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SBI PO/CLERKS IBPS PO/CLERKS SSC ENGLISH


Quiz 1

Directions (1-15): Each of the following questions has a paragraph followed by options which will complete it as according to correct contextual meaning. From the given options, choose the sentence that completes the paragraph in the most appropriate way.
Q1. What happens to our brains as we age is of crucial importance not just to science but to public policy. By 2030, for example, 72 million people in the US will be over 65, double the figure in 2000 and their average life expectancy will likely have edged above 20 years. However, this demographic time-bomb would be much less threatening if the elderly were looked upon as intelligent contributors to society rather than as dependents in long-term decline.
(a) The idea that we get dumber as we grow older is just a myth, according to brain research that will encourage anyone old enough to know better.
(b) It is time we rethink what we mean by the ageing mind before our false assumptions result in decisions and policies that marginalize the old or waste precious public resources to re-mediate problems that do not exist.
(c) Many of the assumptions scientists currently make about ‘cognitive decline’ are seriously flawed and, for the most part, formally invalid.
(d) Using computer models to simulate young and old brains, Ramscar and his colleagues found they could account for the decline in test scores simply by factoring in experience.
(e) None of the above
Q2. The better behavior resulting from smart devices is just one threat to the insurance industry. Conventional risk pools (for home or car insurance, for example) are shrinking as preventable accidents decline, leaving the slow-footed giants of the industry at risk. Business is instead moving to digital-native insurers, many of which are offering low premiums to those willing to collect and share their data. Yet the biggest winners could be tech companies rather than the firms that now dominate the industry. Insurance is increasingly reliant on the use of technology to change behaviour; firms act as helicopter parents to policyholders, warning of impending harm—slow down; reduce your sugar intake; call the plumber—the better to reduce unnecessary payouts.
(a) The growing mountain of personal data available to individuals and, crucially, to firms is giving those with the necessary processing power the ability to distinguish between low-risk and high-risk individuals.
(b) Cheap sensors and the tsunami of data they generate can improve our lives; black boxes in cars can tell us how to drive more carefully and wearable devices will nudge us toward healthier lifestyles.
(c) Yet this sort of relationship relies on trust, and the Googles and Apples of the world, on which consumers rely day-by-day and hour-by-hour, may be best placed to win this business.
(d) The uncertainty that underpins the need for insurance is now shrinking thanks to better insights into individual risks.
(e) None of the above
Q3. The expenditure of time, money and sparse judicial and prosecutorial resources is often justified by claims of a powerful deterrent message embodied in the ultimate punishment- the death penalty. But studies repeatedly suggest that there is no meaningful deterrent effect associated with the death penalty and further, any deterrent impact is no doubt greatly diluted by the amount of time that inevitably passes between the time of the conduct and the punishment. In 2010, the average time between sentencing and execution in the United States averaged nearly 15 years. 
(a) A single federal death penalty case in Philadelphia was found to cost upwards of $10 million — eight times higher than the cost of trying a death eligible case where prosecutors seek only life imprisonment.
(b) The ethics of the issue aside, it is questionable whether seeking the death penalty is ever worth the time and resources that it takes to sentence someone to death.
(c) Apart from delaying justice, the death penalty diverts resources that could be used to help the victims’ families heal.
(d) A much more effective deterrent would be a sentence of life imprisonment imposed close in time to the crime.
(e) None of the above
Q4. The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) has come out with the dismaying prediction that the southwest monsoon this year will be below normal. If this prognosis holds true, it may mar the prospects of redeeming the rabi crop output losses through bumper harvests in the later kharif season. India's farm sector has certainly acquired a degree of resilience when it comes to the monsoon - as reflected in the positive growth numbers in all the weak monsoon years since 2009. However, monsoon rainfall and its distribution still remain crucial. 
(a) They impact supplies and prices of most farm commodities, especially coarse cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, fruit and livestock products, as well as the rural sector demand for consumer goods.
(b) A poor monsoon and subsequent food inflation might well throw off the Reserve Bank of India's schedule for rate cuts.
(c) Nevertheless, the first stage monsoon forecast of the IMD should normally be taken with a pinch of salt, as the weather agency's accuracy record on this count is none too inspiring.
(d) The monsoon’s behavior this year seems to bear out the notion that climate change is affecting the Indian monsoon and altering its rainfall calendar.
(e) None of the above
Q5. The underlying cause for the uncontrolled inflation in the key consumables of the house hold is the failure of the government to do its job. Private players offer services at usurious costs to meet the demands of a growing middle class
A. Who wish to pass their life peacefully without getting engaged in much aspiration.
B. That is reeling under the pressure of rising prices but anyhow trying to make both ends meet
C. Which aspires to move up the ladder and secure a higher level of income.
D. Which is left with no alternative but to manage by reducing its expenses on essential commodities
(a) A       
(b) B 
(c) C 
(d) D  
(e) None of these
Q6. Non-residents are allowed to purchase shares or convertible debentures of an Indian company up to the extent and subject to terms and conditions set out under the FDI scheme. A person purchasing shares proposes to be collaborator or proposes to acquire the entire share holding of a new Indian company is required to obtain prior permission of the government
