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FINDING OUT ERROR CONCEPTS AND EXERCISES.

SPOTTING THE ERRORS

RULES AND EXAMPLES

1.                Some nouns always take a singular verb.
Scenery, Advise, information, machinery, stationer, furniture, abuse, fuel, rice gram, issues, bedding, repair, news, mischief, poetry, business, economics, physics, mathematics, classics, ethics, athletics, innings, gallows.
(A)   The scenery of Kashmir are enchanting.                                    (Incorrect)
(B) The scenery of Kashmir is enchanting                           (Correct)
(A) He has given advices.                                                   (Incorrect)
(B) He has given advice.                                                    (Correct)
(A) The Indian team defeated the English by innings.           (incorrect)
(B)   The Indian team defeated the English by an innings.      (Correct)
(A) Mathematics are a difficult subject.                                (Incorrect)
(B) Mathematics is a good/difficult subject                          (Correct)
If you have to indicate that the number of news, advice, information or furniture is more than one, the examples listed below can be followed:
(A)   I have a lot of news to tell you.
(B)   He has sold many pieces of his furniture.

2.                Some nouns are singular in form, but they are used as plural nouns and always take a plural verb.
             Cattle, gentry, vermin, peasantry, artillery, people, clergy, company, police.
(A) The cattle is grazing in the ground.                                (Incorrect)
(B)   The cattle are grazing in the ground.                             (Correct)
(A) The Clergy is in the church.                                                      (Incorrect)
(B) The Clergy are in the church.                                                    (Correct)

3.                Some nouns are always used in a plural form and always take a plural verb.
Trousers, scissors, spectacles, stockings, shorts, measles, goods, alms, premises, thanks, tidings, annals, chattels, etc.
(A) Where is my trousers?                                                                          (Incorrect)
(B) Where are my trousers?                                                                        (Correct)
(A) Spectacles is now a costly item.                                                (Incorrect)
(B) Spectacles are now a costly item.                                 (Correct)

4.                There are some nouns that indicate length, measures, money, weight or numbers. When they are preceded by a numeral, they remain unchanged in form.
Foot, meter, pair, score, dozen, head, year, hundred, thousand, million.
(A) It is a three-years degree course.                                  (Incorrect)
(B) It is a three-year degree course                                                 (Correct)
(A) I have ten dozens of shoes                                                        (Incorrect)
(B) I have ten dozen of shoes                                                          (Correct)

5.                Collective nouns such as jury, public, team, committee, government, audience, orchestra, company, etc. are used both as singular and plural depending on the meaning. When these words indicate a unit, the verb  is singular, otherwise the verb will be plural.
(A) The jury was divided in this case.                                  (Incorrect)
(B) The jury were divided in this case.                                 (Correct)
(A) The team have not come as yet.                                                (Incorrect)
(B) The team has not come as yet.                                                 (Correct)

6.                Some nouns have on meaning in the singular and another in the plural:
Advise                                                           =       Counsel,           advices            =      information,
Air                                                                 =       atmosphere      airs                  =      proud,
Authority                                                        =       command,        authorities        =      persons in power,
Good                                                             =       wise                 goods               =      property
Iron                                                                        =          metal,               irons           =                                                             fetters, chains,
Force                                                            =       strength,           forces               =      army,
Content                                                         =       satisfaction,      contents           =      things contained,
Physic                                                           =       medicine,          physics            =      physical sciences,
Respect                                                         =       regards ,           respects           =      compliments,
Work                                                             =       job,                   works               =      compositions, factories,
Earning                                                         =       income,                        earnings      =                                                             sowings,
Quarter                                                          =       one-fourth         quarters           =      houses,

Examples
(A)   Air is necessary for human life.
(B)   It is bad to put on airs
(A)   I have eaten one quarter of the cake.
(B)   I live in the government quarters.

7.                People are often confused or they commit mistakes in the use of certain nouns.
Ø  Lectureship is wrong: lectureship is correct.
(a)  There are twenty candidates for lecturers hip.                      (Incorrect)
(b)  There are twenty candidates for lectureship.                                    (Correct)

Ø  Free ship is wrong: free-studentship is correct:
(a)  Ramesh has applied for freeship                                         (Incorrect)
(b)  Ramesh has applied for free-studentship                             (correct)

Ø  Boarding s wrong: boarding house if correct.
      (a)  Mohan lives in a boarding.                                                              (Incorrect)
      (b)  Mohan lives in a boarding house                                         (Correct)

Ø  Family members is wrong; members of the family is correct.
(a)  Vivek and Ramesh are my family members.                                    (Incorrect)
(b)  Vivek and Ramesh are the members of my family.               (Correct)

Ø  English teacher is wrong; the teacher of English is correct.
(a) Dr. Raina is our English teacher                                           (Incorrect)
(b)  Dr. Raina is our teacher of English                                      (Correct)

Ø  Cousin-brother or sister is wrong; only cousin is correct
(a)  Geeta is my cousin sister.                                                              (Incorrect)
(b)  Geeta is my cousin.                                                                                                                                       (Correct)

Ø  Room in a compartment or a bench means unoccupied seat.
(a)  There is no room on this bench.                                          (Correct)

Ø  Ours, yours, hers, theirs, are correct
(a)  This house is our’s.                                                                                                                                       (Incorrect)
(b)  This house is ours.                                                                                                                                        (Correct)

Note: The same principle applies to ‘yours’, ‘hers’, and ‘theirs’.                               

Ø  Wages means punishment when used in singular.
(a)   The wages of sin is death

Ø  It also means charges for the labour when used in plural sense.
(b)   The wages of daily workers have been raised.

8.                Also remember the subtle differences in the usage of these pairs of nouns.
Ø  The noun ’habit’ applies only to an individual whereas ‘custom’ applies to a society or country.
(a)   Poor children often become a victim of bas habits.
(b)   Tribals in India have many interesting customs.
Ø  ‘Cause’ produces a result, while ‘reason’ explains or justifies a cause.
(a)   Scientists try to find out the cause of a phenomenon.
(b)   You have a good reason to be pleased with your students.

