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Important Facts of Agriculture

1.     Father of agronomy is - peter decresenzi.

2.     Dr. Biwant Rajis the founder of Relay cropping .

3.     The Directorate of cropping System research is located at - Modipuram , meerut, U.P.

4.     Scientific study of mixed cropping was firstly done by - La-Flitze (1928)

5.     Relay cropping concept was derived from - Relay race

6.     Natural Resource management is an example of sustainable agriculture

7.     Cropping System is a component of - framing System

8.     When the sub crop are sown to supplement of yield of the main crop , the sub crops are known as -- augmenting crops

9.     The main crop is grown in the centre , surrounded by hardly or thorny crops, the sub crop is known as - guard crops

10.  The yield of both crops , grown together are found to be higher than the yield of their pure crops on unit area , such cropping is known as -- synergetic cropping

11.  What is a cash crops -- those crops , which may be sold directly from the field without processing like vegetables , potato, etc.

12. Formula of Cropping Intensity = Total Cropping Area /total sown area *100

13. The growing of two or more crops on the same field in a year is called -- multiple cropping

14. The practice of raising grasses or pasture , is also known as -- ley farming

15. In India , the maximum acreage and production of wheat is in UP

16. The type of fruit of wheat is Caryopsis

17. The optimum temperature for ideal germination of wheat is 20 to 25 °C

18. Norin-10 gene was brought to USA by - S.c. salamone 1984

19.  The dwarf winter variety of wheat first time developed through using Norin gene by - Dr. O.A.Vogel (USA)

20. Triple gene dwarf variety were released in 1970

21.  Which is double gene dwarf varieties of wheat - HD 2204, Janak, UP 215, Pratap, Kalyansona, Arjun, Sonara 64

22. Single gene dwarf varieties are - Sonalika , Girija, UP-262 ,Wl 711,Lerma Rojo 64A

23. The protein found in wheat floor which is helpful for chapati making - Gluten

24. Central Zig - Zag axis of wheat is called -Rachis

25. Mexican dwarf wheat was evolved by - Dr. N. E. Borlaug

26. The toxic alkaloid found in the leaves of sorghum crops is - Dhurin or HCN

27. CSH 1 was released as first dwarf sorghum hybrid in 1964

28. Which crop is known as camel crops - Sorghum

29. Native of jower is Africa (Ethiopia & Sudan)

30. The maximum area & Production of jowar is in Maharashtra

31. Jower is poor in lysine but rich in - Leucine

32. The inflorescence of jower is called – Panicle

33. First hybrid variety of bajara is HB-1 (1965) developed at PAU, Ludhiana

34. Protein content in Bajra is 11-12 %

35. Origin of bajra is Africa

36. Bajra is sensitive to - water logging and Acidic soil

37. The largest producer state of cotton in India is -Gujarat

Compiled by:  Premaradhya, N.                                         M.Sc. Agri. Agronomy        Page 1 of 18

38. Bad opening of balls is known as - Tirak

39. In cotton , the maturity of fibre is judged by – Arealometer

40. H-777 is the cultivar of cotton

41. Hybrid -4 is the first commercial cotton of the world developed by - Dr.C.T. Patel in 1970

42. The leaves of cotton becomes radish in colour due to decrease nutrient uptake and moisture .

43. Origin of cotton is from - India

44. Cotton belongs to- malvaceae

45. Intra - Specific hybrid of cotton is -Hybrid -6, savita, surya.

46. Interspecific hybrid of cotton is - Varalaxmi , DCH-32 , HB -224 etc.

47. One seed of cotton has 60000-80000 fibres

48. Ginning %= wt. of lint / wt. of seed cotton taken for ginning * 100

49.  The removal of lower leaves which come in contact with soil and lose their commercial value is known as priming process.

50. Priming method is used in - Cigarette and wrapper tobacco

51.  The main aim of topping and Desuckering is - to divert the energy and nutrient of plant from flower to leaves.

52. The removal of the lateral branches or suckers or auxiliary buds is called - desuckring .

53. Central tobacco research institute is situated at - Raja - h - Mundri, AP (1947)

54. The richest source of protein among the food grain is - Pulses

55. Head quarter of directorate of pulses research is located in - Kanpur UP

56. Which pulse crop doesn’t fix N2 from atmosphere -Rajma

57. The word pulse is derived from - French world pottage or poride means - soup (dal)

58. The term legume is taken from - latin word - means to collect

59. India is the largest producer of – gram

60. The sour taste of gram leaf is due to presence of - Maleic acid(60%) and oxalic acid

61. Shelling % of Pea is 49

62. Harvest index of arhar is  19 %

63. Origin of aarhar is from – Africa

64. Queen of cereals is called Maize

65. The composite cultivars of maize are - Kisan , jawahar ,Amber ,Vijay , Sona , Vikaram, etc.
66. Maize is a C4 Plant

67. In India the rank first state in area and production of maize is UP

68. The maize Protein is called- Zein

69. Male inflorescence of maize is called –Tassel

70. The critical stage for water application in maize is - Tasseling and silking stage

71. Which Indian scientist shared world food prize for miracle maize - Dr.Sruinder K.Vasal(2000)

72. Origin of maize from - Mexico

73. All India Coordinated Maize Improvement Project was started in -1957 at New Delhi

74. Double cross technique for hybrid seed production was developed by - D.F. Jones (1920)

75. The idea of hybrid maize was first conceived by : E.M. east and G.H. Shull (1910)

76. The criteria for harvesting of sugarcane - withering of lower leaves ,brix 20 % , sucrose 15 %

77. Algin planting method of sugarcane is evolved by - Allahabad agriculture institute , Allahabad , UP

78. Adsali sugarcane is common in Maharashtra

79. sugarcane is planted in furrows because - it reduce lodging

80. Inflorescence of sugarcane is generally called - Arrow or open panicle.

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81.  Sucrose content in cane is - 13-14 %