A. if he has a previous venture or tie-up in India through investment in shares or debentures. 
B. when he wants to invest as per the policy guidelines with the intention to keep the money and transfer the same on conditional basis.
C. if he likes to establish the company for the benefit of this country without selling the shares in the international market and move forward.
D. unless he is a non-resident Indian he may not be permitted to go for direct investment in India.
(a) A    
(b) B     
(c) C     
(d) D  
(e) None of these
Q7. Canada’s reputation for financial regulation is starry. Its banks got through the crisis unscathed. According to Moody's, a ratings agency, Royal Bank of Canada sits alongside HSBC and JPMorgan Chase in the top tier of global banks. And Canadian policymakers are old hands at pulling “macro prudential” levers of the sort
A. that would bring financial discipline all over.
B. which confirm to moral and ethical global banking system.  
C. now in vogue among rich-world central banks.
D. now consistent enough among all the commercial banks as per the prevailing international norms.
(a) A    
(b) B     
(c) C     
(d) D  
(e) None of these
Q8. Rupee has lost a fifth of its value against the dollar in the past year, reflecting global woes but also a slowdown in India and a drying up of capital inflows. Its decline is widely seen in India as a bad thing.
A. stoking inflation and hurting firms with foreign-currency debt. 
B. stimulating vicious cycle of unemployment and pushing economy in reverse order.
C. invoking trends of depression with declining production
D. encouraging imports in the unfavourably running Balance of Trade economy
(a) A    
(b) B     
(c) C     
(d) D    
(e) None of these
Q9. Already Emirates Airlines is being called the ‘national airline’ of India, as it operates more flights and carries more passengers to/from India than Air India, our national carrier. More than 70% of the passengers carried by Emirates Airlines, however, travel to points beyond Dubai, on Emirates’ network. Now, Abu Dhabi is also keen to emulate the success of Dubai and Emirates Airlines, and is keen to establish Abu Dhabi as another hub airport on the back of Etihad Airways,
A. and for this reason, is aggressively seeking an increase in capacity entitlements 
B. but Jet might find it tough to move ahead in this turmoil of political jugglery  
C. however, the threat of losing business, if no substantial improvement is made, is obvious for Air India
D. although Etihad may prove to be a good achievement but the changing sky policy, in this scenario will pull down the profits
(a) A   
(b) B   
(c) C   
(d) D 
(e) None of these
Q10. Sufferings of an injured person would include his inability to lead a full life, his incapacity to enjoy the normal amenities which he would have enjoyed but for the injuries and his ability to earn as much as he used to earn or could have earned. While computing compensation, the approach of the tribunal or a court has to be broad based and sometimes it would involve some guesswork
A. in view of the capacity of the person liable to pay the compensation
B. the basis of which should be the volume of injuries and the incapacitation, the victim suffered and other important factors
C. as there cannot be any precise formula to determine the quantum of compensation
D. depending upon the victim’s liabilities and earning capabilities that would keep his family happy
(a) A   
(b) B    
(c) C    
(d) D  
(e) None of these
Q11. Women's boxing is yet to be recognized as an Olympic support, ----. If that happens the dream of most of the tough girls may come true.
(A) The International Boxing Association has been campaigning to include it as an event in the 2008 Beijing Olympics.
(B) Though boxing is a very tough sport many women are seen willing to take up professional boxing now a days.
(C) Even some state governments are now willing to employ the women pugilists.
(a) Only A
(b) A and C
(c) Only B
(d) B and C
(e) All the three
Q12. Male Vanity is no different from female's ------ in Face, a confident man no longer shies away from stating his deep interest in beautifying his appearance.
(A) Western cosmetic houses have spent millions of dollars researching this: men want to look amazing too.
(B) Today's urban male spends as much on beauty products as his female counterpart.
(C) It is perhaps the fastest growing market segment of the feel good, look good industry.
(a) A and B
(b) A and C
(c) Only C
(d) All the three
(e) None of these.
Q13. If you can't give every student a computer, at least give them a mouse each. ----- This seems to be the reason behind Microsoft Research Lab India's development of a software solution that allows the use of multiple mice in a computer.
(A) According to a recent study, it was seen that at least five students worked on a single computer in government schools.
(B) This will help them use the same computer simultaneously for the cost of a few extra mice.
(C) Each mouse will have a different cursor color and all of them are displayed on the monitor.
(a) A and B
(b) Only A
(c) Only B
(d) Only C
(e) All the three
Q14. Although the share of agriculture in the overall GDP has declined from around 40 per cent in 1980- 81 to below 20 per cent in 2006-07, its importance to the Indian economy can hardly be over emphasized. -------- In the context of ensuring food security and promoting inclusive growth, strategies to revitalize agriculture has become highly relevant.
(A) Fiscal deficits as a proportion of the GDP have come down but are still high by global standards.
(B) Infrastructure deficiencies can hold back further grown in the agriculture sector.
(C) Recent Volatility in agricultural production has had its impact not only on economic but on price stability as well.
(a) A and B
(b) Only A
(c) B and C
(d) Only C
(e) Only B
Q15. Poverty is hitting increasing numbers of women, and it is hitting them harder, ---- The percentage of female-headed households varies from thirty to forty percent in some south and south-east Asian countries, to almost half of all households in developing as well as in industrial countries.
(A) This 'feminization' of poverty is linked closely to the increase in poor female-headed households in developing as well as in industrial countries.
(B) The greatest burden of the world economic recession is increasingly borne by those least able to sustain it: women and children.
(C) Low-income women have sought paid work to compensate for decline in household income.
(a) Only A
(b) A and B
(c) Only B
(d) Only C
(e) All the three