Ø  ‘Man’ is used in ordinary sense while ‘gentlemen’ is a man of character.
(a)    Man is mortal.
(b)   He is a gentleman at large.

Ø  ‘Men’ --- plural of man; ‘people’ is used for persons.
(a)  There are five men in the room.
      (b)  The people of Bihar are simple.

Ø  ‘Shade’ ----a place sheltered from the sun; ‘shadow’—the shade of a distinct form or object.
(a)  The villagers sat under the shade of trees.
(b)  He is even afraid of his own shadow.

Ø             ‘Cost’ ---amount paid by the shopkeeper; ‘price’ --- amount paid by the customer.
(a)   The cost of production of automobile items has gone up.
(b)   Sometimes the buyers have to pay higher price for necessary items.

Ø         ‘House’ ---a building to live in; ‘Home’ –one’s native place.
(a)   Quarters are houses allotted to us for a definite period.
(b)   My home town is Muzaffarpur.

Ø  ‘Customer—a buyer of goods; ‘Client’ –one who avails oneself of a service.
(a)   The shopkeepers welcome customers with smiles.
(b)   The lawyer discusses the cases of his clients.

9.                A pronoun must agree with is antecedent in person, number and gender
For example:
      Every man must bring his luggage.
      All students must do theirhome work.
      Each of the girls must carry her own bag.
      Each student must bring their books.                                         (Incorrect)
      Each Student must bring his books.                                           (Correct)

10.             While using ‘everybody’, ‘anyone’, ‘anybody’, and ‘each’ the pronoun of the masculine or the feminine gender is used according to the content.
I shall be happy to help each of the boys in this practice.
But when the sex is not mentioned, we use the pronoun of the masculine gender.
      Anyone can do this job if he tries.
      Each of the six boys in the class has finished their task.                        (Incorrect)
      Each of the six boys in the class has finished his task.              (Correct)

11.             The pronoun ‘one’ must be followed by ‘one’s’.
One must finish his task in time.                                                            (Incorrect)
One must finish one’s task in time.                                            (Correct)

12.             Enjoy, apply, resign, acquit, drive, exert, avail, pride, absent, etc., when used as transitive verbs, always take a reflexive pronoun after them. When ‘self’ is added to ‘my’, ‘your’, ‘him’, ‘her’, and ‘it’, and ‘selves’ to our and them—they are known as reflexive pronouns.
He absented from the class.                                                      (Incorrect)
He absented himself from the class.                              ( Correct)

13.             ‘Who’ denotes the subject and ‘whom’ is used for the object.
Whom do you think won the award?                               (Incorrect)
Who do you think won the award?                                  (Correct)
Who are you talking to?                                                                        (Incorrect)
Whom are you talking to?                                                          (Correct)

14.             When two or more singular nouns are joined together by ‘either or’; ‘neither nor’; and ‘or’, the pronoun is singular.
Either Ram or Shyam will give their book.          (Incorrect)
Either Ram or Shyam will give his book.                        (Correct)
Neither Ramesh nor Rajendra has done their work.        (Incorrect)
Neither Ramesh nor Rajendra has done his work.          (Correct)

15.             When a singular and a plural noun are joined by ‘or’, ‘nor’, the pronoun must be plurals.
Either the engineer or his mechanics failed in his duty.   (Incorrect)
      Either the engineer or his mechanics filed in their duty.  (Correct)

16.             ‘Whose’ is used for living persons and ‘which’ for lifeless objects.
Which book did you select?
Whose photograph is lying there?
What book do you read?                                                            (Incorrect)
Which book do you read?                                                          (Correct)

17.             ‘Each other’ is used when there are two subjects or objects and ‘one another’ when there are more than two.
Romeo and Juliet loved each other.
Those five friends, who are sitting there, love one another.
All the students of the class are friendly; they love each other.   (Incorrect)
All the Students of the class are friendly; they love on another.   (Correct)

18.             When a pronoun stands for a collective noun, it must be in the singular number and in the neuter gender if the collective noun is viewed as a whole.
The jury gave ‘its’ verdict.
Here the ‘jury’ gives the idea of one whole.
If the collective noun conveys the idea of separate individuals comprising the whole, the pronoun standing for it must be plural.
      The jury were divided their opinions.
Here the ‘jury’ gives the idea of several individuals.
      The team are divided in this opinion  about playing on Sunday    (Incorrect)
      The team are divided in their opinion about playing on Sunda      (Correct)

19.             If pronouns of different persons are to be used together in a sentence, the serial order of person should be as follows: second person + third person + first person in a good normal sentence. But if a fault is to be confessed, the order will be: first person + second person + third person.
You, he and I have finished the work.                             (Normal sentence)
I, you and he are to blame.                                                        (Confession)
Ram, I and you have finished our studies.          (Incorrect)
You, Ram and I have finished our studies.                     (Correct)

20.             ‘Some’ is used in affirmative sentences to express qualtity or degree. ‘Any’ is used in negative or interrogative sentences.
I shall buy some apples.
I shall not buy any apples.
Have you bought any apples?
But ‘some’ may be correctly used in interrogative sentences which are, in fact, requests.
      Will you please give me some milk?
      I shall read any book.                                                                                  (Incorrect)
      I shall read some book.                                                                               (Correct)
      Have you bought some apples?                                                             (Incorrect)
      Have you bought any apples?                                                                (Correct)

21.             The use of ‘few’, ‘a few’ and ‘the few’ should be used with care they denote’ ‘number’.
‘Few’ means ‘not many’. It is the opposite of many. A ‘few’ is positive and means ‘some at least’. It is the opposite of none. ‘The few’ means ‘whatever there is’.
      A few men are free from fault.                                                               (Incorrect)
      Few men are free from fault                                                                   (Correct)
Here the sense is negative and thus ‘a few’ is wrong.
      Few boys will pass in the examination.                                      (Incorrect)
      A few boys will pass in the examination.                                    (Correct)
Here the sense is positive and thus ‘few’ is incorrect.
      I have already read a few books that are one the bookshelf.       (Incorrect)
      I have already read the few books that are on the bookshelf.      (Correct)
Here the sense is ‘whatever there is’.