82.  Sugar from juice is - 6-10%

83.  Hand refrectometer reading for sugarcane maturity is 20

84.  Sugarcane breeding Institute is situated at - Coimbatore

85.  Adhsali Sugar cane crop mature in 18 months

86.  father of hybrid rice is - Yuan Long Pin

87.  India’s first dwarf variety released during 1968 was jaya .

88.  World’s first high yielding semi dwarf basmati rice variety is - pusa basmati - 1

89.  World’s first super rice variety for saline / alkaline soil – Lunishree

90.  Harvesting of paddy is done at moisture content - 21-23 %

91.  First mutant variety of rice is jagannath( gamma ray irradiation of T-141)

92.  Which gas is released from field of paddy - Methane (CH4)

93.  SRI techniquecue was originated in Madagascar in 1987 by prof. Henry De Laulanie

94.  First super fine aromatic basmati hybrid is - Pusa RH-10

95.  Oilseed production programme was started during - 1990-91

96.  Technology mission on oilseed was est. 1986

97.  National Research Centre for groundnut was est.at Junagarh (Gujarat)

98.  Indian central Oilseed Committee was est. 1947

99.  All India Coordinated Project on Oilseeds was est. during 1967

100. Main adulteration in mustered - argemone mexicana oil

101. Mustard fruit is known as - siliqua

102. Pungency of mustard is done to - isothiocynate

103. National seed corporation was established in March – 1963

104. Seed Act was passed in 1966 (29 dec)

105. Tetrazolium Test is done for - viability and vigour

106. The Indian seed Act came into force on 2 oct 1969

107. NSC started functioning in July 1963

108. The head quarter of NSC is - Pusa compus , ND

109. National Seed project was launched in – 1976

110. The world meteorology is derived from- Greek language

111. International meteorological organization was est. in – 1873

112. Division of Agri. Meteorology at pune , Maharashtra was est. in 1932

113. Solar radiation is measured by – pyranometer(total incoming radiations)

114. Agro Ecological Zones in India is 8( by NARP ICAR), 21(by NBSSLUP)—but now only 20

115. Agro -climatic zones (15 nos.)  are formed in India during 7th five year plan (1988)

116. The green Ouse gases are - CO2 , CFC , CH4, etc.

117. Indian meteorological Dept. was est. in the year of -1875

118. Wind velocity is measured by -Anemometer .

119. Father of agro- climatology is - Koppen

120. Koppen classified the climate based on - temperature & Precipitation

121. The study of weather is called – meteorology

122. The term weed was firstly used by - jethrotull

123. National Research centre for weed science is situated at-Jabalpur (MP)

124. Commercial mycoherbices first appeared in market USA in early 1980s

125. National horticulture board was est.at Gurgaon (Haryana )

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126. First all India coordinated floriculture Improvement project was started in 1971

127. Central temperate Horticulture Research institute is situated at - Srinagar (J&K)

128. International institute of horticulture is situated in – Brazil

129. Who is the father of pomology – Decandolle

130. National horticulture board was est. in the year 1984

131. Who was the first deputy director general of horticulture , ICAR - dr. K.L. Chadha

132. Which vegetable rank first among vegetable crops in production in the world – potato

133. In India , potato was introduced by Portuguese in 1965

134. Research on potato was stared at IARI New Delhi in – 1935

135. The International potato centre was est.in 1971 at lima (Peru)

136. Central potato Research Institute was est. in – 1949

137. Seed plant technique was developed by - Dr. Pushkarnath

138. The Head quarter of CPRI was Shifted from Patna to Shimla in 1956

139. True potato seed concept was first realize to raise commercial crop in India by Dr. S.Ramanujam (Fist director of CPRI)

140. Cauliflower was introduced in India by Dr. Jemson from Kew Garden, London in the year 1822

141. Male sterility in cauliflower was introduced by Peerson (1981)

142. The toxic substance of cucurbits is – cucurbitacin

143. Which hormones are used in cucurbits to modify sex and to induce femaleness - GA & NAA

144. Seedless variety of mango is - Sindhu (devloped at FRS vengurula )

145. Most exported variety of mango is - Alphonso
146. Black tip in mango is a physiological disorder due to brick clin fumes mostly CO, SO2 or deficiency of boron

147. Which type of incompatibility is found in mango - gemtophytic

148. Mango variety , most suitable for high density planting is Amarpali

149. Mango inflorescence contains , which type of flowers - male and hermaphrodite

150. The off season mango variety is - Niranjan

151. The only mutant cultivarr of mango is – Rosica

152. Magnifera contains about 41 species

153. The regular bearing varieties of mango are - neeum , Banglora , pairi, etc .

154. Mosambi a sweet orange cultivar was introduced from - Mozambi ue

155. The edible portion of citrus fruits is -juicy placental hairs

156. The first record of the name grape fruit in jamaica was in – 1814

157. The Banana breeding was first stared at - Imperial college of tropical agriculture in Trinidad (1922)

158. Banana Breeding was stared in India in 1949 at central Banana Research station , aduthurai (TN)

159. Banana can be stored at - 13 C and 85 % RH

160. Banana initiate flowering 9-12 months after Planting

161. The notice is papaya is tropical America

162. The yellow pigment in papaya is caricaxanthin

163. Papaya is the richest source of vitamin A next to mango it contains 2020 IU/ 100 g fruit

164. King of temperate fruit is - Apple

165. Family of apple is Rosaceae

166. Mother of all delicious group of cultivars is - red delicious

167. The king of arid fruit is ber

168. The commercial propagation method off grape is - hard wood cutting

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169. In India the black soil is mostly fond in - Maharashtra

170. Red soil is mostly found in – Tamilnadu

171. The soil which is most suitable for most crops is - sandy loam

172. Red colour in the red soils is due to presence of various oxides of irons

173. The vertical section of the soil showing the various layers from the surface to the unaffected parent material is known as - soil profile .

