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REASONING -- SYLLOGISM , STATEMENT AND CONCLUSION, ASSUMPTIONS ....

TEST OF LOGICAL REASONING

            Inference is a process of passing from one or more prepositions to another which is justified by them.  In deductive inference, the conclusion cannot be more general than the premises.
            In mediate deductive inference or syllogism, the inference is derived from two premises which have a common term known as the middle term.
            A syllogism consists of three prepositions (two given prepositions and preposition inferred from the given prepositions).  The inferred preposition is called the conclusion.  Two given prepositions are called the premises.
            Each preposition consists of two terms.  Therefore, a syllogism consists of six terms.  The three terms each of which occurs twice, have different names given to them.  The predicate of the conclusion is called the Major Term. The subject of the conclusion is called the B. The term which occurs in both the premises but does not occur in conclusion, is called the Middle Term.  The premise in which the major term occurs is called the Major Premise and the premise in which the minor term occurs, is called the Minor Premise.
            For example :   All boys are desks
                                    All windows are boys

            Therefore, All windows are desks.  Here the term 'desks' is a Major Term, 'Windows' is a Minor Term being the Predicate and the Subject of the conclusion respectively.  The term 'boys' which occurs in both the premises but is absent from the conclusion, is the Middle Term.  The first premise "All boys are desks" is the Major premise the second premise "All windows are boys" is the Minor premise.
            When a syllogism is given in its strict logical form, the major premise comes first, then comes the minor premise and in the end comes the conclusion.
            A term is said to be distributed in a preposition when it is taken in its entire denotation and it is undistributed when only a part of it is considered.  Let S and P denote the subject and predicate respectively.
            Consider                                   A : All S is P
                                                            E : No S is P
                                                           
            Here, subject term is distributed in both the statements A & E while predicate term is distributed in E only and not in A.
            Consider                                   I   : Some S is P
                                                            O : Some S is not P

            Here, subject term is undistributed in both the statements I & O while predicate term is distributed in O only and no in I.
           
            Consider                                   A : All S is P
                                                            I  : Some S is P

            Here, predicate term is undistributed in both the statements A & I while subject term is distributed in O only and not in I.
           
            Consider                                   E : No S is P
                                                            O : Some S is not P

            Here, predicate term is distributed in both the statement E & O.  While subject term is distributed in E only and not in O.


General Rules of Categorical Syllogism

1.      Every syllogism must contain three and only three terms.
2.      The middle term must be distributed at least once in the premises.
Example :   All boys are desks
                  All windows are desks
                  All windows are boys

violates rule 2.  The middle term 'desk' is not distributed in the premises even once.

3.      No term can be distributed in the conclusion unless it is distributed in the premise.
Example :   All boys are desks
                  No windows are boys
                  No windows are desks

violates rule 3. The term 'desks' is distributed in the conclusion without being distributed in the premises.

4.      From two negative premises, no conclusion can be drawn.
5.      If one premise is negative, the conclusion is negative and vice-versa.
6.      If both the premises are affirmative, the conclusion is affirmative and vice-versa.


Figures of Syllogism


First Figure :

In the first figure, middle term is the subject in the major premise and the predicate in the minor premise.  The valid conclusions which can be drawn from two given statements are indicated below :

(1)
AA à A                       e.g.

:
All boys are desks
All windows are boys
All windows are desks

(2)
AE à X                       e.g.
                    
:
All boys are desks
No windows is a boy

Here, no conclusion follows because any conclusion would distribute P which is not distributed in premise A.
(3)
AI à I                          e.g.
                    
:
All boys are desks
Some windows are boys
Some windows are desks

(4)
AO à X                       e.g.

:
All boys are desks
Some windows are not boys

Here, no conclusion follows because any conclusion would distribute P which is not distributed in premise A.

(5)
EA à E                       e.g.
                    
:
No desks are windows
All boys are desks
No boys are windows
                                          
(6)
EI  à O                       e.g.
                    
:
No desks are windows
Some boys are desks
Some boys are not windows

(7)
IA  à X                       e.g.
                    