22.             Use of ‘less’ and ‘fewer’.
‘Less’ denotes quantity and ‘fewer’ denotes number.
      No less than fifty persons were killed.                                        (Incorrect)
      No fewer than fifty persons were killed.                                      (Correct)
      There are no fewer than five litres of water in the jug.                 (Incorrect)
      There are no less than five litres of water in the jug.                   (Correct)

23.             Use of little, a little, the little.
‘Little’ means ‘hardly any’.
      There is a little hope of his recovery.                                         (Incorrect)
      There is little hope of his recovery.                                            (Correct)
‘A little’ means ‘some’ though not much.
      Little knowledge is a dangerous thing.                                       (Incorrect)
      A little knowledge is a dangerous thing                                      (Correct)
‘The little’ means ‘not much but all there is’.
      A little milk that is in the pot may be used for the patient.                        (Incorrect)
      The little milk that is in the pot may be used for the patient.        (Correct)

24.             Use of elder, older.
‘Older’ refers to persons as well as things and is followed by ‘than’.
      Ram is elder than all other boys of this area.                              (Incorrect)
      Ram is elder than all other boys of this area.                              (Correct)
‘Elder’ is used for members of the family.
      Suresh is my older brother.                                                                   (Incorrect)
      Suresh is my elder brother.                                                                   (Correct)

25.             Normally ‘than’ is used in the comparative degree, but with words like superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior and prefer ‘to’ is used.
Shelly is junior than Wordsworth.                                               (Incorrect)
Shelly is junior to Wordsworth.                                                              (Correct)
I prefer reading than sleeping.                                                               (Incorrect)
I prefer reading to sleeping.                                                                   (Correct)

26.             When a comparison is made by using a comparative followed by ‘than’ the word ‘other’ must be used to exclude the thing compared from the class of things with which it is compared.
He is stronger than any man.                                                                (Incorrect)
He is Stronger than any other man.                                           (Correct)
‘Any man’ includes the man himself and thus the sentence will be absurd.

27.             In some cases, the comparison is subtle and must be given proper attention.
The climate of Ranchi is better than Gaya.                                 (Incorrect)
Here the comparison should be between the climate of Ranchi and the climate of Gaya.
      The climate of Ranchi is better than the climate of Gaya.                       (Correct)
      The climate of Ranchi is better than that a Gaya.                                   (Correct)
‘That of’ means ‘the climate of’.
If the trits are in plural, it will be ‘those of’.
      The clothes of DCM are better than those of Mafatlal.
      The scenery of Kashmir is better than Shimla.                           (Incorrect)
      The scenery of Kashmir is better than that of Shimla.                 (Correct)

28.             ‘Many a’ is always followed by the singular verb.
Many a man were drowned in the sea.                                       (Incorrect)
Many a man was drowned in the sea.                                        (Correct)

29.             If the subject is ‘the number of’ the singular verb is used.
The number of students are very small.                                     (Incorrect)
The number of students is very small                                        (Correct)
If the subject is ‘a number of’,  the plural verb is used.
      A number of books is missing.                                                              (Incorrect)
      A number of books are missing.                                                            (Correct)

30.             When ‘as well as’, ‘along with’, ‘together with’, ‘no less than’, ‘in addition to’ and ‘not’ and ‘with’ join two subjects, the verb will be according to the first subject.
Ram, as well as his ten friends, are going.                                 (Incorrect)
Ram, as well as his ten friends, is going.                                   (Correct)
The teacher, along with the students, were going.                      (Incorrect)
The teacher, along with the students, was going.                                   (Correct)

31.             ‘A great many’ is always followed by a plural noun and a plural verb.
A great many student has been declared successful.                 (Incorrect)
A great many students has been declared successful.               (Correct)

32.             If two subjects are joined by ‘either or’, ‘neither nor’, the verb agrees with the subject that is near.
Either Ramesh or I are to do this work.                                      (Incorrect)
Either Ramesh or I am to do this work.                                      (Correct)
Neither he nor his friends is reading.                                         (Incorrect)
Neither he nor his friends are reading.                                       (Correct)

33.             When two singular nouns joined by ‘and’ point out the same thing or person, the verb will be singular.
Bread and better make a good breakfast.                       (Incorrect)
Bread and butter makes a good breakfast.                                 (Correct)
The Collector and the District Magistrate are on leave.               (Incorrect)
The Collector and District Magistrate is on leave.                                  (Correct)

34.             ‘One of’ always takes a plural noun after it.
It is one of the important day in my life                                       (Incorrect)
It is one of the important days in my life.                                    (Correct)

35.             Use of ‘not only’ and ‘but also’: Examine the sentences given below.
He not only comes for swimming but also for coaching the learners. (Incorrect)
He comes not only for swimming but also for coaching the learners. (Correct)
Here the error is due to misplacement.
The expression ‘not only’ must be placed before the right word, otherwise the meaning changes. Here this expression is meant for swimming and not for coming.

36.             ‘Scarcely’ and ‘hardly’ are followed by ‘when’ and not by ‘than’.
I had scarcely entered the room than the phone rang.                 (Incorrect)
I had scarcely entered the room when the phone rang.               (Correct)

37.             ‘Though’ is followed by ‘yet’ and not by ‘but’.
Though he is poor but he is honest.                                           (Incorrect)
Though he is poor, yet he is honest.                                          (Correct)

38.             ‘No sooner’ is followed by ‘than’.
No sooner had I entered the class when the students stood up.  (Incorrect)
No sooner had I entered the class than the students stood up.    (Correct)
Attention must also be given to the verb form while using ‘no sooner than’. The correct forms are past perfect or past indefinite.
      No sooner had I entered the class when the students stand up.  (Incorrect)
      No sooner had I entered the class than the students stood up.    (Correct)
39.             ‘Lest’ must be followed by ‘should’.
Read regularly lest you will fail.                                                             (Incorrect)
Read regularly lest you should fail.                                            (Correct)         

40.             ‘Such’ is followed by ‘as’.
He is such a writer that everybody should read his books           .           (Incorrect)
He is such a writer as everybody should read his books.                        (Correct)
‘Such’ is also followed by ‘that’ if we emphasize that degree of something by mentioning the result.
The extent of the disaster was such that the authorities were quite unable to cope.

