CONCEPT OF FINANCIAL MARKET:
CONCEPT OF FINANCIAL MARKET:
It refers to the market which creates and exchanges financial assets.
FUNCTIONS OF FINANICIAL MARKET
1. Mobilization of savings and channeling them into the most productive uses: A
financial market facilitates the transfer of savings from savers to investors (industries)
2.Facilitates price discovery: In the financial market, the households are suppliers of funds and business firms represent the demand. The interaction between them helps to establish a
price for the financial asset which is being traded in that particular market.
3. Provide liquidity to financial assets: Financial markets facilitate easy purchase and sale of financial assets. In doing so they provide liquidity to financial assets, so that they can be easily converted into cash whenever required.
4. Reduce the cost of transactions: Financial markets provide valuable information about securities being traded in the market. It helps to save time, effort and money.
1. Treasury Bill (T-bills): It is basically an instrument of short-term borrowing by the Government of India maturing in less than one year. They are also known as Zero Coupon Bonds.
2. Commercial Paper: It is a short-term unsecured promissory note, negotiable and transferable by endorsement and delivery with a fixed maturity period. It is issued by large and creditworthy companies to raise sort-term funds at lower rates of interest than market rates. It usually has a maturity period of 15 days to one year.
3. Call Money: It is a short-term finance repayable on demand, with a maturity period of one
day to fifteen days, used for inter-bank transactions. It is a method by which banks borrow from each other to be able to maintain the cash reserve ratio.
4. Certificate of Deposit (CD): It is a unsecured, negotiable short-term instruments in bearer form, issued by commercial banks and development financial institutions. It can be issued to individuals, corporations and companies.
5. Commercial Bill (Trade Bill): It is a short-term , negotiable, self-liquidating instrument which is used to finance the credit sales of firms. The bill can be discounted with a bank if the seller (drawer) needs funds before the bill maturity.
TYPES OF CAPITAL MARKET:
Primary Market: It is also known as the new issues market. It deals with new securities being issued for the first time. A company can raise capital through the primary market in the form of equity shares, preference shares, debentures, loans and deposits. Secondary Market: It is also known as stock market or stock exchange or second-hand market. It is a market for the purchase and sale of existing securities.
Difference between Primary Market and Secondary Market
Primary Market Secondary Market
1. It is the market for new securities. 2. Securities are exchanged between company and the investors. 3. It promotes capital formation directly. 4. Only buying of securities takes place. Securities cannot be sold here. 5. There is no fixed geographical location. 6. Prices are determined and decided by the management of the company. 7. Securities are issued to investors for the first time.
1. It is the market for existing securities. 2. Securities are exchanged between investors.
3. It promotes capital formation indirectly. 4. Both buying and selling of securities can take place in the stock exchange / stock market. 5. There is a specified location.
6. Prices are determined by demand and supply for the security in the stock exchange. 7. Securities may be bought and sold many times but not the first time.
Methods of Floatation:
Following are the methods of raising capital from the primary market :
• 1. Public issue through prospectus: under this method the company wanting to raise
capital issues a prospectus to inform and attract the investing public. It invites
prospective investors to apply for the securities.
• 2.Offer for sale: under this method the sale of securities takes place in two steps. In the first step the company sells the entire lot of shares to the intermediary firms of stock brokers at an agreed price .In the second step, the intermediary resells these shares to investors at a higher price.
• 3. Private placement: In private placement the entire lot of new securities is
purchased by an intermediary at a fixed price and sold not to the public but to selected clients at a higher price.
• 4 .Rights issue (for existing companies: This is the offer of new shares (additional shares) by an existing company to the existing shareholders. The shareholder may either accept the offer for himself or assign to another. A rights issue to the existing shareholders is a mandatory requirement.
• 5. e-IPOs: A company proposing to issue capital to the public through the on-line system of the stock exchange has to enter into an agreement with the stock exchange. This is called an Initial Public Offer (IPO). The issuer company should also appoint a registrar to the issue having electronic connectivity with the exchange.