:
Some boys are desks
All windows are boys

No conclusion follows because middle term is not distributed.

(8)
OA à I                       e.g.

:
Some boys are not desks
All windows are boys

No conclusion follows because middle term is not distributed.




Second Figure :

In the second figure, the middle term is the predicate in both premises.

(1)
AA à X                       e.g.

:
All boys are desks
All windows are desks

No conclusion can be drawn because middle term is not distributed in both the premises.

(2)
AE à E                       e.g.
                    
:
All boys are desks
No windows are desks
No windows are boys

(3)
AI à X                       e.g.
                     
:
All boys are desks
Some windows are desks

No conclusion follows because middle term is not distributed in both the premises.

(4)
AO à O                       e.g.
                    
:
All boys are desks
Some windows are not desks
Some windows are not boys



(5)
EA à E                       e.g.
                    
:
No boys are desks
All windows are desks
No windows are boys

(6)
EI à O                       e.g.
                    
:
No boys are desks
Some windows are desks
Some windows are not boys

(7)
IA à X                       e.g.
                    
:
Some boys are not desks
All windows are desks


Third Figure :

In the third figure, the middle term is the subject in both the premises.

(1)
AA à I                       e.g.
                    
:
All boys are desks
All boys are windows
Some windows are desks

(2)
AE à X                       e.g.
                    
:
All boys are desks
No boy is window

(3)
AI à I                       e.g.
                    
:
All boys are desks
Some boys are windows
Some windows are desks

(4)
AO à X                       e.g.
                    
:
All boys are desks
Some boys are not windows

(5)
EA à O                       e.g.
                    
:
No boy is desk
All boys are windows
Some windows are not desks

(6)
EI à O                       e.g.
                    
:
No boy is desk
Some boys are windows
Some windows are not desks

(7)
IA à I                       e.g.
                    
:
Some boys are desks
All boys are windows
Some windows are desks

(8)
OA à O                       e.g.
                    
:
Some boys are not desks
All boys are windows
Some windows are not desks









Fourth figure :

In the fourth figure, the middle term is the predicate in the major premise and the subject in the minor premise.

(1)
AA à I                       e.g.
                    
:
All boys are desks
All desks are windows
Some windows are boys

(2)
AE à E                       e.g.
                    
:
All boys are desks
No desks are windows
No windows are boys

(3)
AI à X                       e.g.
                    
:
All boys are desks
Some desks are windows

(4)
AO à X                       e.g.
                    
:
All boys are desks
Some desks are not windows

(5)
EA à O                       e.g.
                    
:
No boys are desks
All desks are windows
Some windows are not boys

(6)
EI à O                       e.g.
                    
:
No boy is desk
Some desks are windows
Some windows are not boys

(7)
IA à I                      e.g.
                    
:
Some boys are desks
All desks are windows
Some windows are boys

(8)
OA à X                       e.g.
                    
:
Some boys are not desks
All desks are windows













LOGICAL REASONING -  EVALUATION OF FACTS,
CONCLUSIONS AND ARGUMENTS
Directions :    In the following questions there are two statements followed by two conclusions (a) and (b).  You have to take the two given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts. 
If only conclusion (a) follows, then mark A;
if only (b) follows, then mark B;
if both (a) and (b) follow, then mark C;
if either (a) or (b) follows, then mark D and
 if neither (a) nor (b) follows, then mark E.
1.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All lamps are poles
Some poles are woods

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some lamps are woods
Some woods are poles

2.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Most tanks are guns
Some guns are stones

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some stones are guns
Some tanks are stones

3.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All windows are boys
All boys are desks

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All windows are desks
Some desks are not windows

4.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All cards are cups
No cup is glass

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All cups are cards
No card is glass

5.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All chairs are houses
Some shoes are houses

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some chairs are shoes
Some shoes are chairs

6.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Sohan is a good sportsman
Sportsmen are generally healthy

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All healthy persons are sportsmen
Sohan is healthy

7.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Some men are educated
Educated persons prefer small families

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All small families are educated
Some men prefer small families