41.             ‘So’ is followed by ‘that’.
Sarita was popular with her classmates that she always had some people coming to her for advice.                                                                                                                                                     (Incorrect)
Sarita was so popular with her classmates that she always had some people coming to her for advice.                                                                       (Correct)
42.             ‘Unless’ expresses a condition. It is always used in the negative sense. Thus ‘not’ is never used with ‘Unless’.
Unless you do not labour hard, you will not pass.                                   (Incorrect)]
Unless you labour hard, you will not pass.                     (Correct)
43.             Until expresses time. It has a negative sense and thus ‘not’ should never be used with it.
Wait here until I do not return.                                                               (Incorrect)
Wait here until I return.                                                                                                                                         (Correct)

44.             ‘Since’ indicates a point of time and ‘for’ stands for the length of time.
He has been reading the book since two hours.                          (Incorrect)
He has been reading the book for two hours.                              (Correct)
Two hours is a length of time and thus ‘for’ js correct.
      It has been raining for Monday last.                                           (Incorrect)
      It has been raining since Monday last.                                       (Correct)

45.             ‘As if’ is used to convey the sense of pretension. When ‘as if’ is used in this sense, ‘were’ is used in all cases, even with third person singular.
He behaves as if he was a king.                                                            (Incorrect)
He behaves as if he were a king.                                               (Correct)
Ø  The sense of time and tense is also very important. Certain important rules are listed below.

46.             A past tense in the principal clause is followed by a past tense in the subordinate clause.
He saw that the clock has stopped.                                           (Incorrect)
He saw that the clock had stopped.                                           (Correct)
There are, however, two exceptions to this rule:
(1)   A past tense in the principle clause may be followed by a present tense in the subordinate clause, when it expresses a universal truth.
The teacher observed that the Earth moved round the Sun.  (Incorrect)
The teacher observed that the Earth moves round the Sun.  (Correct)
(2)   When the subordinate clause in introduced by ‘than’, even if there is past tense in the principal clause, it may be followed by any tense required by the sense in the subordinate clause.
He helped him more than he helped his own children.                 (Incorrect)
He helped him more than he helps his own children.                   (Correct)

47.             If two actions in a sentence are shown happening in the past, one after the other; the tense of the action happening first should be past perfect ad that of the second should be past indefinite.
The patient died before the doctor arrived.                                 (Incorrect)
The patient had died before the doctor arrived.                           (Correct)

48.             Two actions in the past, one depending on the other, should have the sequences as follows:
Past perfect + Future perfect
Had + past participle + would + have + past participles
      If you had worked hard, you would have succeeded in the examination.
                                                                                          Or
      Had you worked hard, you would have succeeded in the examination.
      If you would have practised regularly, you would win the match. (Incorrect)
      If you had  practised regularly, you would have won the match.  (Correct)

49.             If, in a sentence, two actions are indicated and both are to take place in future, the sequences of tenses will be as follows:
The principle clause in present indefinite; and the subordinate clause in future indefinite.
      If I go to Delhi, U shall attend the seminar.
‘If I go to Delhi, is the principal clause and ‘I shall attend the seminar’ iss the subordinate clause.
      If it will rain, I shall not attend the meeting.                                (Incorrect)
      It is rains, I shall not attend the meeting.                                    (Correct)

50.             When an action had taken place in two clauses of a sentence, it is used in both the clauses according to the requirement.
My brother has and is still doing excellent work for his organization.  
(Incorrect)
My brother has done and it still doing excellent work for his organization 
(Correct)

51.             When there is sense of continuity, that is, when a thing has taken place in the past and still continues in the present, the perfect continuous tense form of the verb should be used.
India is independent for the last forty-six years.                         (Incorrect)
India has been independent for the last forty-six years.              (Correct)
Ø  The use of articles is also an important matter and one must be careful about it.

52.             Before a consonant ‘a’ is used.
A boy, a horse, a woman
But ‘a’ is also used before words like university, useful, unicorn, union, European, and one, etc., because these words begin with a consonant sound.
      Here is an university.                                                                                  (Incorrect)
      Here is a university.                                                                                    (Correct)
      An European lives in my area.                                                               (Incorrect)
      A European lives in my area.                                                                 (Correct)
      It is an one-rupee note.                                                                               (Incorrect)
      It is a one-rupee note.                                                                                 (Correct)

53.             Similarly, words like ‘hour’, ‘honest’, ‘heir’, etc. take ‘an’ before them as they begin with a vowel sound.
I have been waiting for him for a hour.                                       (Incorrect)
I have been waiting for him for an hour.                                     (Correct)

54.             Some important points to remember regarding the omission of a/an/the:
1.  Before a common non used in its widest sense, e.g.,
                                                                                                Man is mortal.
2.  Before names of materials.
                                                                                                      Bronze is a useful metal.
                                                                                          3.  Usually before proper names.
                                       Patna is the capital of Bihar.
  4.  Before abstract nouns used in general sense.
        Beauty fascinates people.
5.      Before languages.
English is a very popular language in the DelhiUniversity.
6. Before ‘school’, ‘college’, ‘church’, ‘bed’, ‘table’, ‘hospital’, ‘market’, and  ‘prison’, when these places are visited or used for their common purpose.
My Christian friends go to church every Sunday.
      But ‘the’ is used with these words when we refer to them as a definite place, building or object rather than to the normal activity that goes on there.
      I met my friend at the church.
7.      Before names of relations, like ‘father’, ‘mother’, ‘aunt’, ‘uncle’, ‘cook’, and ‘nurse’.
  Father is very happy today.
8.      Before predicative nouns denoting a unique position that is normally held at one time by one person only.
  He was elected chairman of the Board.