174. The arrangement of soil particles and their aggregate  into certain defined is called - soil structure

175. Particle density of soil is also known as - true density

176. Generally the particles density of normal soil is - 2.65 gram/cm3

177. The bulk density of normal soil is - 1.33 g/cm 3

178. The formula of porosity of soil is - porosity =100-(bulk density / Particle density )

179. The certain exchange capacity (CEC) of montmorillonite is - 60-100 me / 100 gm

180. The first soil classification system was developed by - russion scientist Dokuchaev (1880)

181. The U.S classification system the soil orders are – 10

182. Formula of bulk density is= wt. of soil / volume of solids and pores

183. Law of minimum was given by - Vn Liebig (1840)

184. Top most mineral horizon is - A horizon

185. exchangeable sodium %age is also known as soluble %age

186. The term pH was introduced by Sorensen (1909)

187. Energy exchange elements are H & O

188. K & Na is determined by Flame Photometer

189. Micro nutrient is also known as - trace element , Oligo -element or spurned elements

190. Crop logging techniqueue was given by - H. F. Clements

191. Metal nutrients are - K, fe, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu.

192. Highly mobile nutrients are - N,P,K.

193. Criteria of essentiality was proposed by Arnon & Stout (1939)

194. The term fictional nutrient was proposed by - Nicholas (1961)

195. Moderate mobile nutrient is Zn

196. FYM contains - 0.5% N , 0.2 % P2O5 & 0.5 % K2O

197. The P is available at 6-7 pH

198. Bio fertilizers are - Rhizobium , Azotobacter, Azospirillum , PSB, VAM,BGA, etc.

199. Approx. 20 gram of rhizobium culture is required to treat one kg seed

200. One packet of rhizobium culture contains 20 gram of rhizobium culture

201. Azotobacter is used for - Rice , cotton , s.cane

202. Azospirillum bio fertilizer used for Sorghum

203. The cytoplasm and nucleus combinedly called - protoplasm

204. Cell theory was proposed by M.J. Schleden and Theodo Schwann

205. The term Lysosomes was first used by Dave in 1955

206. The main function of Golgi bodies are - packaging of food materials such as protein , lipids etc.

207. The function of ribosomes are - protein synthesis

208. The term mitochondria was given by - C Benda (1897)

209. The simple microscope was invented by - Galileo (1610)

210. The shortest phase of all mitosis phase is - Anaphase

211. Meiotic division is also known as reducetional division

212. The term mitosis was coined by Fleming (1882)

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213. Mitosis occurs in Somatic cells

214. Segregation occurs during meiosis

215. The longest mitotic phase is -Prophase

216. Absorption Spectrum of photosynthesis is blue and red

217. Action Spectrum of photosynthesis is red and blue

218. Dark reaction was discovered by Blackman

219. Dark reaction is also known as - Blackman reaction or C3 – cycle

220. The main site for dark reaction of photosynthesis is – stroma

221. The evaporation of water from plants is called - transpiration

222. Evaporation from soil and transpiration combined are called ET

223. C4 Plants proposed by Hatch and slack (1970)

224. The darkk reaction process of photosynthesis has been named variously - Calvin cycle or Blackman reaction

225. Light reaction is also known as Hill reaction

226. In photosynthesis , the solar energy converts into - Chemical energy

227. The OSMOSIS term was given by - Abble Nollet  (1748)

228. The term “diffusion pressure deficit “ was introduced by - Meyer in 1938

229. The term Imbibition was coined by - Sachs

230. Imbibition Pressure is also known as - Matric Potential

231. Root pressure word was coined by- Stephan Hales

232. Father of Physiology - Stephan Hales

233. Soil les cultivation of plants is known as Hydroponics

234. Rate of transpiration is determined by - Potometer

235. The loss of sap (water) from the injured parts of plants is called - Bleeding

236. Approximately 90% of the world photosynthesis is carried out by - Marine and frsh water algae

237. Net production of ATP in Glycolysis is 2

238. Growth rate is measured by Auxanometer & Cresco graph

239. Photoperiodism term was coined by -TD Lysenko (1920)

240. Apical Bud dominance is caused by which hormone - Auxin

241. Which hormones is used as a herbicide=auxin

242. Which hormone is related to drought tolerance- absicic acid (ABA)

243. Dormancy break by which hormone - Cytokinis

244. Stress hardening in plants can be active by which hormone ABA

245. Fruit ripening hormone is - ethylene

246. The term auxin was used by - Frits went (Holland) 1905

247. Want’s auxin is now known as - Indole -3-acetic acid (IAA)

248. Which hormones are the Auxin - IAA, IBA, NAA , 2-4-D,2,4,5-T’ MCPA ,IPA TIBA etc

249. Shedding of plant parts is due to- ABA hormones

250. Cycocel (CCC) is a growth retardant

251. The most widely used auxin herbiceds are 2-4-D,2,4,5-T’ MCPA

252. Gibberellins were first discovered in japan

253. The hormones also known as - Photo hormones , growth hormones , growth substances

254. Main auxin is also known as -IAA

255. Root promoting hormones is IBA

256. The precursor of IAA is - Tryptophasne

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257. Synthesis of IAA in plants requires Zinc

258.   The term phytohormone for hormones of plants is suggested by - Thimann (1948)

259. The term genetic resources was coined by - Frankel

260. Mendel began his famous experiments on Pea in 1857

261. Mendel Paper entitled “Experiments in Plant Hybridization “ was presented in German Language in two papers in 1865 (feb 8 and march 8)

262. Mendel Paper published in the annual proceeding of society in 1866

263. The term “Genetics” was coined by - Bateson (1905)

264. The term gene , genotype and phenotype were used by - Johannsen in 1903

265. Germplasm theory was proposed by Weismann

266. Crossing over term was used first time by- Morgan and cttell in 1911

267. Operon model of gene regulation was discovered by - Jacob and Monad 1961

268. The term chromosome was coined by -Waldeyer in 1888

269. One gene one enzmes hypothesis was proposed by- Beadle and Tatum In 1941

270. First time gene was divided into cistron, muton and recon by Benzer (1955)

271. Sex chromosomes are also known as allosomes

272. Crossing over occurs in - Pachytene stage

273. The tendency of two or more genes to remain together in the same chromsome during inheritance is referred to as - Linkage

274. Chiasma type theory of crossing over was proposed by -Janssens

275. Genic balance system of sex determination was proposed by- bridge in 1922

276. Monogenic sex determination is found in - Asparagus , Papaya , maize , spinach etc.

277. The homozygous progeny of a self - pollinated homozygous plant is known as - Pure lines

278. The concept of purelines theory was developed by -Johannsen (1903), Danish biologist

279. Breeding method for self -pollinated crops are - Pure line selection , Mass Selection , Progeny selection, Bulk Method, Pedigree method , single seed descent method , Back cross Method