8.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All men are chairs
All chairs are tables

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All men are tables
Some chairs are men

9.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All boys are rivers
Some rivers are girls

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some girls are boys
Some boys are girls

10.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All birds are parrots
Shyam is a parrot

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Shyam is a bird
All parrots are birds

11.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Some bags are cigarettes
Some non-bags are tables

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some bags are tables
All bags are not cigarettes

12.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All writers are men
No man is absent

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
There are no women writers
All writers are present

13.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Some trains are stations
All stations are crowded

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All trains are crowded
All stations are trains

14.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Meena is a book
Some books are benches

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Meena is a tree
All books are trees

15.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All books are bananas
All bananas are pens

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All bananas are books
All books are pens

16.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Some dramatists are poets
All elephants are poets

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some dramatists are elephants
All poets are elephants

17.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All students are girls
No girl is dull

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
There are no boys in the class
No student is dull

18.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All cats are books
All books are singers

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All cats are singers
All books are cats

19.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Some cats are kittens
All goats are kittens

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some cats are goats
Some goats are cats

20.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All names are houses
No houses are foxes

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All foxes are names
No houses are names

21.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All pens are dogs
Some pens are lights

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some dogs are lights
Some lights are not dogs

22.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All plants are engines
Some engines are drums

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some plants are drums
Some drums are plants


23.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All eyes are leaves
All leaves are wolves

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some wolves are leaves
Some wolves are eyes

24.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Some boys are blockhead
Gampu is a boy

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Gampu is a blockhead
Gampu is not a blockhead

25.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Some girls are swimmers
Charu is a girl

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Charu is a swimmer
Some girls are not swimmers

26.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All hills are mice
All mice are men

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All hills are men
All men are hills

27.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Some authors are painters
All painters are honest

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All honest persons are painters
Some authors are honest

28.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All tables are horses
All horses are rivers

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All tables are rivers
Some rivers are tables

29.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All poets are authors
All singers are authors

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All singers are poets
Some authors are not singers

30.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All cats are dogs
Some dogs are black

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some cats are black
Black dogs are not cats

31.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All floors are roofs
Some floors are walls

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some roofs are walls
Some roofs are floors

32.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Some plants are trees
Jasmine is a plant

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Jasmine is a tree
Some trees are plants

33.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All stamps are letters
All letters are postcards

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All stamps are postcards
Some letters are stamps


34.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All cups are plates
Some glasses are plates

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some glasses are cups
Some cups are glasses

35.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
No doors are windows
Some locks are not windows

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
No window is a door
Some locks are not doors

36.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Some animals are lions
Some lions are mammals

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All animals are mammals
Some animals are mammals

37.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All horses are donkeys
All donkeys are dogs

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All dogs are horses
All dogs are donkeys

38.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
No mugs are spoons
All mugs are forks

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
No forks are spoons
Some forks are not spoons

39.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All cars are buses
All cycles are buses

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All cars are cycles
All cycles are cars

40.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
No books are albums
All pictures are books

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All books are pictures
No pictures are albums


41.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
If he buys a table, he will not buy chairs
He did not buy a table

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
He bought chairs
He did not buy chairs

42.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Some men are scholars
This writer is a man

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
This writer is a scholar
This writer is not a scholar

43.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
No teachers are educated people
Some poets are educated people

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some poets are not teachers
Some poets are not educated people

44.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All actors are tall
No handsome people are actors

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some actors are not handsome people
No handsome people are tall


45.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All women are educated
No labourers are educated

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
No women are labourers
No labourers are women

46.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All ponds are rivers
All lakes are rivers

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some ponds are rivers
Some lakes are ponds

47.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All houses are homes
Some homes are dwellings

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some houses are dwellings
Some dwellings are houses

48.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All fans are coolers
Some machines are coolers

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some machines are fans
Some coolers are machines

49.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Some editors are journalists
Some writers are not editors

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some writers are not journalists
Some editors are not journalists

50.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All teachers are scientists
All workers are not scientists

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
All workers are not teachers
All scientists are teachers

51.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Some crows are not animals
All crows are birds