55.             Uses of ‘the’
1.      When the object is unique
The earth , the sky, the equator
2.      Before superlatives
The best, the finest, the most
3.      With proper nouns like ‘seas’, ‘rivers’, ‘group of islands’, ‘chains of mountains’, ‘deserts’, ‘newspapers’, ‘building’, ‘religious books’, ‘gulfs’.
4.      Before a proper noun, when it is qualified by an adjective.
The immortal Kalidas.
5.      Before an adjective, when the noun is hidden.
The rich should be kind and helping.
6.      Before musical instruments.
I know how to play the harmonium.
7.      With a class of things.
The crow is a clever bird.
8.      ‘The’ should be used before both comparative degrees when they are used in a sentence for proportion.
Higher we go, cooler we feel     (Incorrect)
The higher we go, the cooler we feel.
(Correct)

56.             ‘What to speak of’ is incorrect; the correct expression is ‘not to speak of’.
What to speak of running, he cannot even walk.                         (Incorrect)
Not to speak of running, he cannot even walk.                           (Correct)

57.             When there is the sense of dislike, hesitation, risk, etc., in a sentence, we should use a gerund instead of a verb. A gerund is that form of the verb which ends in ‘ing’ and can be used in the place of a noun.
I dislike to see a film late in the night.                                        (Incorrect)
I dislike seeing a film lte in the night.                                         (Correct)
Young girls hesitate to talk to strangers.                                    (Incorrect)
Young girls hesitate talking to strangers.                                   (Correct)

58.             ‘Cent per cent’ and ‘word by word’ are wrong. ‘Hundred per cent’ and ‘word for word’ are correct expressions.
You are never cent per cent sure of your success in a competitive examination.
                                                                                                                                                                                                (Incorrect)
You are never hundred per cent sure of your success in a competitive examination.                                                                                                                                                                                       (Correct)
I can reproduce this lesson word by word.                     (Incorrect)
I can reproduce this lesson word for word.                                 (Correct)

59.             ‘Since’, ‘because’, ‘as’, and ‘for’---all mean ‘because’, but there is a difference in their degree. ‘Since’ and ‘because’ are used for stronger cases and ‘as’ and ‘for’ for weak cases.
I respect him as he is my teacher.                                             (Incorrect)
I respect him because he is my teacher.                                    (Correct)
I could not attend the meeting because it was very hot today.     (Incorrect)
I could not attend the meeting as it was very hot today.              (Correct)

60.             Use of ‘when’ and ‘while’ : Proper attention must be paid to these words. ‘When’ indicates a general sense and ‘while’’ implies a time during the process of doing a work.
When learning to swim, one of the most important things is to relax. (Incorrect)
While learning to swim, one of the most important things is to relax.  (Correct)
61.             Sometimes the error lies in the use of words. Proper attention must, therefore, be given to the appropriateness of words.
Prakash was leading a happy and leisurely life after his retirement from his service.                                                                                                                                                                                                (Incorrect)
Prakash was living a happy and leisurely life after his retirement from his service.
                                                                                                                                                                                                (Correct)
Here the word ‘leading’ is inappropriate.
62.             If in a sentence an apposition has been used, the verb will follow not the apposition but the noun or pronoun preceding it.
You, my son, is a good boy.                                                                  (Incorrect)
You, my son, are a good boy.                                                                (Correct)

63.             Proper, abstract and material nouns have no plural except when they are used as common nouns.
The house is built of bricks.                                                                  (Incorrect)
The house is built of brick.                                                                    (Correct)
When such nouns are used in the plural, they become common nouns with changed meanings; as
      Coppers                                                  =       Copper coins;               Irons    =      fetters,
      Tins                                                                 =          cans made of tin;      Woods                                                     =       forest.
He lives in the woods. It means he lives in a forest.

64.             Clauses in sentence beginning with a relative pronoun (who, which, that) take a verb according to the noun or pronoun preceding the relative pronoun.
It is I who has done it.                                                                                                                                          (Incorrect)
It is I who have done it.                                                                                                                                        (Correct)

65.             The relative pronoun should be placed as near as possible to its antecedent so that no ambiguity arises.
The boy is my cousin who stood first in the mile race                 (Incorrect)
The boy, who stood first in the mile race, is my cousin               (Correct)

66.             When two singular nouns joined by ‘and’ are preceded by ‘each’ or ‘every’ the pronoun used for them is singular.
Each man and each boy is responsible for their action.               (Incorrect)
Each man and each boy is responsible for his action.                 (Correct)

67.             Sometimes a pronoun is used where it is not required at all.
He being an M.A., he is qualified for the post.                            (Incorrect)
He, being an M.A., is qualified for the post.                                (Correct)

68.             If a pronoun comes after a preposition it should be used in the objective case.
Between you and I neither of use is correct.                               (Incorrect)
Between you and me neither of us is correct.                             (Correct)

69.             When a pronoun comes after ‘like’ and ‘unlike’ it takes an objective case.
A man like I will not do it.                                                                      (Incorrect)
A man like me will not do it.                                                                   (Correct)

70.             A pronoun takes an objectives case after ‘let’.
Let I do it.                                                                                                                                                                        (Incorrect)
Let me do it.                                                                                                                                                                    (Correct)

71.             Pronouns joined by ‘and’ remain in the same case.
He and her are brother and sister.                                             (Incorrect)
He and she are brother and sister                                              (Correct)
He and me are friends.                                                                                                                                         (Incorrect)
He and I are friends.                                                                                                                                            (Correct)

72.             When pronouns of second person and third person are used as subjects, the pronoun following them will be according to the second person pronoun.
You and he must bring his books.                                              (Incorrect)
You and he must bring your books.                                            (Correct)

73.             When pronouns of second person and first person are used as subjects, the pronoun following them will be first person plural form.
You and I must finish your work in time.                                     (Incorrect)
You and I must finish our work in time.                                      (Correct)

74.             ‘But’ is also used as a relative pronoun. When a sentence has a negative noun or pronoun, ‘but’ can be used with it. In this case ‘but’ means: who not; that not.
Here was none but laughed to see the joker.
Here the meaning of ‘but laughed’ is ‘who did not laugh’.
      There is no bird but files.
‘But flies’ means ‘that does not fly’.