Answers

S1. Ans.(b)
Sol. This paragraph discusses the growing aging populace and need to identify how they can be contributors to the society. Choice (b) continues the line of thought about not wasting public resources based on existing assumptions about cognitive decline with age.
Choice (d) is also eliminated right away as it talks of a “decline in test scores”, the test not detailed here.
Choice (a) is incorrect as it doesn’t talk of the aged in the society, just lays down the basic premise that they are not on the path of mental decline. This would have been discussed before the paragraph we are trying to complete begins.
Choice (c) builds on the idea discussed by choice (a) and doesn’t fit as well as (b) to complete the paragraph.
S2. Ans.(c)
Sol. The main point of this paragraph is that technology is producing some threats to the insurance industry, and that tech companies could be the biggest winners in this.
Starting off by mentioning the threats, the author has declared that “yet the biggest winners could be tech companies” and, in justifying why so, he talks of how insurance is using technology to change behaviour to reduce payouts.
Consider option A. This talks of how data available to individuals and firms is helping them assess risk better. It doesn’t carry forward the thought about helicopter parenting from the penultimate line of the paragraph.
Option B talks of how smart devices are helping improve lives and lifestyles. This substantiates the threat of “better behaviour resulting from smart devices” that the author refers to while starting the paragraph. It doesn’t conclude the paragraph.
Option D is ruled out as it talks of reducing uncertainty due to better insights into risks. This is the basic premise on which this paragraph is based, but does not conclude the given paragraph.
Option C talks of “this sort of relationship” and why the tech companies are better placed to win business based on trust. This provides the reasoning for why the author thinks tech companies are the biggest winners, so this is the correct concluding line.
S3. Ans.(d)
Sol. This paragraph argues that resources spent-time, money and judiciary resources- are justified on the basis that the death penalty is a deterrent and questions whether it is indeed an effective deterrent. The author argues that it isn’t, and says that any deterrent impacts are diluted by the inordinate amount of time between the sentencing and execution. The penultimate line talks of the 15 year gap between sentencing and execution.
We see that option A talks of the cost of handling a death penalty case. This is irrelevant to the main idea of this paragraph- the deterrent effect of death penalty. So, this option is ruled out.
Option B again talks of the time and resources involved. As seen before, this paragraph starts by asking whether the resources spent have a deterrent effect. Option B is, therefore, ruled out.
Option C starts a new idea altogether, i.e, how the resources used for the death penalty cases could be better utilized. Again, this is not a conclusion for the given paragraph.
Option D is talks of a “much more effective deterrent”. This is the correct concluding line for the paragraph, as it ties in with the main idea of the paragraph of a punishment that is a “powerful deterrent”.
S4. Ans.(a)
Sol. This paragraph starts with the prediction of a poor monsoon and goes on to discuss the impact of this on India’s farm sector. The penultimate line states that monsoon rainfall and its distribution are still crucial. Crucial to whom, is the question. The paragraph discusses India’s farm sector so we are discussing how the monsoon is still crucial to the farm sector.
Now let us consider the options given.
Option A- This discusses the impact “they” have on supplies and prices of most farm commodities and rural demand for consumer goods. The penultimate line talks of monsoon rainfall and its distribution. “They” could refer to these two factors. Hence option A seems to be a good conclusion to the given paragraph.
Option B- This discusses the effect of the poor monsoon and subsequent food inflation on RBI rate cuts. This statement introduces a new, related idea, i.e, the indirect impact of the monsoon on inflation and rate cuts. This cannot be the line that completes the given paragraph, which is discussing the monsoon and India’s farm sector.
Option C- This talks of the accuracy of IMD’s forecasts. It looks like a possible contender to complete the paragraph, as the paragraph started with the prediction of a bad monsoon. However, this statement refers to the “first stage monsoon forecast”, while there is no indication in the given paragraph whether the forecast discussed is the first stage one or the second stage forecast. Furthermore, the paragraph has focused on the impact of a poor monsoon on the farm sector. The given statement does not continue that line of thought.
Option D- This option talks of the climate change and the possibility of that affecting the Indian monsoon. This is a completely different idea and can hence be ruled out as the right choice.
S5. Ans.(c)
Sol. the para is macro based i.e. it is based on overall increasing inflation and aspiration of middle class which would like to improve the standard of living by securing a higher income by putting in more hard work.  So only option C. is correct.
S6. Ans.(a)
Sol. Explanation – the tone of the paragraph clarifies and sets out all the terms, Option A goes to conclude the paragraph.  Other options despite being close are not appropriate.
S7. Ans.(c)
Sol. Now in vogue among rich –world central banks refer to Royal Bank of Canada. Other options do not either refer to paragraph or end it with meaningful conclusion.
S8. Ans.(a)
Sol. Losing rupee in terms of foreign currency will surely increase inflation and the firms having foreign currency loans on them shall have to pay more in terms of Rupee.
S9. Ans.(a)
Sol. The underlying principle to place the last sentence of paragraph is that it should close the discussion in Para.  Any sentence leading the paragraph to any other idea will not be correct.  Hence, we must eliminate the options –B,C& D.  A is the right answer
S10. Ans.(c)
Sol. Except C all other are subjective thoughts and will require further discussion while C closes the Para.
S11. Ans.(a)
Sol. Explanation:
The first sentence says that women's boxing has not been recognized as an Olympic sport. Sentence A follows with the idea that the IBA is campaigning towards including it in the 2008 Olympics. Taking up boxing as a profession or getting a government job as mentioned in sentences B and C cannot be a great 'dream' to be fulfilled which is the idea stated in the last sentence.
S12. Ans.(d)
Sol. Explanation:
The opening sentence talks about 'male vanity'. The last sentence states that he doesn't 'shy away' anymore. Hence we need something in between to make it more coherent. In fact, the opening and the last sentence along with all the three given choices make a complete paragraph as the idea of feel good, look good expressed in C is followed by the interest shown by man in the final sentence.
S13. Ans.(c)
Sol. Explanation:
The opening sentence introduces us to the idea of using multiple mice in a computer. Sentence B tells us its benefits have been the reason for the development of this software by the Microsoft. This has nothing to do with the statistics given in A. Sentence C defines the product and hence can follow the last sentence.
S14. Ans.(d)
Sol. Explanation:
The opening sentence highlights the importance of agriculture in the Indian economy. Sentence C follows emphasizing the fact that volatility in agriculture production can have various undesirable impacts. Hence we have to revitalize agricultural field and this is the idea given in the last sentence. The other two sentences talk about 'fiscal deficits' and infrastructure deficiencies in the agricultural sector which are irrelevant in the given context.
S15. Ans.(a)
Sol. Explanation:
Only statement A can be inserted between the two given sentences. The first sentence talks about increasing number of women being hit hard by poverty. Statement A which talks about the increase in poor female-headed households in developing countries follows the first statement and ideally precedes the last statement which talks about the percentage of female-headed households in Asian and African countries.