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some birds are not animals
Some crows are animals

52.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All streets are roads
Some footpaths are streets

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some footpaths are roads
Some streets are footpaths

53.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
No teachers are educated people
Some poets are educated people

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some poets are not teachers
Some poets are not educated people

54.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Some colleges are not universities
Some colleges are institutions

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
No institutions are universities
Some institutions are not universities

55.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
No courier is a postman
Some postmen are government servants

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
No postman is a courier
Some government servants are not couriers


56.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Some crows are cows
Some cows are cats

Conclusions :
(a)
(b)
Some crows are cats
All crow are cats

            Directions :  57 - 71.  In each question below is given a statement followed by two conclusions numbered I and II.  You have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then decide which of the two given conclusions logically follows beyond a reasonable doubt from the information given in the statement.
            Give answer (A)          if only conclusion I follows :  give answer (B) if only conclusion II follows; give answer (C) if either I or II follows; give answer (D) if neither I nor II follows and give answer (E) if both I and II follow.

57.   Statement :  The present approach of International Labour Organisation (ILO), the Minister said, was primarily directed to keep in view the interests of the workers in organized sector only which was not helpful to developing countries where a large number of workers were engaged in the unorganized sector.
Conclusions :
I.                 ILO should include interests of workers in unorganized sector in their approach to make it useful for developing countries.
II.               Developing countries are helpless as regards their workers in unorganized sectors.


58.  Statement :  Water Supply in wards A to D of the city will be affected by about 25 per cent on Friday because repairing work of the main lines was to be carried out.
Conclusions :
I.                 The residents in these wards should economize on water on Friday.
II.               The residents in these wards should store water on the previous day.

59. Statement :  Throughout the Third World women are generally more involved that men in food production, storage and marketing - FAO report.
Conclusions :
I.                 Women more than men in the Third World should be trained in new methods for farming if agricultural production is to be increased there.
II.               Women always work very sincerely.

60.  Statement :  Water supply in wards A to D of the city will be affected by about 25 per cent on Friday because repairing work of the main lines was to be carried out.
Conclusions :
I.                 Such repairs should not inconvenience the residents.
II.               Such announcements are useful to the residents.
61. Statement :  "Education is in the 'concurrent list' and therefore, States are unable to reform the education quickly without the consent of the Central Government " - an opinion.
Conclusions :
I.                 State and Central Governments are not keen to reform education.
II.               'Education' should be an exclusively State subject if quick reform is required.
62. Statement :  After this amendment to the constitution, no child below the age of 14 years will be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment.
Conclusions :
I.                 Before this amendment, children below 14 years were employed to work in factory or mine.
II.               The employers must now abide by this amendment to the constitution.
63. Statement : The dissimilarities between the problems of rural and urban development stand out clearly when we compare the attitude of Government towards these two fields.
Conclusions :
I.                 Government has more favourable attitude towards rural development than urban development.
II.               Government has more favourable attitude towards urban development than rural development.
64.  Statement : A neurotic is a non-stupid person who behaves stupidly.
Conclusions :
I.                 Neuroticism and stupidity go hand in hand.
II.               Normal persons behave intelligently.

65. Statement :  Castes on its social side are a product of human organizations and not a mystery of divine appointment.
Conclusions :
I.                 Castes are man-made.
II.               Divinity has created many mysteries in the world.
66. Statement :  Constitutional morality is not a natural sentiment.
Conclusions :
I.                 Sentiments are innate.
II.               Constitutional morality is to be cultivated.
67. Statement :  It does not matter what type of food you eat.  What matters is whether you can digest it.
Conclusions :
I.                 Any type of food is equally good as long as it can be digested.
II.               The type of food one eats is immaterial.
68. Statement :  If blue is heavy, yellow is light.  If red is light, green is medium.  But blue is heavy or red is light.
Conclusions :
I.                 Yellow and red are light
II.               Green is medium.
69. Statement :  He questioned the utility of the present procedure and suggested its replacement by another one designed for speedy disposal.
Conclusions :
I.                 Procedure should be abolished
II.               Procedure should be made for speedy disposal.
70. Statement :  Now you do not need any import license to own an electronic typewriter.
Conclusions :
I.                 Electronic typewriters are now made indigenously.
II.               Electronic typewriters are now freely permitted for import.
71. Statement :  It does not matter what a tonic contains.  What matters is what your body gets out of it.
Conclusions :
I.                 Any tonic is equally good if the body can absorb it.
II.               Compositions of a tonic is of no consequence.
Directions :  Questions 72-74 :  In each of the following questions two statement (1) and (2) are given.  You have to take these two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts and then decide which of the five alternatives (A), (B), (C), (D), and (E), logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.
72. Statements :  (1) All girls are mothers.
                           (2) Some mothers are children.

