Geography, particularly Indian Geography, is one of the most important topics in General Knowledge whether you are attempting Railway RRB or SSC CGL exam. This topic constitutes an important part of Static GK and forms the basis for understanding other aspects of geography like soil, climate, vegetation, wildlife, and demography. These Static GK Notes present you some basic trivia on Indian Geography. Download Indian Geography PDF.
India is located in the northern and eastern hemispheres of the globe.
India lies between the latitudes 6° 44’ north and 35° 30’ north. It lies between and 68° 7’ east and 97° 25’ east. The difference is roughly 30 degrees in both directions.
The mainland of India extends from Kashmir in the north to Kanyakumari in the south and Arunachal Pradesh in the east to Gujrat in the west.
The territorial limit of India extends towards the sea up to 12 nautical miles (22.2 km) from the coast. This limit includes the islands of Andaman, Nicobar and Lakshadweep.
The southern part of the country lies within the tropics and the northern part lies within the sub-tropical zone.
82° 30’ east (Shankargarh Fort, Mirzapur in Allahabad district) has been selected as the Standard Meridian of India as it is the multiple of 7 degree 30 min of longitude.
Indian Standard Time (IST) is ahead of Greenwich by 5 hours 30 minutes. This is the single time standard used across India.
Except Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Haryana, Delhi, all the other states in the country share boundaries with other countries or have coastlines.
The effective border between India and China is known as the McMahon line. The line that separates Indian-held lands from Chinese-held lands is called the Line of Actual Control (LAC).
The India-Pakistan border is known as Radcliffe line. The military control line between the parts of Jammu Kashmir controlled by India and Pakistan is called the Line of Control (LoC).
The India-Afghanistan and Pakistan-Afghanistan border are demarcated by a single line known as the Durand line.
India and Sri Lanka are separated by the Palk Strait.
India shares largest land frontier boundary with Bangladesh.
The tropic of cancer (23½° North latitude) passes through Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura and Mizoram – a total of 8 states.
The total geographical area of India is approximately 33 lakhs sq. km. which is around 2.45% of the total land of the hemisphere.
It is the seventh largest country in the world by area after Russia, Canada, China, USA, Brazil and Australia.
It is the second most populated country of the world after China with a population of 1.27 billion (127 crore) people.
There are a total 29 states and 7 UTs in India.
Delhi is known as the National Capital Territory of India (NCT).
Indira Point which is located in the Great Nicobar Island is the southern-most point in the territory of India. The southern-most top was submerged under water after 2004 Tsunami.
Cities of India
A metropolitan area is an area (with one or more districts and two or more Municipalities or Panchayats) having a population of 10 lakhs or more. Some of the largest metropolitans in India are:
National Capital Region (NCR)
Twin cities are when two cities that are very close to each other, over time, expand and grow to merge into one big metropolitan are. Some twin cities of India are:
Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad
Mumbai, Navi Mumbai and Thane
Hubli and Dharwad
Kolkata and Howrah
Bhubaneswar and Cuttack
Hyderabad and Secunderabad
Some cities are popularly known by their nicknames.
Amritsar – Golden City
Ahmedabad – Manchester of the East
Jaipur – Pink City
Bengaluru – Silicon Valley of India OR Garden City
Mumbai – Gateway of India OR Maximum City OR Hollywood of India OR Financial Capital of India
Pune – Deccan Queen
Pondicherry – Paris of the East
Bhubaneshwar – Temple City
Alappuzha – Venice of the East
Kolkata – City of Joy
Lucknow – City of Nawabs
Udaipur – City of Lakes
Jamshedpur – Steel City of India OR Pittsburgh of India
Varanasi – Spiritual Capital of India
Chennai – Gateway of South India OR Automobile Capital of India OR Detroit of India
Coimbatore – Textile City of India
Coorg – Scotland of India
Darjeeling – Queen of the Hills
Dehradun – School Capital of India
Guwahati – Gateway of North East India
Kanpur – Leather City of the World
Kochi – Queen of the Arabian Sea
Kollam – Cashew Capital of the World
Kolhapur – City of Wrestlers
Mussoorie – Queen of Mountains
Patiala – Royal City
Nagpur – Orange City
Rishikesh – City of Sages
Surat – Diamond City of India
Jodhpur – Blue City
Indian Geography PDF – Static GK Notes 5
Reviewed by sambasivan srinivasan