280. A multiline variety is a mixture of -Several pure lines

281. Bulk method was first used by- Nelson Ehle in 1908

282. The modification of bulk method is - Single seed descent

283. In pure line Theory ,Johannsen was working on- Princess variety of Rajma

284. Mass Pedigree Method was proposed by- Harrington in 1937

285. The oldest method of selection is - mass Selection

286. Progeny test was developed by -Louis de Vilmorin

287. Progeny Test is also known as - Vilmorin isolation principle

288. Single seed Descent method applied for the first time in oat in 1965 by – Graphius

289. The term recurrent selection was coined by -Hull in1945

290. The use of synthetic varieties for commercial cultivation was first suggested in maize by-Hayes and Garber , 1919

291. Synthetic varieties are maintained by-open Pollination

292. A synthetic variety can be developed from-Inbreeds, clones and open pollinated varieties .

293. The general or basic concept in the development of synthetic varieties is - Exploitation of hybrid vigour

294. The concept of disruptive mating and selection was developed by - Mather (1953) and Thody (1958)

295. The Concept of dialled selective mating system was originally develped by - jonsen in 1970

296. The hetrosis is also known as - Hybrid vigour

297. The term heterosis was first used by - Shull in 1914

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298. Dominance theory was proposed by - Devenport  in 1908

299. The cross between inbred line and open pollinated variety was done in - top cross method

300. The resistance of host to the particular race of a pathogen is known as - vertical resistance

301. vertical resistance is governed by- One or few genes

302. The resistance of host to the all race of a pathogen is known as - Horizontal resistance

303. The concept of gene for gene hypothesis was first developed by- flor in 1946

304. The disease resistance is governed by- several genes

305. Who developed the concept of vertical and horizontal resistance - j. E . Vender Plank (1963)

306. Father of genetic engineering is - Pual Berg

307. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed by - Dr. Karl Mullis (1980)

308. Golden rice was developed by Ingo protrykus and peter bayer

309. The plant part , which is used for regeneration is called - Explant

310. A mass of regenerated cells i culture medium is called - Callus

311. the suspension of free cells of callus in a liquid medium is known as - Suspension culture

312. the regeneration capacity or ability of a plant cell to develop into whole plant is known as – Totipotency

313.   What is the embryogenesis - It is the process of formation of somatic embryos from callus

314. the process of dirrerentiation of shoot & root from the somatic embyos is called – organogenesis

315. Regeneration of whole plant from anther is called - anther culture

316. Haploid are developed by - Anther culture

317. The Blue biotechnology is a term that has been used to describe - The marine and a uatic application of to describe

318. The biotechnology applied to agriculture process is known as -Industrial Biotechnology

319. the first genetically modified food product was a -Tomato , which was transformed to delay its ripening

320. M-RNA is primarily used for - Transcription of DNA

321. RFLP stands for - Restricting fragment length polymorphism

322. Plant tissue culture was begun by - G. Haberlandt (geman botanist ) in 1808

323. research in the area of tissue culture was first stared in india at - Department of Botany , DU in 1960s

324. National bureau of plant genetics resources is situated at -New Delhi

325. The project on Indian mustard oil with higher b-carotene is initiated by - TERI

326. A genotype developed by the process of genetic engineering is called - Transgenic

327. what is gene cloning - A technique of genetic engineering , which is used to make several identical copies of a gene is called gene cloning

328. which soil borne bacterium is used for developed of transgenic plants - agrobacterium tumifaciens

329. In potato , the protein quality has been improved by - transferring serum albumin gene from human

330. In tobacco , cold resistance power has been achieved by tranering gene from -Arabidopsis thaliana

331. Little leaf of citrus is caused by - MLO,s

332. Pahala blighted s.cane is caused due to deficiency of - Mn

333. Reclamation disease is caused due to the deficiency of – Cu

334. Late blight of potato is caused by - Phytophthora infestence (fungi)

335. Bunchy top of banana is caused by – virus

336. Grassy shoot disease of s.cane is caused by – mycoplasma

337. kresek in rice is caused by - Xanthomonas oryzae

338. heart rot of sugar beat is casued by - Deficiency of boron

339. Most dangerous disease of potato - Late blight of potato

340. Philology disease in plants is caused by - Mycoplasma

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341. Club root of cauliflower is caused by- Plasmodiosphora brassicae

342. Sheath blight of rice is caused by- Rhizoctonia solani

343. vector of leaf -curl disease in cotton is - White flies

344. Orobanche is a parasite associated with – tobacco

345. Akiochi disease is due to - sulphur toxicity

346. White rust of crucifers is caused by - Albugo, candida , fungi

347. Ufra disease in rice is caused by- Nematode

348. Whiptail of cauliflower is due to the deficiency of - Mo.

349. Vector of rice tungro virus is - Green leaf hopper

350. Kresek symptom is found in - Bacterial blight

351. loose smut disease of wheat is a - Internally seed Borne

352. Mantek Disease of rice is caused by - Rice root nematode

353. Yellow leaves of tea occur due to the deficiency of – Sulphur

354. Die back of shoots occur due to deficiency of - Copper

355. die back is the major disease of rose in India

356. Crop showing maximum resistance to nematode is - marigold

357. The late blight disease destroy the potato crop of Ireland in 1845

358.   Father of pathology is - Anton de berry

359. Father of mycology is - P.A. Micheli

360.   Life cycle of wheat rust is given by - K.C. Mehta

361. Top sickness of tobacco is caused by - Deficiency of boron

362. The pathogen associated with the discovery of bordeause mixture is - Plasmosphora viticola

363. Loose smut of wheat can be controlled by seed treatment of – Vitavax

364. Late blight of potato was introduced in India for first-time in - nilgiri –hills

365. Black heart of potato is caused by - Poor ventilation in storage (lock of oxygen)

366.   The tundu disease of wheat is usually associated with nematode known as – anguina tririci

367. Udabatta disease of rice is due to -- Ephelis oryzae

368. Ring rust of Aonla is caused by - Ravenellia emblica var. fructoidae

369. Flag smut of wheat is caused by - Urouystis gramines

370. Leaf curl disease of tobacco is caused by virus and it is transmitted by - White fly

371. Leaf blight of cotton is caused by - Alternaria macrospora

372. father of nematology – Bastian

373. Father of Microbiology - Louis Pasteur

374. Bacterium was discovered by – Antony van leewenhock

375. fungicide used in the control of smut is – Vitavax

376. father of modern Plant pathology is - Anton de Berry

377. bordeaux mixture was developed by - P.M.A. Millardet

378. Common nematicides are - DD Mixture , Phorate , Etylene bromide , etc.

379. Central Plant protection training institute is situated at - Hyderabad ( AP)

380. first plant protection adviser to govt. of India - H.S. Pruthvi.

