics?
A) The teachers of these institutes get enticed by the openings in foreign countries.
B) Many graduates from these institutes find opportunities abroad and never return.
C) Graduates from these institutes who do not migrate to foreign countries are unfit for teaching in these institutes.
a) Only (A) b) Only (C) c) Only (B) and (C) d) Only (A) and (B)
e) All (A), (B) and (C)
42. Which of the following is true, in the context of the passage?
A) Private universities are well equipped to produce graduates who can conduct research.
B) India needs more universities that can cater to research studies in different scientific fields.
C) India should completely stop graduates from leaving the country to pursue a career.
a) Only (B) b) Only (A) and (B) c) Only (A) d) Only (B) and (C)
e) All (A), (B) and (C)
43. What, according to the author, is/are the step/s that can make Indian universities world class?
A) Students need to be given independence to conduct research
B) Remuneration of teachers should be increase\d
C) Proper support in the form of funds should be provided to universities
a) Only (A) and (B) b) Only (C) c) All (A), (B) and (C) d) Only (B) and (C)
e) Only (A)
Directions (44-47): Choose the word/group of words which is most similar in meaning to the world/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
a) hard-working b) legal c) thoughtful d) difficult e) shrewd
a) unhappy b) matter c) enclosure d) satisfied e) substance
a) agreement b) funding c) allow d) let e) consent
a) prompt b) discouragement c) cash d) margin
Directions (48-50): Choose the word/group of words which is most opposite in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
a) strong b) weak c) tame d) scrawny e) timid
a) minimizing b) growing c) escalating d) dwindling e) easing
a) superlative b) middle c) average d) pleasant e) ordinary
1.d 2.a 3.b 4.d 5.e 6.a 7.c 8.b 9.c 10.b
11.b 12.d 13.a 14.c 15.b 16.c 17.e 18.c 19.a 20.c
21.d 22.a 23.b 24.e 25.d 26.b 27.d 28.b 29.a 30.e
31.c 32.a 33.d 34.d 35.c 36.e 37.e 38.b 39.c 40.b
41.d 42.a 43.d 44.c 45.d 46.b 47.e 48.b 49.d 50.a
26.b; Use ‘is’ before alleged
27.d; Use ‘undergo’ in place of ‘undergoes’
28.b; Use ‘forced’ in place of ‘force’
29.a; Use ‘These’ in place of ‘This’
30.e; No error
31.c; Use ‘enjoy’ in place of ‘enjoyed’
32.a; Use ‘in’ in place of ‘on’
33.d; Use ‘upbring’ in place of ‘discipline’
34.d; Use ‘to’ in place of ‘for’
35.c; Use ‘succeeded’ in place of ‘successful’
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