75.             The relative pronoun ‘that’ is used in preference to ‘who’ or ‘which’ after adjectives in the superlative degree.
The wisest man who ever lived made mistakes.                         (Incorrect)
The wisest man that ever lived made mistakes.                         (Correct)
This is the best which we can do.                                              (Incorrect)
This is the best that we can do.                                                             (Correct)

76.             The relative pronoun ‘that is also used in preference to ‘who’ and ‘which’ after the words ‘all’, ‘same’, ‘any’, ‘none’, ‘nothing’, and (the) ‘only’.
He is the same man who he has seen.                                       (Incorrect)
He is the same man that he has seen.                                       (Correct)
Man is the only animal who ca talk.                                           (Incorrect)
Man is the only animal that can talk.                                          (Correct)

77.             The same rule applies after the interrogative pronouns ‘who’ and ‘what’.
What is there which I do not know?                                            (Incorrect)
What is there that I do not know?                                               (Correct)

78.             When there are two antecedents, a man and an animal or two things before the relative pronoun, we should use ‘that’.
The man and his dog which passed through this road were killed. (Incorrect)
The man and his dog that passed through this road were killed.  (Correct)

79.             The case of noun of pronoun preceding or succeeding the verb ‘to be’ should be the same.
It is him who came to see us.                                                                (Incorrect)
It is he who came to see us.                                                                  (Correct)
It is me who caught the thief.                                                                 (Incorrect)
It is I who caught the thief.                                                                    (Correct)

80.             When two qualities of a person or thing are compared ‘more’ or ‘less’ is used before the adjective and the adjective following them takes positive degree.
Suman is better than brave.                                                                   (Incorrect)
Suman is more good than brave.                                               (Correct)

81.             When two or more adjectives are used to show the qualities of the same man or thing, all the adjectives must be in the same degree.
Sita is more intelligent and wise than Rita.                                 (Incorrect)
Sita is more intelligent and wiser than Rita.                                (Correct)
Ramesh is the wisest and strong boy of the class.                     (Incorrect)
Ramesh is the wisest and the strongest boy of the class.                       (Correct)

82.             ‘Very’ is used with adjectives in the positive degree and with present participle.
He is a much strong man.                                                                     (Incorrect)
He is a very strong man.                                                                       (Correct)
It is a much interesting book.                                                                (Incorrect)
It is a very interesting book.                                                                  (Correct)
‘Much’ is used with adjectives in the comparative degree and with past participles.
      He is very stronger that I am.                                                                (Incorrect)
      He is much stronger than I am.                                                             (Correct)
      I am very obliged to my friend.                                                              (Incorrect)
      I am much obliged to my friend.                                                             (Correct)

83.             To show equality ‘as’ is used before and after the adjective.
I can run as fast, if not faster, than you.                                     (Incorrect)
I can run as fast as, if not faster, than you.                                (Correct)

84.             Certain adjectives do not admit of comparison and thus they always remain in the positive degree:
‘Absolute’, ‘annual’, ‘chief’, ‘circular’, ‘complete’, ‘entire’, ‘extreme’, ‘excellent’, ‘full’, ‘impossible’, ‘perfect’, ‘right’, ‘round’, ‘unique’, ‘universal’, ‘whole’, etc.,
This is the most unique building that I have seen.                      (Incorrect)
This is the unique building that I have seen.                               (Correct)

85.             ‘More than one’ indicates a plural sense, but it is treated as a sort of compound of one. Thus it agrees with a singular noun and takes a singular verb.
More than one employees were killed in the accident.                 (Incorrect)
More than one employee was killed in the accident.                    (Correct)

86.             A verb must agree with its subject and not with the complement.
Our only guide at night were the stars.                                      (Incorrect)
Our only guide at night was the stars.                                        (Correct)

87.             If the plural subject denotes a definite amount or quantity taken as a whole, the verb is singular.
Forty miles are a good distance.                                                            (Incorrect)
Forty miles is a good distance.                                                              (Correct)
Two-thirds of the book were rubbish.                                         (Incorrect)
Two-thirds of the book was rubbish.                                          (Correct)

88.             The plural ‘heaps’ and ‘lots’ used colloquially for a great amount take a singular verb unless a plural noun with ‘of’ is added.
There are lots of book.                                                                                                                                         (Incorrect)
There is lots of book.                                                                                                                                           (Correct)
There is lots of books to read.                                                               (Incorrect)
There are lots of books to read.                                                             (Correct)

89.             When qualified buy ‘each’ or ‘every’ two singular subjects, if even connected by ‘and’, take a singular verb.
Each boy and every girl were given rewards.                             (Incorrect)
Each boy and every girl was given rewards.                              (Correct)
90.             The following verbs are always followed by an infinitive:
‘decide’, ‘plan’, ‘expect’, ‘fail’, ‘hope’, ‘intend’, ‘learn’, ‘promise’, ‘refuse’, ‘want’, ‘agree’, ‘consent’, ‘try’, ‘love’, etc.,
      I refuse meeting him.                                                                                  (Incorrect)
      I refuse to meet him.                                                                                   (Correct)

91.             The following verbs and phrases should be followed by a gerund which is a verbal noun: ‘enjoy’, ‘admit’, ‘deny’, ‘appreciate’, ‘regret’, ‘avoid’, ‘help’, ‘consider’, ‘stop’, ‘looking forward to’, ‘accustomed to’, ‘is used to’, ‘do not mind’, ‘object to’, etc.,
I am looking forward to receive your reply.                                 (Incorrect)
I am looking forward to receiving your reply.                              (Correct)
He is used to work hard.                                                                                                                                      (Incorrect)
He is used to working hard.                                                                   (Correct)

92.             The word ‘to’ is frequently used with the infinitive, but it is not an essential part of it. For example, after certain verbs (‘bid’, ‘let’, ‘make’, ‘need’, ‘dare’, ‘see’, ‘hear’) we use the infinitive without ‘to’.
Bid him to go there.                                                                                                                                              (Incorrect)
Bid him go there.                                                                                                                                                 (Correct)
Make him to stand.                                                                                                                                              (Incorrect)
Make him to stand.                                                                                                                                              (Correct)
I saw him to cry.                                                                                                                                                  (Incorrect)
I saw him cry.                                                                                                                                                                  (Correct)