(A)   All girls are children
(B)   Some girls are children
(C)  All mothers are girls
(D)  Some children are girls
(E)   None of the above

73. Statements :          (1) Some roots are fruits
                                    (2) All roots are trees.
     (A) All roots which are not fruits, are trees
     (B) Some fruits are trees
     (C) There may be roots which are neither fruits nor trees
     (D) All the roots are either fruits or trees
     (E) None of the above.


74. Statements :          (1) All children are chairs
                                    (2) All cats are children

(A)   All cats are chairs.
(B)   Some children are cats.
(C)  No cat is chair
(D)  Some chairs are cats
(E)   None of the above.

Directions :  Questions 75-79 :  In each of the following questions there are two statements (1) and (2) followed by a conclusion.  If only statement (1) supports the conclusion, then mark A; if only statement (2) supports the conclusion, then mark B; if both the statements support the conclusion, then mark C; if either of the two statements supports the conclusion, then mark D and if none of the two statements supports the conclusion, then mark E.


75.
Statements :
(1)
All rocks are mountains
(2) All rocks are trees


Conclusion :

Some mountains are trees

76.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Deficit financing is responsible for rise in prices
Deficit financing is essential for development


Conclusion :

The rise in prices is the key of development.

77.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
Some vegetables are fruits
Fruits are good for health


Conclusion :

Some vegetables are good for health

78.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
All goods are economic
All goods are normal


Conclusion :

No goods is uneconomic

79.
Statements :
(1)
(2)
The growth rate of population is very high in India
Excessive increase in population is a hindrance to economic development


Conclusion :

The population of India stands in the way of the process of economic development.

Directions  :  Questions 80 - 94    :  In each question given below, is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II.  An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted.  You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumption is implicit in the statement :
            Give answer (A) if only assumption I is implicit; give answer (B) if only assumption II is implicit; give answer (C) if either I and II is implicit; give answer (D) if neither I nor II is implicit and give answer (E) if both I and II are implicit.
Study the following sample question :
.
Statement :


Go by aeroplane to reach Aurangabad from Bombay quickly

Assumptions :
I


II.
Bombay and Aurangabad are connected by aeroplane service

There is no other means of going from Bombay to Aurangabad
It is clear that assumption I is implicit in the statement.  Assumption II is not implicit in the statement.  In fact the statement implies that there are other means to reach Aurangabad from Bombay but they take longer than by aeroplane.  The answer, therefore, is(1) viz.only assumption I is implicit.
.80.
Statement :


The book is intended to guide the laymen to study.  Yoga in the absence of a teacher.


Assumptions :
I

II.
A teacher may not always be available to teach Yoga.

Yoga can be studied from a book

.81.
Statement :


In a world in a rush, Book Digest become indispensable.

Assumptions :
I

II.
The only use of Book Digest is saving time.

Book Digest should not be used when there is no rush.

.82.
Statement :


The crop condition continues to be critical even after the rains.



Assumptions :
I

II.
The crop condition was not critical before the rains.

The crop condition was expected to improve after the rains.

.83.
Statement :


To stop train pull chain.  Penalty for improper use Rs 250, is a warning in a rail compartment.


Assumptions :
I

II.
Some persons are mischievous.

On occasion people may want to stop a running train.