QUIZ 2

Directions (Q1-7):  Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

The very shape of man’s body is such that makes him a restless creature. He cannot do without work. It is truly said, “An idle man’s brain is the devil’s workshop.”
The whole civilization of man has evolved itself only through hard work. All the inventions and discoveries of science are the result of hard work. Constant work improv­ing upon its own findings progressively, has enabled man to tread on the moon.
Even in our daily life we see that hard work pays dividends. A student who works regularly and systematically shows better results than the one who does not do so. Similarly, a player who practices regularly on the field is much better than the other one. Work not only leads to better results in the long run, but also increases our self- confidence. Work may be physical or intel­lectual. It is important in all its forms. But it must be constructive. Great nations of the world like Japan, Germany and China have emerged strong only through hard work put in individually and collectively.
In India we worship lord Vishwakarma, the great god of the workers but unfortu­nately, we are a nation of shirkers. We work little and we work even less for our country. One can work better and more efficiently if one is dedicated to some cause. Let us all be dedicated to the cause of our country. Then we shall be able to make great sacrifices as our freedom fighters did. Only then we can see our country great and strong. And we ourselves can be great and strong only if our country is so. There is no short-cut, no escape route. Hard work is the only way out. In whatever field we are, we must do our duty with utmost devotion and conscientious­ness.

Q1. Which one of the following messages the author wants to convey through the passage?
(a) Follow the tenets of Indian civilization
(b) Respect all the inventions and discoveries
(c) Follow the footsteps of great nations
(d) Word hard for individual and national glory
(e) Learn while you earn
Q2. What, according to the passage, is the cause of our self-confidence?
(a) Our physical disposition
(b) The work that we carry out
(c) The lessons we learnt from our civilization
(d) All the inventions and discoveries our ancestors have made
(e) Our inner abilities and active mind
Q3. What, according to the passage, is necessary for the effective work?
(a) Following the principles of good workmanship
(b) Maintaining a balance between ability and motivation
(c) Dedication of work to some cause
(d) Worship of Lord Vishwakarma with selfless devotion
(e) Not allowing mind to engage in dreamy thoughts