93.             The infinitive is used without ‘to’ after ‘had better’, ‘had rather’, ‘would rather’, ‘sooner than’ and  ‘rather than’.
You had better to ask permission from him.                               (Incorrect)
You had better ask permission from him.                                   (Correct)

94.             ‘Than’ should be used after ‘no other’
I met no other man but Mr. Roy.                                                            (Incorrect)
I met no other man than Mr. Roy.                                              (Correct)
Ram has no other claim except his degrees.                              (Incorrect)
Ram has no other claim than his degrees.                     (Correct)

95.             After the word ‘know’, ‘how’, or ‘when’ should be used before using an infinitive.
I know to write French.                                                                                                                                         (Incorrect)
I know how to write French.                                                                   (Correct)

96.             A verb may take an infinitive or a gerund according to its implication. If the verb indicates a purpose, an infinitive should be used and if the verb indicates a cause, a gerund should be used.
He went to school for seeing the principal.                                 (Incorrect)
He went to school to see the principal.                                       (Correct)
He was turned out to copy answers.                                          (Incorrect)
He was turned out for copying answers.                                    (Correct)

97.             Adverb ‘as’ is not used with verbs like ‘appointed’, ‘elected’, ‘considered’, ‘called’, but it is used with ‘regard’.
He was elected as President our society                                    (Incorrect)
He was elected President of our society.                                   (Correct)
I regard Ramesh my friend.                                                                   (Incorrect)
I regard Ramesh as my friend.                                                              (Correct)

98.             After the verb ‘doubt’ ‘that’ should not be used. ‘If’ or ‘whether’ should be used in its place.
I doubt that Ravi will come.                                                                   (Incorrect)
I doubt if Ravi will come.                                                                                                                                      (Correct)

99.             Often a mistake is committed in the use of adjectives and adverbs. An adjective is correctly used with the verb when some quality of the subject, rather than of the action of the verb, is to be expressed.
The flowers smelt sweetly.                                                                    (Incorrect)
The flowers smelt sweet.                                                                      (Correct)

100.          It is a common practice in conversation to make a statement and ask for confirmation; as, ‘it’s very hot, isn’t it? Two points are to be kept in mind. If the statement is positive, the pattern will be
Auxiliary + n’t + subject.
If the statement is negative, the pattern will be
      Auxiliary + subject
Examples:
      It is raining, is it?                                                                                        (Incorrect)
      It is raining, isn’t it?                                                                                    (Correct)
      You are not busy, aren’t you?                                                                (Incorrect)
      You are not busy, are you?                                                                    (Correct)
The point to note here is that the question tag will always have the same verb form which we have in the main statement:
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@


Set 1

Read each sentence to find if there is any grammatical error in it. If there is any error, it will be only in one part of the sentence. The number or alphabet of that part is your answer. (Disregard punctuation errors, if any.)

1.         The teacher/together with his/wife and daughter/were drowned/
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (D)
            No error
(E)
2.         The taxi was/hired by/the ladies for/its picnic./No error
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (D)       (E)

3.         Having been found guilty/on murder/the accused was/
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)
            Sentenced to death./No error
                        (D)                   (E)

4.         The father as well as/the sons were/mysteriously missing/
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)
            from the house./No error
                        (D)                   (E)

5.         The issues are/complex and/has been obscured/by other factors./
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (D)      
            No error
                        (E)

6.         Neither the size/nor the colour/of the gloves/were right./No error
            (A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (D)       (E)

7.         It is in 1929/that we first/flew to/the United States./No error
            (A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (D)       (E)

8.         Hardly had/I left the house/than it began/to rain./No error
(A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (D)       (E)

9.         A more irrational world/to this one in which/we presently live/
            (A)                               B)                                 (C)      
            Could hardly be conceived./No error
                        (D)                   (E)

10.       He hoped to finish/the work in the last week/but in fact/
            (A)                               B)                                 (C)
            he could not./No error
                        (D)                   (E)


Set     2

1.         He not only comes there/for swimming/but also for coaching/
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)
            new swimmers./No error
                        (D)                   (E)

2.         He could not cut/the grass to day because/
                        (A)                   (B)
            the handle of the machine/has broken a few days ago./No error
(C)                   (D)                   (E)

3.         His ability to/talk to strangers/is one of his/stronger points./No error
            (A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (D)                   (E)
           
4.         My brother said/that he preferred/the white shirt/
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)
            than the black one./No error
                        (D)                   (E)

5.         She was the daughter/of a working farmer/who was one of the/
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)
            headman of his village./No error
                        (D)                   (E)

6.         No king in that period/was so intensely involved/
(A)                                                                         (B)
in the welfare of his people/as king Ashoka./No error.
(C)                   (D)                   (E)

7.         What to talk of charity/Rajan does not practic/even/
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)
            ordinary humanity./No error
                        (D)                   (E)

8.         I have hunted and/shot myself/so I know what/it is like./
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (E)
            No error
                        (E)

9.         He only wrote/on one side of/the paper./No error
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (D)

10.       The two sisters/struck/one another/at the platform./No error
            (A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (D)                   (E)

Set     3

1.         I am very thirsty,/give me/little water/to drink./No error
            (A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (D)                   (E)



2.         Everybody was/in the garden/amusing/themselves./No error
            (A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (D)                   (E)

3.         If I was you/I would not/attend/the function./No error
            (A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (D)                   (E)

4.         These organizations/work lest/their activities/may be banned./
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (D)
            No error
                        (E)

5.         Avinash and his friend/were walking towards/the station when/
                  (A)                               (B)
            they met his common friend./No error
(C)  (E)
6.         Priyamvada was unhappy/to hear the news/of her son’s failing/
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)
            in the final examination./No error
                        (D)                   (E)

7.                For expecting the company to pay/for the transport/
(A)                               (B)
            of the personal furniture of the employee/was not fair,/Nor error
(C)                               (D)                   (E)