.84.
Statement :


The concession in rail fares for the journey to hill stations is cancelled because it is not needed for people who can spend their holidays there.


Assumptions :
I

II.
Railways should give concession only to needy persons.

Railways should not encourage people to spend their holidays at hill stations.


.85.
Statement :


It is faster to travel by air from Delhi to Bombay.

Assumptions :
I

II.
Delhi and Bombay are connected by air services.

There is no other means of communications between Delhi and Bombay.

.86.
Statement :


According to the 42nd amendment bill passed by the parliament, the president has to accept the advice of ministers.


Assumptions :
I


II.
Before the introduction of the bill, the president was not used to take the advice of the council of ministers.

Before the introduction of the bill, the president never sought the advice of the council of ministers.

.87.
Statement :


Books without knowledge of life are useless

Assumptions :
I

II.
All books contain knowledge of life.

People should try to gain the knowledge of life

.88.
Statement :


Judgements are not according to appearances.

Assumptions :
I

II.
Appearance may be deceptive.

Every one makes a judgement.

.89.
Statement :


The present education system needs thorough overhauling.

Assumptions :
I

II.
Overhauling results in improvement.

The present education system is outdated.

.90.
Statement :


In agricultural colleges, lectures on the history of agricultural research and biography of leading farm scientists should be arranged to motivate young scientists.


Assumptions :
I

II.
Students try to emulate leading persons in the field.

No student in agriculture is motivated to become a farm scientist.

.91.
Statement :


Statutory warning:  ‘Cigarette smoking is injurious to health.

Assumptions :
I

II.
The warning is helpful to society.

Non-smoking promotes health.

.92.
Statement :


With a view of achieving greater degree to coordination amongst various agencies involved in the programme, the organizational set-up should be strengthened to meet the requirements.


Assumptions :
I


II.
The present organizational set-up is not very appropriate in bringing about coordination.

Change in organizational set-up will bring about desired coordination.

.93.
Statement :


An advertisement:  “Chocolate ‘X’ is a present for someone you love”.


Assumptions :
I

II.
People always give present to the loved ones.

People are very fond of buying chocolates.

.94.
Statement :


Request in a train compartment :  ‘Please do not keep your feet on the seats’.


Assumptions :
I

II.
People usually keep their feet on the seats

People do not know where to keep their feet.
Direction :  Questions 95-104 :  In each of the questions one statement is followed by two arguments (a) and (b).  If only argument (a) is strong, then mark A; if only argument (b) is strong, then mark (B); if both of the arguments are strong, then mark C; if either of the arguments is strong, then mark D and if none of the arguments is strong then mark E.
.95.
Statement :


Should there be a world government.

Assumptions :
(a)

(b)
Yes, it will help in eliminating tension among the nations.

No, then only the developed countries will dominate in the government.
.96.
Statement :


Should the political parties be banned?

Assumptions :
(a)

(b)
Yes, it is necessary to teach a lesson to the politicians.

No, it will lead to end of democracy.

.97.
Statement :


Should the institution of marriages be abolished?

Assumptions :
(a)

(b)
Yes, it is already showing cracks.

No, it is necessary for the survival of the society.

.98.
Statement :


Should the health care service be nationalized?

Assumptions :
(a)

(b)
Yes, it has been done elsewhere also.

No, the quality of health care service will deteriorate.

.99.
Statement :


Should election expenses to central and state legislatures be met by the government.


Assumptions :
(a)

(b)
Yes, it will put an end to political corruption.

No, it is not done in any country.

.100.
Statement :


There was a directive advocating that strikes should be banned in India


Assumptions :
(a)


(b)
Because strikes lead to loss of production which we cannot afford if our economy is to be bettered.

No, because the employees will lose their right to strike for their just demands.

.101.
Statement :


Agriculture in rural India should be mechanized.

Assumptions :
(a)

(b)
Yes, it would lead to higher production.

No, then many villagers would be left unemployed.

.102.
Statement :


In Indian system of Government, the judiciary should be independent of the executive.


Assumptions :
(a)


(b)
Yes, because then the unlawful activities of the executive would be curbed.