Q4. Which of the following group of words is SIMILAR in meaning to the word ‘dividend’ as used in the passage?
(a) Produce an advantage
(b) Useful in the past
(c) Produce indolence
(d) Motivate hard work
(e) Brings devotion and conscientiousness
Q5. What, according to the passage, is important with regard to the work that we get involved in?
(a) It does not lead to idle brain.
(b) It does not disturb the shape of our body.
(c) It facilitates our evolutionary process.
(d) It is constructive.
(e) It must have intellectual aspect.
Q6. The great nations have become stronger as a result of
(a) their great civilization and culture
(b) theirproactiveness and receptivity
(c) the rich physical resources they possess
(d) their efforts to drive away the reactive impulses
(e) individual and collective hard work
Q7. Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE in the context of the passage?
(a) The entire civilization has evolved through man’s hard work.
(b) Work increases self-confidence.
(c) India is a nation of hard working people.
(d) Germany has become a great nation through sheer hard work.
(e) The shape of human body facilitates hard work.
Directions (08-09): In the following question, a sentence is divided into five different parts including two highlighted ones. The highlighted parts of the sentence are grammatically correct and do not require any correction. However, the remaining three parts may contain errors in one or more than one parts of the sentence. Choose the best alternative among the five options given below each sentence that determines the portions that require correction to make the sentence grammatically correct.
Q8. To accelerate the deployment of rooftop solar power in the country, (I)/the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has proposed (II)/to bring distribution utilities/companies (DISCOMs) to the forefront (III)/implementation the Grid Connected Rooftop Solar (RTS) Power Programme (IV)/to providing them financial support. (V)
(a) Only (I)
(b) Only (IV)
(c) Both (I) and (V)
(d) Both (IV) and (V)
(e) No error
Q9. Any credible allegation of widespread corruption (I)/should be thoroughly probed by a combined team (II)/of enforcement agencies working with a common strategy (III)/for a common object viz. ensuring punishment of the accused (IV)/and recovery of the defalcated money. (V)
(a) Only (II)
(b) Only (III)
(c) Both (II) and (V)
(d) All (II), (III) and (V)
(e) No error
Directions (10-11): Select the phrase/connector (STARTERS) from the given three options which can be used to form a single sentence from the two sentences given below, implying the same meaning as expressed in the statement sentences.
Q10. (1) There is generally decrepit state of public health, most particularly in rural India.
(2) It would be utterly disingenuous to tinker with so critical an aspect of public policy.
(I)Given the generally decrepit state…
(II)Considering the generally decrepit…
(III)In the light of the generally decrepit…
(a) Only (I) is correct
(b) Only (II) is correct
(c) Only (III) is correct
(d) Both (I) and (III) are correct
(e) All are correct
Q11. (1) Pluralism in many other spheres of national life is to be welcomed.
(2) There is little or no scope for medical pluralism.
(I) While pluralism in many other…
(II) Although pluralism in many other…
(III) For medical pluralism, many spheres of…
(a) Only (I) is correct
(b) Only (III) is correct
(c) Both (I) and (II) are correct
(d) Both (II) and (III) are correct
(e) All are correct
Q12. (1) Aadhaar has been extraordinarily adopted as a government programme.
(2) It is tempting to think of Aadhaar’s success as a testament to the Indian state’s uniquely coercive powers that it has accrued and fine-tuned over the past decade thanks to increasing interlinkages between various aspects of our daily lives — from banking to booking a tatkal ticket.
(I) Given the extraordinary adoption of…
(II) Despite tempting to think of Aadhaar…
(III) Even if it is tempting to think that…
(a) Only (I) is correct
(b) Only (II) is correct
(c) Both (I) and (III) are correct
(d) Both (II) and (III) are correct
(e) All are correct
Directions (13-14): In the question given below few sentences are given which are grammatically correct and meaningful. Connect them by the word/phrase given above the statements in the best possible way without changing the intended meaning. Choose the best possible combination as your answer accordingly from the options to form a correct, coherent sentence.
Q13. WHEREAS
(A) If for 8 hours of work in a day an employee (regular) gets Rs 2,000 then the 500 on contract basis gets just 300 rupees.
(B) It means that the regular employee is getting Rs 250 per hour work.
(C) The contract workmen are getting just Rs 300 for 8 hours.
(D) That the government employees do not work, is a myth that must be broken as soon as possible.
(a) Only D-A
(b) Only A-B
(c) Only B-C
(d) Both A-B and B-D
(e) None
Q14. BY THE TIME
(A) The storm crawls up the East Coast Wednesday and Thursday.
(B) It’s expected to gust with strong 30 to 50 mph winds.