8.         Aditi was unable/to support her parent/even through both of them/
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)
            has no income of their own./No error
                        (D)                   (E)

9.         Tax evaders should/be heavily fined/as they are doing/
                  (A)                   (B)                   (C)
      it intentionally./No error
                  (D)                   (E)

10.       The idea that shook/the whole world was/published in one/
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)
            of the unknown journal./No error
                        (D)                   (E)

Set     4

1.         The information supplied/to us were not as/useful as we first/
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)
            thought it would be./No error
                        (D)                   (E)

2.         The man/appears to have see/more happier days./No error
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (D)

3.         Have you read/this book/father than I?/No error
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (D)

4.         The production of different kinds of artificial materials/
                              (A)
            are essential to the conservation of/our natural resources./No error
                        (B)                   (C)                   (D)

5.         My brother-in-law with his wife/now in Singapore/
                        (A)                   (B)
            were present at the function./No error
(C)                   (D)      

6.         She/eagerly wishes/to help me./No error
            (A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (D)

7.         The sun is shining good/about/the horizon./No error
            (A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (D)

8.         To lead a well-balanced life/you need/
                                    (A)                   (B)
            to have other interests besides studying./No error
(C)                   (D)

9.         Nehru was/a great politician/and a great statesman./No error
                        (A)                   (B)                   (C)                   (D)

10.       The disclosure of the synopsis of/the Thakkar Commission Report/
                                    (A)                               (B)
            on the assassination of Mrs. Gandhi has raised several vital question./
(C)
            No error
              (D)

HINTS AND EXPLANATION

Set     1

1.         D. ‘was’ in place of ‘were’ The verb will be in accordance with the first subject in case of ‘together with’. See Rule 30.
2.         D. ‘Their’ in place of ‘its’. The pronoun must be in accordance with ‘ladies’. See Rule 9.
3.         B.  ‘Of’ in place of ‘on’, See Prepositions.
4.         B.  ‘Was’ in place of ‘were’. See Rule 30.
5.         C.  ‘Have’ in place of ‘has’. The simple rule of subject-verb accord should be taken care of.
6.         D.  ‘Was’ in place of ‘were’. When two singular subjects are joined by neither—nor, the verb is singular. See Rule 14.          
7.                          A.  ‘Was’ in place of ‘is’. See rules of tense.
8.         C.  ‘When’ in place of ‘than’. See Rule 36.
9.         B.  ‘Than’ in place of ‘to’. ‘Than’ is normally used in the comparative degree. See Rule 25.
10.       A.  ‘He had hoped’ in place of ‘he hoped’. See Rules of tense.

Set     2

1.         A.  ‘He comes there not only’ in place of ‘he not only comes there’. The error is in placement of words. See Rule 35.
2.         D.  ‘Had broken’ in place of ‘has broken’. See Rules of tense.
3.         D.  ‘Strong points’ in place of ‘stronger points’. No need of the comparative degree.
See Rules of degree.
4.         D.  ‘To the’ in place of ‘than the’. See Rule 25.
5.         D.  ‘Headmen’ in place of ‘headman’. ‘One of’ is followed by a plural noun. See Rule 11.
6.         A.  ‘No other king’ in place of ‘no king’. It is an important rule. Try to understand it carefully. See Rule 26.
7.         A.  ‘Not to talk of’ in place of ‘what to talk of’. See Rule 55.
8.         B.  ‘Myself’ is unwanted. It confuses the meaning.
9.         A.  ‘He wrote only’ in place of ‘he only wrote’. See Rule 35.
10.       C.  ‘Each other’ in place of ‘one another’. See Rule 17.

Set     3

1.         C.  ‘A little water’ in place of ‘little water’. See Rule 23.
2.         D.  ‘Himself’ in place of ‘themselves’. See Rule 10.
3.         A.  ‘If I were’ in place of ‘if I was’. In sentences showing condition ‘were’ is used.
See Rule 45.
4.         D.  ‘Should be’ in place of ‘may be’. ‘Lest’ is followed by ‘should’. See Rule 39.
5.         D.  ‘Their common’ in place of ‘his common’. The pronoun must be in accordance with the subject. Here the subject is plural. See Rule 9.
6.         C.  ‘Son failing’ in place of ‘son’s failing’. The use of the apostrophe is not required here.
7.         A.  ‘To except’ in place of ‘For expecting’.
8.         B.  ‘Parents’ in place of ‘parent’. Parents is a plural noun and is always used in plural form.
9.         C.  ‘They have been doing’ in place of ‘they are doing ‘. The sentence is in perfect
continuous tense. See Rules of tense.

8.      D.  ‘Journals’ in place of ‘Journal’. ‘One of’ is always followed by a plural object.
See Rule 34.

Set     4

1.         B. ‘Was not’ in place of ‘were not’. Information is always used in singular. See Rule 1.
2.         C.  ‘Happier’ in place of ‘more happier’. Double comparatives should be avoided.
3.         C.  ‘Further’ in place of ‘Father’. ‘Father’ is used to denote of sense of distance and ‘further’ is used to indicate more.
4.         B.  ‘Is essential’ in place of ‘are essential’. The subject is production, not materials. As the subject is singular, the verb will be singular. Be careful about the subject-verb accord.
5.         C.  ‘Was’ in place of ‘were’. In case of ‘along with’ or ‘with’, the verb is in accordance with the first subject. See Rule 30.
6.         B.  ‘Wishes eagerly’ in place of ‘eagerly wishes’. See Rule 35.
7.         A.  ‘Good’ is inappropriate. It is an adjective. An adverb should be used, say, ‘fine’ or ‘brightly’.
8.         A.  ‘To live’ in place of ‘to lead’. The word is inappropriate.
9.         C.  ‘And great statement’. When the same article is to be used with two successive subjects, the first works for the next also.

10.         C.  ‘Vital questions’ in place of ‘vital question’
FINDING OUT ERROR CONCEPTS AND EXERCISES. Reviewed by sambasivan srinivasan on 3:42:00 PM Rating: 5

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