381. integrated pest control term was coined by - Bartlett ( 1956)

382. The Term “ Pest Management “ was given by - Geier (1970)

383. The blood colour of insects is - Green with yellow

384. Honeybees belongs to the order of – Hymenoptera

385. Entomology word was taken from - Greek language

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386. Father of Insect Physiology is – Wiggelworth

387. The first pesticide was discovered by -Millardet-(1882)

388. DDT was discovered by - Zedler scientist

389. First insecticide discovered was – DDT

390. Plant protection and quarantine Act was pased in the year of – 1912

391.   insecticide act was passed in 1968

392. destructive insect and Pest Act was passed in – 1914

393. Maximum %age of insecticide is used in which crop - Cotton (54 %)

394.   “Warfarin “ is a rodenticide

395. Contact insecticides are - DDT, Malathian , Aldicarb , Monocrotophos , Aldrin , etc.

396. Bio pesticides are - NPV, GV, Bacillus thuringiensis etc.

397. Pest population should be kept below the - Economic Threshold level

398. Very safest insecticidede for honeybee – Endosulphon

399. Rat poison is known as - Zinc phosphide (Zn3P2)

400. Lead arsenate was first used in 1832 by Moulton

401. Overhead cost is known as - Fixed cost

402. Price theory is a branch of - Mico- Economices

403. Average cost is e ual to - Total cost / Output

404. Land rent is an example of fixed cost

405. prime cost is also known as - Variable cost

406. opportunity coast is also known as - alternative cost

407. The father of economics is - Adam Smith

408. Diminishing return is also known as - Law of variable

409. The most effective way to overcome the defects of agricultural marketing is - Regulating marketing

410. the law of variable proportion is generally referred to as the - law of diminishing return production is a function of - Factors

411. AGMARK act was enforced in a year – 1937

412. In mixed farming , the contribution of livestock to gross farm income is at least

413. Input -Output relationship is also known as - production function

414. Those product , in which two product produced together are called - joint product

415. Dumping activity is seen under - monopoly

416. Export - Import bank of India was set up on - 1st January , 1982

417. IRDP was stared in the year of - 2 Oct , 1980

418. When marginal production is zero , then total production is – maximum

419. National demonstration \project was stared in the year

420. KVK is also known as - Farm science centre

421.   KVK was stared in the year 1974

422. Operational Research Project was stared in the year 1974-75

423. lab to land programme was stared in the year - 1979 June 1

424. National agri. technology project was stared in the year 1998-99

425. KVK was recommended by- Mohan Singh Mehta Committee (1974)

426. Community Development Project was stared on – 1952

427.   National Extension Service (NES) was stared in the year of 1953

428. Firka Development Scheme was launched under the guidance of National Commission of Agriculture was set up by government of India – 1970

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429.   HYVP was started in the year of 1966

430. Marthendam programme was started by - Dr. Spencer Hatch in 1921

431. etawah Pilot project was started by - Mr.Albert Mayer in Sep 1948

432. Indian village Service was started in 1945 by - Mr. Arther T. Mosher and Shri BN gupta

433. The aim of Etowah Pilot project is - Introducing intensive work on the Rural reconstruction front

434. Intensive Agriculture District programme was popularly known as - Package programme

435.   IRDP was lunched on - 2 oct 1980

436. National Agricultural Research project was launched in - Jan, 1979

437. T&V system was evolved in - 1973 by Israeli expert Daniel Benor At Turkey

438. Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment ( TRYSEM) in 1979

439. Total number of KVK operating in the country till  Dec 2011 – 600

440. Antuadya Yojana was started in 2 oct 1977

441. Sampoorna Grammeen Rojgar Yojna was started in the year of 2001

442. FCI was started in 1970

443. FISCAL commission was appointed in 1949

444. Multiple Cropping Programming was Started in 1966

445. First irrigation commission was appointed in 1901

446. first deptt. of agriculture was established in 1881

447. the extension work must be based on the - Need and interest of people

448. Father of Extension- J paul Leagons

449. father of Sociology- August Commte

450. National agricultural innovation project was stared in – 2005

451. Total number of national bureaux are – six

452. Formula of coefficient of variance is - SD/Mean *100

453. t test is generally used , when sample size is < 30

454. The correlation coefficient lies between - -1 to + 1

455. The experimental design ,which simultaneously control the variation in two directions is known as LSD

456. The basic principles of field experimentation - 1 Replication 2 Randomized 3 Local control

457. The technique of analysis of variance was developed by - R.A. Fisher

458.   If fertility gradient of land is in two directions , the experimental design will be - Latin Square design

459. the most commonly used measure of control tendency is - Arithmetic mean

460. Cumulative frequency is also known as – Ogive

461. The term ’ Kurtosis ’ was given by - Karl Pearon (1906)

462. Laplace used the normal distribution in - Analysis of errors of experiments

463. the important method of least squares was introduced by - Legendre in 1805

464. The name “ Normal distribution “ was coined independently by - Peirce Galton and Lexix ,  (1875)

465. Normal distribution is also known as - Law of error ,law of facility of error, lapace’s seconf law , gaussion law etc.