(C) That’s a signal that the storm is going to get more intense, quickly.
(D) Once the storm reaches New England, it may bring dangerous, power line-snapping blizzard conditions and coastal flooding.
(a)Only A-B
(b)Only B-C
(c)Only D-C
(d)Only D-B
(e)Only C-A
Q15. Which of the following word is opposite in meaning to the word procrastinate?
(a) delay
(b) stall
(c) temporize
(d) expedite
(e) dally

Answers
S1. Ans. (d)
Sol. We can infer the answer from last sentence of the passage “In whatever field we are, we must do our duty with utmost devotion and conscientious­ness.”
S2. Ans. (b)
Sol. Refer the fourth sentence of the third paragraph “Work not only leads to better results in the long run, but also increases our self- confidence.”
S3. Ans. (c)
Sol. Refer the third sentence of the last paragraph “One can work better and more efficiently if one is dedicated to some cause.”
S4. Ans. (a)
Sol. Dividend means sum of money paid or profit made by someone, which has similar meaning as ‘produce an advantage’.
S5. Ans. (d)
Sol. Refer the last few lines of the third paragraph “Work may be physical or intel­lectual. It is important in all its forms. But it must be constructive.”
S6. Ans. (e)
Sol. Refer the last sentence of the third paragraph “Great nations of the world like Japan, Germany and China have emerged strong only through hard work put in individually and collectively.”
S7. Ans. (c)
Sol. Refer the first sentence of the last paragraph “In India we worship lord Vishwakarma, the great god of the workers but unfortu­nately, we are a nation of shirkers.”
S08. Ans. (d)
Sol. The first part of the sentence is grammatically correct. However, there are certain grammatical errors in both the fourth and the fifth parts of the sentence. In the fourth part, the expression “implementation” lacks the use of preposition; so, it should be replaced by “in implementing” to make the sentence grammatically feasible. Similarly, in the fifth part of the sentence, the preposition “to” should be replaced by “by” to make the sentence grammatically correct. At the end, the correct expression should be “by providing them financial support”. Hence among the given alternatives, option (d) is the correct choice.
S09. Ans. (e)
Sol. The given sentence is grammatically correct and doesn’t require any correction. Hence option (e) is the correct choice.
S10. Ans. (e)
Sol. All the three starters can be used to form the meaningful sentence without altering the intended meaning of the two sentences. Hence (e) is the correct choice.
(I) Given the generally decrepit state of public health, most particularly in rural India, it would be utterly disingenuous to tinker with so critical an aspect of public policy.
(II) Considering the generally decrepit state of public health, most particularly in rural India, it would be utterly disingenuous to tinker with so critical an aspect of public policy.
(III) In the light of the generally decrepit state of public health, most particularly in rural India, it would be utterly disingenuous to tinker with so critical an aspect of public policy.
S11. Ans. (c)
Sol. Both the starters (I) and (II) can be used to frame the meaningful sentence connecting both the sentences without altering their meanings. Hence (c) is the correct choice.
(I) While pluralism in many other spheres of national life is to be welcomed, there is little or no scope for medical pluralism.
(II) Although pluralism in many other spheres of national life is to be welcomed, there is little or no scope for medical pluralism.
S12. Ans. (a)
Sol. Only the first starter can be used to form a logical and meaningful sentence by combining the above two statements without altering their intended meanings. Hence option (a) is the correct choice.
(I) Given the extraordinary adoption of Aadhaar as a government programme, it is tempting to think of Aadhaar’s success as a testament to the Indian state’s uniquely coercive powers that it has accrued and fine-tuned over the past decade thanks to increasing interlinkages between various aspects of our daily lives — from banking to booking a tatkal ticket.
S13. Ans. (c)
Sol. The conjunction “WHEREAS” means in contrast or comparison with the fact that. The word can be used to connect only the sentences (B) and (C) to produce a coherent sentence. Other combinations accordingly give incorrect impressions to the sentences so formed. Hence (c) is the correct choice.
“It means that the regular employee is getting Rs 250 per hour work whereas the contract workmen are getting just Rs. 300 for 8 hours.”
S14. Ans. (d)
Sol. The phrase “BY THE TIME” is used for saying what has already happened at the time that something else happens. The phrase can be used to connect only the sentences (D) and (B) to frame a coherent sentence. Other alternatives would alter the intended meaning of the sentences so formed. Hence option (d) is the correct choice.
“By the time storm reaches New England, it’s expected to gust with strong 30 to 50 mph winds, bringing dangerous, power line-snapping blizzard conditions and coastal flooding.”
S15: Ans. (d)
All other words in other options are synonyms.