• Meaning and definition of Stock exchange: The stock exchange is a market in which existing securities are bought and sold.
• The securities contract (regulation) act, 1956 defines “a stock exchange as an
association, organization, body of individuals, whether incorporated or not,
established for the purpose of assisting, regulating and controlling of business in
buying, selling and dealing in securities”.
Functions of stock exchange
1. Providing Liquidity and Marketability to Existing Securities: It gives investors the chance to disinvest and re-invest. This provides both liquidity and easy marketability to already existing securities in the market.
2. Pricing of Securities: Share prices on a stock exchange are determined by the forces of demand and supply. A stock exchange is a mechanism of constant valuation through which the prices of securities are determined.
3. Safety of Transactions: The membership of a stock exchange is well regulated and its dealings are well defined according to the existing legal frame work. This ensures that the investing public gets a safe and fair deal on the market.
4. Contributes to Economic Growth: A stock exchange is a market in which existing securities are re-sold or traded. Through this process of disinvestment and re-investment savings get channelized into their most productive investment avenues. This leads to capital formation and economic growth.
5. Spreading of Equity Cult: The exchange can play a vital role in ensuring wider share ownership by regulating new issues, better trading practices and taking effective steps in educating the public about investments.
6. Providing Scope for Speculation: The stock exchange provides sufficient scope within in the provisions of law for speculative activity in a restricted and controlled manner.
The procedure for purchase and sale of securities in a stock exchange involves the following steps:
4. Selection of broker The first step is to select a broker who will buy/sell securities on behalf of the investor. This is necessary because trading of securities can only be done through SEBI registered brokers who are the members of a stock exchange. Brokers may be individual, partnership firms or corporate books. The broker charges brokerage / commission for his services.
5. Opening demat account
The next step is to open a demat account. Demat (Dematerialised) account refers to an account which an Indian citizen must open with the depository participant (banks, stock, brokers) to trade in listed securities in electronic form.
The securities are held in the electronic form by a depository. At present, there are two depositories in India NSDL (National Securities Depository Ltd.) and CDSL (Central Depository Services Ltd.)
Depository interacts with the investors through depository participants. Your Depository Participant will maintain your securities account balances and intimate to you the status of your holding from time to time.
6. Placing the order
The next step is to place the order with the broker. The order can be communicated to the broker either personally or through telephone, cell phone, e-mail etc.
The instructions should specify the securities to be bought or sold and the price range within which the order is to be executed. Only the securities of listed companies can be traded on the stock exchange.
6. Executing the order
According to the instructions of the investor, the broker buys or sells securities.
The broker then issues a contract note. A copy of the contract note is sent to the client. The contract note contains the name and the price of the securities, names of the parties, brokerage charged. It is signed by the broker.
This is the last stage in the trading of securities done by the brokers on behalf of their clients. The mode of settlement depends upon the nature of the contract.
Equity spot market follows a T+2 rolling settlement. This means that any trade taking place on Monday gets settled by Wednesday. All trading on stock exchanges takes place between 9:55 am and 3:30 pm. Indian Standard Time, Monday to Friday. Delivery of shares must be made in dematerialized form, and each exchange has its own clearing house, which assumes all settlement risk.
DEPOSITORY SERVICES :-
It refers to that service through which the transfer of ownership in shares takes place by means of book entry without the physical movement of shares.
PARTICIPANTS OF DEPOSITORY SERVICES:
i. DEPOSITORY:-A Depository is an institution which holds the shares of an investor in electronic form. At present , there are two depository institutions in India :
1. NSDL – National Securities Depository Limited.
2. CDSL – Central Depository Services Limited.
ii. DEPOSITORY PARTICIPANT: A Depository Participant (DP) is an agent of the depository. He functions as a mediator between the issuing company and the investors through the depository.. He opens the accounts and maintains the securities account balance of the investors and conveys them the status of their holding from time to time.. As per SEBI guidelines, banks, stock brokers etc can become depository participants.
iii. INVESTOR: He is a person who wants to deal in shares and whose name is recorded with a Depository.
iv. ISSUING COMPANY: It is that organization which issues the securities. The issuing company sends a list of the shareholders to the depositories.
