•What is Preposition ? Answer : Preposition is made of two words— Pre + Position. Here, Pre means before and Positionmeans Placed. Hence Preposition is that word or Phrase which is place before a Noun or a Pronoun.
• TYPES OF PREPOSITIONS
• Simple Prepositions : Prepositions of one word are called Simple Prepositions. Example : In, of, on, at, by, for, from, off, to, out, through, till, up, with, down etc.
• Compound Prepositions : Prepositions formed by adding a Prefix to a Noun, Adjective or Adverb are called Compound Prepositions. Outwardly they look like one-word Prepositions, but in fact they are compound words. Example : About, above, across, along, amidst, among, amongst, around, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, inside, outside, underneath, within, without etc. • Phrase prepositions : Read the list of Phrase preposition ( Most Important ).
• Participle Prepositions : Some Present Participles are also used as Prepositions. Example : Concerning, considering, barring, during, notwithstanding, pending, regarding, respecting, touching etc.
♣Functional Types of Prepositions :
Preposition of Place — On, at, in, against, above, across, before, behind, over, under, among, below, between, upon etc.
Preposition of Time — After, before, at, on, by, behind, during, in, for, since, through, till, until, with, within, from etc.
Preposition of Cause / Purpose — For, of, from, through, with, etc.
Preposition of Agency — By, in, with, without, at, through, etc.
Preposition of Manner — Like, with, by
Preposition of Possession — Of, by, with
Preposition of Measures / Rate / Value — At, by, for, to
Preposition of Contrast / Concession — In spite of, notwithstanding, nevertheless
Preposition of Separation — From, off, of
Preposition of Relationship — With, together with, in company with, along with
Preposition of Support / Opposition — For, Against
Preposition of Exception — But, except, barring
Preposition of Motive / Inference / Source / Origin — From, of
Preposition of Direction — To, towards, into, up, down, above, on
♣USES OF PREPOSITIONS♣
• Rule No. 1 : Objectives case (of Noun or pronoun) is used after Preposition. Incorrect : I do not depend on he. Correct : I do not depend on him.
• Rule No. 2 : The Prepositions used after words must be made clear if these two words are connected by "and" / "or". Incorrect : She is conscious and engaged in her work. Correct : She is conscious of and engaged in her work.
• Rule No. 3 : If a principle verb is used after about, after, at, before, for, from, in, on, to, that verb must be in - ing (V4) form. Incorrect : You prevented me from do it. Correct : You prevented me from doing it.
• Rule No. 4 : On, in, at, are not used before today, tomorrow, yesterday, the following day, the next day etc. Incorrect : He will go there on tomorrow. Correct : He will go there tomorrow.
• Rule No. 5 : No Preposition is used before the word home. At home is a phrase which bears a different meaning. Incorrect : Bring a TV set at home. Correct : Bring a TV set home. (------- How interesting -------- )
• Rule No. 6 : After Transitive Verbs, like discuss, describe, reach, order, tell, demand, attack, resemble, ridicule, etc. we directly use the object and no Preposition is used after the verb. Incorrect : The poet describes about the beauty of nature in this poem. Correct : The poet describes the beauty of nature is this poem.
• Rule No. 7 : Say / suggest / propose / speak / reply / explain / talk / listen / write is followed byTo - preposition if there is a person in the form of object. Incorrect : He did not reply me. Correct : He did not reply to me. Incorrect : He did not write to a letter. Correct : He did not write a letter.
♣ ARTICLE ♣ • What is Article ? Answer :A word used before a noun to show whether the noun refers to particular example of something or General example of something is known as Article. Article is Two types - 1) Indefinite Article -----> A / An 2) Definite Article -----> The
♣ Uses of Articles — ( 'A' / 'An' / 'The' )
• Rule No. 1 : Article 'An' is used before a word starting with vowel sounds like A, E, I, O, U . Example : An Umbrella, An Eagle, An Important, An example
• Rule No. 2 : Article 'An' is used before a word beginning with silent "H". Example : An honest, An heir, An hour etc.
• Rule No 3 : The letters which starting sound like vowel e.g F, H, L, M, N, R, S, X are not vowel but sounds like vowel. 'An' is used before them. Note : Suppose we pronunciate 'M' so we actually feel the sound like 'em' i.e vowel sound. Also before any degree 'An' is used. Example : An M.A, An X- Ray, An S.P, An NRI etc.
• Rule No. 4 : Before any sense of one, 'A' is used. Example : A boy, A cat, A school etc.
• Rule No. 5 : When a Vowel sounds like consonant 'A' is used. Example : A European person, A unique book, etc Note : See in this examples the vowel letters sound like "yu". That is consonant sound.
• Rule No. 6 : Before any single sense, any single countable noun, Before any collective noun, with certain quantity, before same idea, before same expressions, a single group, before a special meal etc. 'A' is used. Example : A one rupee note ( One begins with vowel but sounds like 'w'), A bunch(Collective noun) of flowers, A gang of rubbers, A dozen chair, A great idea of people, A good dinner, A few, A lot of etc.
Rule No. 7 : 'The' is used before any unique thing in the world, the rare thing in the world, for rare books in the world ( like Ramayana, Bible), before god, before a definite person, -----> Before religious group like ( The Hindus, The Sikhs, The Jain, The Christian ), Before any enforcing law ( like the Navy, the Police, The air force ), Before any political party ( The people's congress, the B.J.P ) -----> Before any empire, national emblem, dynasty or historical movement or event, before superlative degree, before ordinal numbers( like the first, the eleventh).
♣ENGLISH ERROR CORRECTION PRACTICE SET♣
1. To be a king and (A) / wear a crown are (B) / more glamorous to (C) / see than to bear (D)./ No error (E)
2. Although the brilliant writer A) / an underlying (B) / pessimism prevails in (C) / all her novels (D)./ No error (E)
3. In response to the growing crisis (A) / the agency is urgently asking for (B) / more contributions, to make up for (C) / its sharp decline in purchasing power (D)./ No error (E)
4. On writing this book (A) / we cannot over - emphasize the unique (B) / opportunity we have had to probe (C) / broadly and freely into the organization (D)./ No error (E)
5. The boy who was guilty with (A) / having stolen the cell phone (B) / come out (C) / with the truth (D) / No error (E).
6. The (A) / was to (B) / small to (C) / reach the switch board (D) / No error (E)
7. The opposition leader tried (A) / to bolster his position B) / with the voters by pressing (C) / corruption charges against rivals (D)./ No error (E)
8. The recently imposed dress code (A) / in the university has enraged (B) / the students who will be going (C) / on strike since tomorrow(D)./ No error (E)
9. Every since he took over (A) / as the chief minister of the state (B) / rate in unemployment (C) / has drastically increased. (D) / No error (E)
10. Changed social setting (A) / demands the school to teach (B) / moral and social values (C) / among with the academic skills (D) / No error (E)
Answer Key :
1.(B) Use 'The' instead of a 2.(A) Use 'A' instead of the 3.(E) No error 4.(A) Write 'in' instead of On 5.(A) Use 'of' instead of with 6.(B) Use 'Too' instead of to 7.(C) Replace 'with' by among 8.(D) Use 'from' instead of since 9.(C) Use 'rate of' instead of rate in 10.(D) Use 'along' with instead of among with
ENGLISH -- USE OF ARTICLES, PREPOSITION ....
Reviewed by sambasivan srinivasan