No, because then the executive would not be able to take bold measures.

.103.
Statement :


Films should be brought to concurrent list.

Assumptions :
(a)

(b)
Yes, it will give respect to the views of the states.

No, it will deteriorate the standard of films.
.104.
Statement :


Computerization in banks is a must to provide efficient services to the customers.


Assumptions :
(a)


(b)
Yes, because then the services to the customers will be improved.

No, because it will lead to further unemployment which is already an acute problem.

Directions :   Questions 105-109 :   In each of these questions, one statement is followed by two assumptions (a) and (b).    If only assumption (a) is strong, then mark A; if only assumption (b) is strong, then mark B; if both of the assumptions are strong, then mark C; if either of the assumption is strong, then mark D and if none of the assumptions is strong, then mark E.
.105.
Statement :


If you are a graphic artist, we have a challenging job for you.


Assumptions :
(a)

(b)
You can be a graphic artist.

We need a graphic artist.

.106.
Statement :


You know that your suit is excellent when people ask about your tailor who tailored the suit.


Assumptions :
(a)

(b)
People do not ask about your tailor if your suit is not good.

The people want to know the criterion of an excellent suit.

.107.
Statement :


‘Saras’ is the only moped which you would purchase when you are ready to.


Assumptions :
(a)

(b)
‘Saras’ is an excellent moped.

People go in for an excellent moped.

.108.
Statement :


The successful man cannot make a wrong judgement.

Assumptions :
(a)

(b)
To judge others is of no use to a successful man.

The successful man cannot make a wrong judgement.

.109.
Statement :


Use ‘ABC’ tubes which have 5 years longer life to any other.


Assumptions :
(a)

(b)
People prefer only those tubes which are durable.

Other tubes are not durable.

Directions :   Questions 110-114 :  In making decisions about important questions, it is desirable to be able to distinguish between ‘strong’ arguments and ‘weak’ arguments so far as they relate to be question.  ‘Strong’ arguments must be both important and directly related to the question.  ‘Weak’ arguments may not be directly related to the question and may be of minor importance or may be related to the trivial aspects of the question.  Each question below is followed by two arguments number I and II.  You have to decide which of the arguments is ‘strong’ and which is ‘weak’.
            Give answer (A) if only argument I is strong; give answer (B) if only argument II is strong; give answer (C) if either I or II is strong; give answer (D) if neither I nor II is strong and give answer (E) if both I and II are strong.
.110.
Statement :


Should teachers be evaluated by the students?

Assumptions :
(a)


(b)
Yes.  Teacher’s performance will improve if they receive data from beneficiaries.

No.  Students are not mature enough to evaluate their teacher’s performance.

.111.
Statement :


Should military training be compulsory in India?

Assumptions :
(a)


(b)
Yes.  If need arises, everybody can defend the country effectively.

No.  This will lead to civil disobedience.

.112.
Statement :


Should promotion in an organization be given only according to the performance appraisal?


Assumptions :
(a)


(b)
No.  The bias in appraising performance will be detrimental to the deserving candidates.

Yes.  Employees will put their best efforts to perform effectively.

.113.
Statement :


Should the system of paying bonus in industries be abolished?


Assumptions :
(a)


(b)
Yes.  At least one cause of industrial disputes will disappear.

No. This will hinder production growth.

.114.
Statement :


Should strikes in Government offices be banned?

Assumptions :
(a)

(b)
Yes.  The general public is definitely of that opinion.

No. It is against the democratic right of  the public.

Directions :   Questions 115-119  :  In each of the questions, one statement is followed by two arguments (a) and (b).  If only argument (a) is strong, then mark A; if only argument (b) is strong; the mark B; if  both of the arguments are strong, then mark C; if either of the arguments is strong, then mark D and if none of the
.115
Statement :


Open book system should be introduced in the examinations.


Assumptions :
(a)

(b)
Yes, because it will avoid mass copying.

No, because then all the students will get 100% marks.

.116.
Statement :


The present day banking needs computerization.

Assumptions :
(a)


(b)
Yes, because only then the service to consumers can be improved.