466. Generalize mean is also known as - Power mean or Holder mean

467. The standard deviation is widely used measure of - Variability ordisperson

468. The term standard deviation was first used by - Karl Pearson in 1894

469. if mean , medium and mode is equal , then skewness will be – zero

470. Correlation’s are useful because they can indicate a - Predictive relationship

471. which ANOVA is used when the experimenter want to study the effects of two or more treatment variables - Factorial ANOVA

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472. Which ANOVA is used when the subjects are subjects to repeated measures , in which the same subjects are used for each treatment - Two- Way Anova

473. The completely randomized design is considered to be most useful in situation where

1.  The experimental units are homogeneous

2.  The experimental are small such as Laboratory experiments

3.  Some experimental units are likely to be destroyed

474.   In field experiments the commonly used design is – RBD

475.  For chi- square test , the minimum sample size should be – 50

476.  Define biometry - It deals with observation with living thing

477.  mean , median and mode are equal in - normal distribution

478.  most frequent number in a data set , is known as - mode

479.  the well-known example of skewed distribution is - Personal wealth

480.  Harmonic mean is the - Reciprocal of arithmetic mean

481.  the term z - test is often used to refer specifically to the - one sample location test

482.  t Test is a - Parametric test

483.  the goodness of fit test is also known as - kolmogorov - smirnov test

484. The number of independent pieces of information that go into the estimate of a parameter is called - Degree of freedom

485.  The typical symbol for degree of freedom is - d.f.

486.  F-test was coined by - George W. Snedecor , in honour of sir Ronald A fisher

487. The term “ water harvesting “ was first used by – myors

488. The force working with the attraction of water molecules toward each other is known as - Cohesion

489. The force working with the attraction of water molecules toward solid particles is known as – Adhesion

490. The water held tightly to the surface of soil particles by adsorption forces is known as - Hygroscopic water

491. Water held by force of surface as continuous film around soil particles and in capillary space is known as - capillary water

492. Capillary water is held between tension of 31 and 1/3 atmosphere

493. the movement of water from the surface into the soil is Called - Infiltration

494. The water moves freely in response to gravitational force and drain out of the soil is called as gravitational water

495.  the water between field capacity & permanent wilting point is called as - Available water

496.  Drip irrigation concept was proposed by - Simcha blass

497.  One ha. Cm of irrigation is equal to 100000 litters

498.  major source of irrigation in India is wells (52%)

499.  Which irrigation method is widely used in fruit orchard - Bain method

500.   Intermittent on & off system used in irrigation method is

501.  the automatic method of surface irrigation is - Coblegation

502.  leading state in drip irrigation in India is - Maharashtra

503.  Soil moisture is measured by - Tension meter

504.  Water requirement of irrigation wetland rice is about -1500MM

505.  total water requirement of sugarcane crop is 200-300 cm

506.  in saline soil , the method for irrigation used s - flood method

507.  pF value was first introduced by- Schofield

508.  vertical movement of water in soil is known as – Percolation

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509.  ET are measured by – Lysimeter

510.  parsall flume is used for measurement of - water Flow

511.  Sericulture is also known as -Silk Farming

512.    the rearing of silkworms for the production of raw silk is known as – Sericulture

513.  How much silkworms are required to produce 1kg of silk 5500

514.  How much people are engaged in various sericulture activities in the country - 60 lakh

515.  Central Sericulture research & Training Institute is situated at - Mysore , Karnataka

516.  Sericulture has been practiced for at least 5000 years in china

517.  Apiculture is also known as bee keeping

518.  Apiculture word was taken from - Latin world

519.  A location where bees are kept is called An Apiary

520.  A beekeeper is also known as - Apiarist

521.  A beekeeper bee in order to - Collect honey , bee wax, to pollinate crops , to produce bees for sale

522.  What is beekeeping - I is maintenance of honey bee colonies , commonly in hives , by humans

523.  the two economically important products of bee keeping is  Honey and wax

524.  average yield of Indian bee is - 6-8 Kg /Cony / year

525.  The main freshwater fish are - Cop and catfish

526.  the main brackish - water fish are - Hilsa and mullet

527.  central Institute of marine Fisheries Research was established - Kochi , kerla

528.  The central inland fisheries Institute was established at - Barrack pure (W.B)

529.  The central institute of fisheries technology was est. at - Wwellindon Island near Kochi , Kerala

530.  Hydroponics’ is also known as - Soil less culture

531. The Method of growing plants using minerals nutrients solutions , in water, without soil is called - hydroponics

532.   In 1699 john Woodward published his water culture experiment with the crop of – Spearmint

533.  Hydroponics traditionally known as - solution culture

534. First time who promoted that solution culture can be used for agriculture crop production - Prof. William Frederich Gericks , University of California at Berkeley in 1929

535.  The term Aquaculture for hydroponics was used for the first time by Prof. William F.G.

536.  The Mutant Varity of rice is - Jagannath

537.  The Pecursor of vitamin - A is - Bita carotene

538.  Azolla is a - a uatic fern

539.  The Blur revolution in India was started during - fifth five year plan (1970)

540.  Evergreen revolution is related to - Sustainable crop Production

541.  Precision Farming is also known as - Site specific management

542.  SRI technique Was developed in – Madagascar

543.  The term synecology was given by - Schroter & Kirchner (1902)

544.  Pusa Mukta is the cultivar of Cabbage

545.  World’s super rice variety , which is suitable for saline / Alkaline soil conditions is –Lunishree

546.  NRCMAP is currently est. at- An and (Gujarat)

547.   IPR stands for - intellectual Property Right

548.  Beaufort Scale is used t measure - WIND pressure / strength

549.  What is dioeciously ? Those plants which contain on male and female flowers

550.  The element that play an important male and female protoplasm constituent is – calcium

551.  Wheat is a C3 plant

Compiled by:  Premaradhya, N.                                            M.Sc. Agri. Agronomy     Page 13 of 18

552. The plant parasite nematode was first time reported by -Kanche

553.  Mean ,Median and Mode is equal in - Normal distribution

554.  The inflorescence of jowar is called – Panicle

555.  Gromer , SCU and CDU are the - Slow release fertilizers

556.   Low of tolerance was introduced by - SHELFORD

557.  End product of glycolysis is – Pyruvate

558.  define lithophytes - The plant grown is rock cervices are called lithophytes