QUIZ 3

Directions (01- 10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

We find that today the unity and integrity of the nation is threatened by the divisive forces of regionalism, linguism and communal loyalties which are gaining ascendancy in national life and seeking to tear apart and destroy national integrity. We tend to forget that India is one nation and we are all Indians first and Indians last. It is time we remind ourselves what the great visionary and builder of modern India Jawaharlal Nehru said, “Who dies if India lives, who lives if India dies?” We must realise, and this is unfortunately what many in public life tend to overlook, sometimes out of ignorance of the forces of history and sometimes deliberately with a view to promoting their self interest, that national interest must inevitably and forever prevail over any other considerations proceeding from regional, linguistic or communal attachments. The history of India over the past centuries bears witness to the fact that India was at no time a single political unit. Even during the reign of the Maurya dynasty, though a large part of the country was under the sovereignty of the Mauryan kings, there were considerable portions of the territory which were under the rule of independent kingdoms. So also during the Mughal rule which extended over large parts of the territory of India, there were independent rulers who enjoyed political sovereignty over the territories of their respective kingdoms.
It is an interesting fact of history that India was forged into a nation, neither on account of a common language nor on account of the continued existence of a single political regime over its territories but on account of a common culture evolved over the centuries. It is cultural unity—something more fundamental and enduring than any other bond which may unite the people of a country together which has welded this country into a nation. But until the advent of the British rule, it was not constituted into a single political unit. There were, throughout the period of history for which we have fairly authenticated accounts, various kingdoms and principalities which were occasionally engaged in conflict with one another. During the British rule, India became a compact political unit having one single political regime over its entire territories and this led to the evolution of the concept of a nation. This concept of one nation took firm roots in the minds and hearts of the people during the struggle for independence under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. He has rightly been called the Father of the Nation because it was he who awakened in the people of this country a sense of national consciousness and instilled in them a high sense of patriotism without which it is not possible to build a country into nationhood. By the time the Constitution of India came to be enacted, insurgent India, breaking a new path of non-violent revolution and fighting to free itself from the shackles of foreign domination, had emerged into nationhood and “the people of India” were inspired by a new enthusiasm, a high and noble spirit of sacrifice and above all, a strong sense of nationalism and in the Constitution which they framed. They set about the task of a strong nation based on certain cherished values for which they had fought.
Q01. The author has quoted Jawaharlal Nehru to emphasize the point that
(a) national interest must enjoy supreme importance
(b) India is going to survive even if the world is under the spell of destruction
(c) the world will be destroyed if India is on the threshold of destruction
(d) the survival of the world depends only upon the well-being of India
(e) None of these
Q02. What, according to the author, is the impact of the divisive forces on our nation?
(a) They promote a sense of regional pride.
(b) They help people to form linguistic groups.
(c) They separate groups of people and create enmity among them.
(d) They encourage among people the sense of loyalty to their community.
(e) They remind us of our national pride.
Q03. “Communal loyalties” have been considered by the author as
(a) a good quality to be cherished
(b) of no consequence to the nation
(c) a very important aspect for nation-building
(d) a threat to the solidarity of the nation
(e) None of these
Q04. Which of the following was instrumental in holding the different people of India together?
(a) A common national language
(b) A common cultural heritage
(c) The endurance level of the people
(d) Fundamentalist bent of mind of the people
(e) None of these
Q05. The passage appears to have been written with the purpose of
(a) giving a piece of advice to politicians of free India
(b) assessing the patriotic values and sacrifices made by people for India’s freedom
(c) justifying the teaching of Mahatma Gandhi and its impact on the people
(d) giving a historical account of how India evolved as a nation
(e) None of these
Q06. History shows that India, which was not a political unit earlier, became so
(a) during the reign of Maurya dynasty
(b) during the Mughal rule
(c) after one-national-language policy was adopted
(d) during the regime of independent rulers
(e) during the British rule
Q07. The “people of India”, as highlighted by the author in the last sentence of the passage, refer to
(a) the people of one unified nation
(b) the subjects of several independent rulers
(c) the patriots who sacrificed themselves in the freedom struggle
(d) the people who were instrumental in writing the Constitution
(e) None of these
Q08. India’s insurgence was for
(a) breaking the path of non-violence
(b) having one common national language
(c) insisting on a unique cultural identity
(d) several independent sovereign rulers
(e) None of these
Q09. Which of the following statements is/ are definitely true in the context of the passage?
(I) The people of India had fought for certain values.
(II) The fight of the Indian people was for one common culture.
(II) The Indian people lacked sense of nationalism until they gained freedom.
(a) Only (I)
(b) Only (II)
(c) Only (III)
(d) Both (I) and (II)
(e) Both (I) and (III)
Q10. Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning to the word ‘attachments’ as used in the passage.
(a) predicaments
(b) hatred
(c) harmony
(d) mistrust
(e) loyalty
Directions (11- 15): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.
The stubborn persistence of child malnutrition in India is one of the tragedies of our time. Many of us have long agonised over this preventable problem, and we continue to ask: why do half of our children not get enough or the right food or adequate care? Even in sub-Saharan Africa, only 30 per cent of the children are malnourished, versus 50 per cent in South Asia. And this gap exists despite our much higher levels of per capita income, education and even safer water access. One-third of the babies in India are born with low birth weight compared to one-sixth in sub-Saharan Africa. This is heartbreaking given the dramatic improvements in our agriculture, advances in literacy, and great strides in economic growth. For more than 20 years India has even sustained the greatest effort in history to improve nutritional standards, according to UNICEF, through its Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Programme. So it is not for lack of effort. Nor is it due to poverty, which has been steadily declining by one per cent a year for two decades. What accounts for this puzzle? In 1996, India’s famous physician nutritionist wrote aground-breaking article on this called ‘The Asian Enigma’. After considering different factors, including access to food and income and our vegetarianism, he concluded that the lower status of women might be the reason. The link between women’s status and child nutrition seems plausible. In many Indian homes, men eat first; women have to make do with leftovers. This is perhaps why 83 per cent of women in India suffer from iron deficiency-anaemia versus 40 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa. A malnourished mother will give birth to a baby with low birth weight. Moreover, domestic work often forces a mother to delegate the chore of feeding solid food to her baby to older siblings. If women had more control over family income and decisions, they would devote them to better pre and post-natal care and to their children.
So far this was the theory. But now a study by the International Food Policy Research Institute and Emory University seems to confirm this hypothesis. It brought together data from 36 developing countries, spanning over one hundred thousand children under the age of three and an equal number of women. It measured a woman’s position in the home—whether she works for cash, her age at marriage, and the difference in age and education between spouses. The study concludes that the lowly position of women in the family is the single most important reason for the gap in children’s nutrition between South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, followed by sanitation (lack of latrines) and urbanisation (slum living).
I wonder why the position of women in India is worse than that of women in other societies. The report seemed to suggest that South Asian women were not so far behind African women as their inferior status too limited their ability to nurture children. I also wonder whether children’s well being is only a woman’s issue or a family concern where men play a crucial role. I suspect there are no easy answers. Women everywhere suffer from lower status, but in India it appears to have devastating consequences. The policy implications are clear: if we want to reduce child malnutrition, we must combine our child programmes with efforts to improve the situation of women. To succeed, we need healthy children who’ll become tomorrow’s innovative adults. If we ignore gender inequality, we will continue to produce stunted children, wasted lives, and untold misery.
Q11. A hypothesis related to low birth weight has now been confirmed. According to this, the major reason for this state is
(a) Vegetarianism
(b) Illiteracy
(c) Illiteracy of women
(d) Status of women
(e) Slum living
Q12. Which type of scheme indicates that there was no lack of efforts in India for the last two decades to improve the situation?
(a) Literacy
(b) Rural Development
(c) Child Development
(d) Family Planning
(e) Poverty Alleviation
Q13. In which of the following areas is South Asia’s performance better than that of sub-Saharan Africa?
(a) Safer drinking water
(b) Lower infant mortality rate
(c) Higher status of women
(d) Higher birth weight of children
(e) None of these
Q14. According to the author, the crux is
(a) women have lower status everywhere as compared to men.
(b) improvement of sanitation and slum conditions.
(c) that in India, the per capita income and education level of women is very low.
(d) low status of women has a horrifying result on child malnutrition.
(e) None of these
Q15. Which of the following was one of the measures of women’s position in the home?
(a) Number of children
(b) Difference in husband’s and wife’s income.
(c) Weights of child at birth
(d) Age of marriage
(e) None of these