No, it will deteriorate the relations among bank staff.

.117.
Statement :


Guides published by private agencies should be banned.

Assumptions :
(a)


(b)
Yes, because only then the student will start reading text books.

No, because these are of immense help to the weak students in the eleventh hour.

.118.
Statement :


Colour TV should be introduced in India.

Assumptions :
(a)

(b)
Yes, because it is introduced in foreign countries also.

No, India cannot afford it.

.119.
Statement :


The educated people should work in villages.

Assumptions :
(a)


(b)
Yes, because they can revolutionize agriculture and revamp rural atmosphere.

No, the educated should be employed in cities only because otherwise their education will go waste.


Directions :   Questions 120-129 :  Below are given two passages followed by several possible inferences.  You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.  Mark answer (A) if you think the inference is ‘definitely true’, i.e., it properly follows from the statements of facts given; mark answer (B) if the inference is ‘probably true’ though not ‘definitely true’ in the light of the facts given; mark answer (C) if the data are inadequate, i.e., from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false; mark answer (D) if the inference is ‘probably false’ though not ‘definitely false’ in the lights of the facts given; mark answer (E) if the inference is ‘definitely false’, i.e., it cannot possibly be drawn from the facts given or it contradicts the given facts.
            Now read the following passage and the inferences given below them and mark your answers accordingly.
Passage I
“Through autopsies, medicine also learns just how effective new weapons are against the disease.  There is no way to find out exactly what a drug is doing to the body until tissues can be microscopically examined.  Tests is laboratory on animals help, but in most cases they don’t fully apply to humans.”
120.
Drugs affect tissues.

121.
Without autopsy nothing can be known about the way a drug is affecting the body.

122.
Autopsy is a process for getting human tissues for examination.

123.
New drugs are usually tested on animals before administering them to human beings.

124.
Effect of drugs on animals and that on human beings is similar in many cases.


Passage II
            “Indian text books on the other hand tend to be full of mistakes.  Sometimes glossary is found to be incomplete or explanations are insufficient.  Sanskrit books written by western scholars are mostly meant for university students of whom hard brain work is expected.  Thus, right from the beginning, we are given complicated explanations and difficult sentences.
125.
Vocabulary of western scholars is limited as compared to Indian scholars.

126.
Western scholars can’t write for school students.

127.
Indian text books written by western scholars are full of mistakes.

128.
Text books written by western scholars contain complicated explanations and difficult sentences.

129.
Indian scholars can write for school students only.

                        *****************************************

ANSWERS
 1.E     2.E      3.A      4.B      5.E      6.E      7.B      8.C      9.E      10.E
11.E    12.C    13.E    14.E    15.B    16.E    17.C    18.A    19.E    20.E
21.A    22.A    23.B    24.D    25.C    26.A    27.B    28.C    29.E    30.E
31.C    32.E    33.C    34.E    35.A    36.C    37.E    38.B    39.E    40.B
41.D    42.D    43.A    44.E    45.C    46.A    47.E    48.E    49.E    50.A
51.A    52.C    53.A    54.E    55.C    56.E    57.A    58.E    59.A    60.B
61.D    62.B    63.C    64.A    65.A    66.E    67.A    68.D    69.B    70.E
71.E    72.E    73.C    74.A    75.E    76.E    77.C    78.A    79.C    80.E
81.D    82.E    83.A    84.A    85.A    86.D    87.D    88.A    89.D    90.E
91.A    92.E    93.D    94.A    95.B    96.B    97.B    98.E    99.A    100.C
101.A  102.A  103.A  104.E  105.B  106.E  107.E  108.E  109.B  110.A
111.D  112.D  113.B  114.B  115.E  116.E  117.B  118.E  119.A  120.B
121.E  122.A  123.A  124.B  125.C  126.E  127.D  128.B  129.E 
                        ****************************



REASONING -- SYLLOGISM , STATEMENT AND CONCLUSION, ASSUMPTIONS .... Reviewed by sambasivan srinivasan on 10:20:00 PM Rating: 5

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