559.  During glycolysis , the Net gain of ATP is - 2

560.  Phosphorus is extracted by - Olsen method

561.  The correlation between price and demand of a commodity is –negative

562.  The limit of partial correlation coefficient is - -1 to +1

563.    For reclamation of saline and Alkaline soils used are - Gypsum and Pyrite

564.  The term ecosystem was coined by - A.G.Tansley (1935)

565.  What is parthenocarpy - The development of fruit without fertilization

566.  The development of embryo without fertilization is called - Apomixes

567.  Relative humidity is measured by- Pshychrometer

568.  Father of Indian pale botany is - Birbal sahni

569.  The weed used for ornamental purpose is- Lantana Camaera

570.  The core component of chlorophyll is – Mg

571.  The soybean is sown at the depth of - 3 cm

572.  The most prominent soil of India is - Alluvial soil

573.  Chaisma is seen during - Diplotene sub - Phase

574.  The current method used for control of bollworm in cotton is - Bt. transgenic cotton produced

575.  Photo- Respiration occurs in – Chloroplast

576.  Water use efficiency is highest in which plants - CAM Plants

577.  Chromosomal theory of inheritance was proposed by- Sutton & Boveri

578.  The price fixed by govt. is called - minimum support price

579.  The present farming system of India has become - Market oriented

580.  Which chemical is mostly used for breaking tuber dormancy in potato-thiourea

581.  The term water harvesting was first time used by - Mayers

582. The first commercial hybrid cotton of the world is - Hybrid -4

583.   International Day for biological diversity - 22 May

584.    Measuring of heights one by – Clinometer

585.  The number of electrons for convertion of No3 to NH4-16

586.  Bangalore is also known as Garden city

587. origin of potato is from - Peru (S. America)

588.  Dormancy breaking hormone is – cytokinin

589.  the element involved in energy transfer and storage in plants is - Phosphorus

590.  Fruit ripening hormone is – Ethylene

591.  which is the antidote of insect poisoning -Atropine

592.  Minimum support price is formulated by- CACP(total 28 crops)

593.   Luxury consumption or maximum uptake nutrient is- K

594.  Crop canopy temperature is measured by - Infra red thermometer

595.  Secondary Plant nutrients are- Ca, Mg, & S

596.  hulling %age in rice is - 65 %

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597.  First agriculture chemist of Imperial Agricultural Research Station was

598. Which method of s.cane sowing prevents the lodging - Trench method

599. Inflorescence of sugarcane is called – Arrow

600. Shedding of plants part is due to - ABA hormone

601. First hybrid in the world of red gram is -ICPH-8

602. The most preferable soil structure for agriculture is - Granular & Crumby

603.  Taxonomically organic soils are – Histosols

604.  Which soil is most suitable for dry land agriculture - Black soil

605.  First man made cereal is – Triticale

606.  Dead heart and white ear disease is related to – Rice

607.   IBPGR is situated at - Italy , Rome

608.   India’s share in the fruit production in the world is 10 %

609.  What is relay cropping - The second crop sown before harvesting of first crop

610.  Measurement of sunlight intensity is expressed in - Lux units(old)/Einstein(new)

611.   In water logged arid gas found in abundant – Methane

612.  Curing process is related to the crop- Tobacco

613.  The book “ nature & Properties of soil “ is written by - N.C. Brady
614.  Chemical used for delinting of cottons - H2So4

615.  Maximum N loss in rice crop is due to - Denitrifiaction

616. Wind velocity can be measured by – Anemometer

617. Queen of spices is – Cardamom

618.  buck wheat is called - Psedo cereal

619.  Very dangerous disease of s.cane is red rot

620.  World’s staple food is - Rice

621.  Fibre of cotton contains – Cellulose

622.  Movement from higher concentration to lower concentrationn is known as - diffusion

623.  Gold of America is known as - Soybean

624. Formula of Net Capital ratio is - Total assets /Total liabilities

625.  Theory of evolution was given by - charles Darwin

626.  Which Indian Scientist shared world food prize for miracle maize - Dr. Surinder K. Vasal

627.    ICAR day is celebrated on 16 July

628.   Light red carnation represent to – Admiration

629.  ANOVA table stands for analysis of - Variance

630.  Formula of harvest index is - Economical yield / Biological yield * 100

631.  RBI was est. in 1935

632.  Who discovered vitamin – Funk

633.  Regur soil refers to - Black soil

634.  Biological active form of glucose is - D-form

635.   Lodging preventor is - CCC ( Cycocel)

636.  FAO was started in 1948

637.  Which design is used when fertility gradient is in two direction – LSD

638.   International pest is Schistacerca gregaria

639.  Bhoodon movement was started in 1951

640.  Cooperative movement was started by- F. Nicholus (1904)

641.  Flared square symptoms are seen in cotton due to the - Spotted boll worm

Compiled by:  Premaradhya, N.                                            M.Sc. Agri. Agronomy     Page 15 of 18

642.  CAN is a Neutral fertilizer

643.  Root promoting hormone is IBA

644.  Ooze test is done for detecting Bacteria

645.  First product of urea hydrolysis is - Ammonium Carbamate

646.  NABARD was set up on the recommendation of - Siva Raman committee ,Narsimhan Committee1982

647.  The trade name of BHC is - Grammexone

648. Who discovered mitocondria - C. Benda(1897)

649.  Bt cotton was discovered in - 1901 japan by Ishwata

650.  the term cytokinin was proposed by - - Letham ( 1963 )