Dematerialization (popularly known as D’Mat) is the process of converting a share certificate from its physical form to electronic form and credit the same number of holdings to the D’Mat A/c which the investor opens with a depository participant.
D’Mat Account refers to that account which is opened by the investors with depository participant to facilitate trading in shares.
BENEFITS OF DEPOSITORY SERVICES and D’MAT ACCOUNT:
i) Exemption of stamp duty for dealing in shares in the electronic form.
ii) Elimination of problems associated with transfer of shares in physical form.
iii) Increased liquidity through speedy settlement.
iv) Reduction in paper work.
v) Attracts foreign investors and promoting foreign investments
• SEBI’S CHAIRMAN MR. U. K. SINHA • It was set up in 1988 to regulate the functions of the securities markets with a view to
promoting their orderly and healthy development, to provide adequate protection to investors and thus to create an environment to facilitate mobilization of adequate resources through the securities market.
• 1st May, 1992 SEBI was granted legal status. It is a body corporate having a separate legal existence and perpetual succession
OBJECTIVES OF SEBI • 1. To regulate stock exchanges and the securities industry to promote their orderly functioning.
• 2. To protect the rights and interests of investors, particularly individual investors and to guide and educate them.
• 3. To prevent trading malpractices and achieve a balance between self regulation by the securities industry and its statutory regulation.
• 4. To regulate and develop a code of conduct and fair practices by intermediaries like brokers, merchant bankers etc., with a view to making them competitive and professional.
FUNCTIONS OF SEBI
(i) SEBI prohibits fraudulent and unfair trade practices in the securities market such as
(a) Price Rigging – Making manipulations with the sole objective of inflating or depressing the market price of securities.
(b) Misleading statements: SEBI prohibits misleading statements which are likely to induce the sale or purchase of securities.
(ii) SEBI Prohibits insider trading. An insider is a person connected with the company who is reasonably expected to have access to price sensitive information in respect of securities of a company which is not available to public at large. Directors, promoters etc., are considered as insiders when they make use of privileged information to make individual
profits by buying or selling of the securities o the company is called insider trading.
(iii) SEBI undertakes steps to educate investors through investors, camps, T.V, News papers etc.,
(iv) SEBI promotes fair practices and code of conduct in securities market such as
a) Companies cannot roll over the debenture holders, funds unilaterally and cannot change terms - term.
b) SEBI is empowered to investigate cases of insider trading and has provisions for still fine and imprisonment.
c) SEBI has stopped the practice of making preferential allotment of shares at lower prices than market price.
(v) SEBI issues timely guidelines clarifications to investors during stock market up’s and downs.
i. SEBI promotes training of intermediaries of the securities market such as brokers, sub – brokers etc.,
ii. SEBI has permitted internet trading in a limited way through registered stock brokers.
iii. In order to reduce the cost of issue, SEBI has made under – writing optional.
iv. SEBI has accepted the system of using the stock exchanges to market IPO’s
v. All intermediaries including collecting banks here to register with SEBI
vi. Registration of foreign Institutional investors (FIIs) allowed for the development and growth of Indian markets.
vii. PSU bonds brought under SEBI’s purview
viii. Private mutual funds are allowed for the benefit of small investors.
ix. Debenture trustees to be registered by SEBI etc.
i. SEBI registers and regulates the working of mutual funds.
ii. SEBI regulates takeover of companies
iii. SEBI conducts inquires and audit of the stock exchange.
iv. SEBI registers and regulates the working of stock – brokers, Sub – Brokers, Brokers to an issue, and Registrars to an issue, share transfer agents and such other intermediaries in the stock market.
v. SEBI regulates the business in stock exchanges and securities market.
vi. SEBI has notified rules and regulations and a code of conduct to regulate the
intermediaries in the securities market such as underwriters, merchants, brokers etc.,
vii. Levying fee or other charges for carrying out the purposes of the Act.
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