651.  Kinetin and zeatin are the - Cytokonins

652.  photosynthesis is an - Oxidation - Reduction process

653.   Largest importer of cut flower in the world is - Germany

654.  Gibberellin was discovered for the first time used by - - Kurosowa

655.  Water soluble vitamin is - Vitamin –C

656.  Greenhouse effect is also known is -- Global warming

657.  VAM act as a - Symbiotic association

658.   LEISA stand for - Less external input sustainable agriculture

659.  Blue Revaluation in India was started during - Fifth five year plan ( 1970 )

660.  who discovered pH concept – Sorenson

661.  DRIS concept given by –Beaufils

662.  The term ‘remote sensing ’ was first used in – USA

663.  Acidity in gram leaves is due to - Malic acid / oxalic acid

664.    Photosynthetic rate is highest in c4 plant

665.   Lock and Key Model was proposed by - Fisher

666.  Anti - Sterility vitamin is - Vitamin E

667.  Double seed formation in cotton is due to - Pink bollworm

668.  Forest conservation act was made in – 1980

669.  Netural parthenocarpy is found in – Banana

670.  the term vernalization was coined by - TD Lysenco

671.  Chemical relationship is done between two cells by-Plasmodesmata

672.  White revolution was accomplished by which scientist - V. Kurien

673.  How much time is needed for sterilization in autoclave - 15 minutes

674.   In which bacterial reproduction phase , virus is involved – Transduction

675.  First plant flower mandi was situated at- BANGLORE

676.  Regional Plant resource centre is situated at – Bhubaneswar

677.  Cultivation of crops in areas where the annual rainfall is less than 750 mm is called- Dry Farming

678.  Central soil salinity research institute is situated at -Karnal ( HR)

679.  What is the ideal location of greenhouse- North – South

680.  According to ICMR vegetable required per capita per day is - 300 gram

681.  Biggest tree of the world is - Baniyan tree

682.  Kisan call cente begun in the year 2004

683.  Net cultivated area of India is – 143

684.  Kisan divas is celebrated on 23 Dec.

685.  The share of agriculture in global warming is - Approx. 25 %

686.  Environment day is celebrated on - 5 th June

Compiled by:  Premaradhya, N.                                            M.Sc. Agri. Agronomy     Page 16 of 18

687.  Which element is responsible for nodulation in legumes - Phosphorous

688.  Fingerprinting is related to which crop – Pineapple

689.   yellow vein mosaic virus disease is related to Bhindi

690.  Which clay Mineral is dominant in Black soil- Montmorillonite

691.  Sprouting in onion is controlled by the hormone of –MH

692.  Which chemical/ hormone is used for regular bearing in mango- Paclo butrozol (PP333)

693.  High yielding variety of wheat was developed by -Borlaug

694. break down of clods , crusts and plant material by the impact of particles moved by wind in saltation is called as - Abrasion

695. A soil with a pH value less than 7 hence having more hydrogen ions than hydroxyl ions in the soil solution is called as - Acid Soil

696. The movement of ions and water into the plant root because of metabolic processes by the root, frequently against an electrochemical potential gradient is referred to as - Active absorption\

697. The chemical in commercial product that is directly responsible for the herbicidal activity is called its - Active ingredient

698. the transfer of heat energy my means of horizontal mass motions through a medium is termed as - Advection

699. A technique in growing plants where in the plants derive their nutrients and eater from a mist of air and aqueous solution that comes in contact with the roots is called - Aerophonics

700. A term proposed by Mc Gillchrist in 1965 , which is a measure of how much a relative yield increase in component a is greater than for component b is known as -Aggressively

701. The removal of excess water known as free water or gravitational water from the surface of the farm land as to create favourable soil conditions for plants growth is called as - Agriculture drainage

702.  The growing of agricultural crops along with the forest crop is known as - Agri- silviculture

703. A land units defined in terms of major climate and growing period, which is climatically the homogenous response of a crop or a farming system is called as - Agro - climatic zone

704. An alternative renewable fuel ,produced from vegetable oils or animal fats through a refinery recess called trans- esterification is called as - Bio - diesel

705.  in India , NRC for medicine and aromatic plants is located at - Anand

706. A branch of science , which deals with the stud of grasses , their classification , management and utilization is called - Agrostology

707. The area that comprises of all the areas from which water flows out into a common river or water pool is called as-Catchment Area

708. A branch of science, that studies the aspects of climate , which are relevant to the problems of agriculture is called - Agro- climatology

709. A Medium , which resists change or a substance added to resist change in concentration of-r pH activity in a solution as called as - Buffer

710. the crop which is grown as a substitute for the main crop that has failed on account of unfavourable condition is called as - Catch crop

711.  the ratio of total cropped area in different seasons to the total land area is known as - Cropping intensity

712.  The branch of agriculture which deals with scientific crop production and management is – Agronomy

713.  Cultivation of crops in Areas where rainfall is less than 750 MM per annum is known as - dry farming

714. the study of the inter - relationship of living organisms with each other and with their environment in an agricultural system is called as - Agro- ecology

715.  The crops that are grown to break the continuity of the agro-ecological situation of the field under

Compiled by:  Premaradhya, N.                                                    M.Sc. Agri. Agronomy                                                    Page 17 of 18

multiple cropping systems are called as - brake crop

716. The competitive interaction between the crop species in intercropping and sequential cropping through the release of chemical substances or toxins is called - allelopathy

717. The chemical substance released by one species may inhibit more strongly plants of the producer species it self is termed as - Auto - inhibition

718. The production technique that combines agriculture and forestry , horticulture or animal husbandry on the same piece of land in the order to fully utilize the natural resources is called as - Agro- forestry

719. the fraction of the total solar radiation incident on a body that is reflated by it and expressed in % age is called as – Albedo

720. A substance added to a soil for the improvement of its physical and chemical properties is called as – Ameliorant

721. An appropriate combination of farm enterprises i.e. cropping system ,livestock, poultry ,fisheries , forestry and the means available to the farmer to raise them for increasing profitability is called as - farming systems

722.  The scientist , who has been called as father of organic farming is - albert Howard

723.  the process of use of micro- organism to remove salts from soil is referred as – Bioremediation

724.  the organization that is related to export of ’ Agricultural processed product ’ is - Agri- export zone ‘

725.  “ Sugarcane breeding Institute “is located at - Coimbatore

726. The ratio between water deficit to potential evapotranspiration and expressed in %age is termed as - Aridity index

727. A term given by Donald in 1963 , Which is a measure to find out the yield of various crops when grown together as well as separately and indicating the yield per plant of different crops in mixture and their respective pure stand on an units basis is known as Competition Index

728. A biological model which is expected to perform or behave in a predictable manner a defined environment is known as - Ideotype

729.  gene responsible for dwarfing characters in rice is - Dee-Gee-Woo-gen

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