Answers

S01. Ans. (a)
Sol. The phrase quoted by Jawaharlal Nehru, as used in the first paragraph of the passage “Who dies if India lives, who lives if India dies?” means that People’s survival is completely dependent on India’ survival, hence national unity and integrity should be maintained. Hence sentence (a) is the correct choice.
S02. Ans. (c)
Sol. We can infer from first sentence of the paragraph that divisive forces on our nation led to threatening of unity and integrity of the nation. Hence sentence (c) is the correct choice.
S03. Ans. (d)
Sol. Refer the first sentence of the paragraph where communal loyalties are used to describe that its harmfulness for national integrity.
S04. Ans. (b)
Sol. Refer the second sentence of the second paragraph “It is cultural unity—something more fundamental and enduring than any other bond which may unite the people of a country together which has welded this country into a nation.”
S05. Ans. (e)
Sol. The author has written this passage with a message of making India as an Ideal nation.
S06. Ans. (e)
Sol. Refer the second paragraph of the passage “During the British rule, India became a compact political unit having one single political regime over its entire territories and this led to the evolution of the concept of a nation.”
S07. Ans. (a)
Sol. Here ‘People of India’ as mentioned in the last few lines of the passage, refers to the people of one unified nation.
S08. Ans. (e)
Sol. With reference to last few lines of the second paragraph, it can be said that India’s insurgence stood for gaining freedom by adopting the path of non-violent struggle.
S09. Ans. (a)
Sol. Refer the last sentence of the passage “They set about the task of a strong nation based on certain cherished values for which they had fought.”
S10. Ans. (b)
Sol. ‘hatred’ is the most opposite in meaning to the word ‘attachments’.
S11. Ans. (d)
Sol. Refer the last sentence of the first paragraph “If women had more control over family income and decisions, they would devote them to better pre and post-natal care and to their children.”
S12. Ans. (c)
Sol. Refer the seventh sentence of the first paragraph “For more than 20 years India has even sustained the greatest effort in history to improve nutritional standards, according to UNICEF, through its Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Programme. So, it is not for lack of effort.”
S13. Ans. (a)
Sol. Refer the fourth sentence of the first paragraph “And this gap exists despite our much higher levels of per capita income, education and even safer water access.”
S14. Ans. (d)
Sol. Refer the last sentence of the second paragraph “The study concludes that the lowly position of women in the family is the single most important reason for the gap in children’s nutrition between South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, followed by sanitation (lack of latrines) and urbanisation (slum living).”
S15. Ans. (d)
Sol. Refer the second last sentence of the second paragraph “It measured a woman’s position in the home—whether she works for cash, her age at marriage, and the difference in age and education between spouses.”

QUIZ 4

Directions (Q1- 7): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

The early Orientalist movement and the rapid growth of English as the principal medium of instruction after the 1830s, considerably enhanced the educated Indian's familiarity with his tradition. But, perhaps equally importantly, it also fostered a sense of shared culture. Ram Mohan may have been the first Hindu to have used the term 'Hinduism', thereby indicating some degree of culture or perhaps even ethnic essentialization. These developments were also facilitated by the coming of the printing press. Over time, the success of print-culture enormously increased the importance of written texts within a tradition that had hitherto greatly relied on orality. Perhaps this strengthened the hands of some writers who, particularly towards the end of the nineteenth century, began to emphasize a common cultural base for Hinduism. In the religious sphere, for example, there was now a far greater emphasis on the Vedas as a unified source of Hinduism, the 'prime determinant of a 'Hindu' identity.
The success of the printing press is also tied up with certain extremely important shifts that began to occur in the social and religious thinking of early nineteenth century Bengal. Hitherto, texts considered to be the most important in Hinduism had been zealously guarded by a class of Brahmins which prevented their wider circulation. Women and Sudras, for example, had traditionally been barred from Vedic knowledge. More importantly, these Hindu scriptures were composed in ' Sanskrit which meant that many other social groups besides women and Sudras had practically no access to the Vedas. Early reformers like Ram Mohan addressed these issues simultaneously. On the one hand, Ram Mohan bravely went against tradition by attempting to open up Vedic knowledge to all those who might be moved to seek it, irrespective of their social origin. This was the impulse behind his publication of Bengali translations of Hindu religious classics like the Vedanta Sutra (Brahma Sutra), and subsequently, some important Upanishads. This is also precisely why Ram Mohan became such a controversial figure.
Q1. Why did Ram Mohan become a controversial figure?
(a) He created awareness and sensitivity about our cultural heritage.
(b) He advocated that patriotism is a natural instinct among People
(c) He advocated that racial identity is crucial for political independence
(d) He opposed the move of opening the first Sanskrit college in Bengal
(e) He opened up the knowledge of Vedas to all the sections of the society
Q2. Which of the following factors contributed to the enhancement of educated Indian's familiarity with his tradition?
(a) Critical reappraisal of the sources of his knowledge about tradition
(b) The early criticism and negation of the Orientalist movement
(c) Awareness about the true spirit of Hinduism
(d) The rapid growth of English as the main medium of instruction
(e) Realization of the importance and acquisition of Hindu identity
Q3. Which of the following important shifts is the author of the passage talking about in the early 19th Century Bengal?
(a) Emphasizing the common culture base for Hinduism
(b) Fostering a sense of shared culture
(c) Studying carefully the religious classics like Vedanta Sutra and Upanishads
(d) Social and religious thinking of the people
(e) Political and economic thinking of the people
Q4. Why were the important texts of Hinduism not widely circulated?
(a) They were not easily available and cheaply priced
(b) People were not aware of the true knowledge contained in these texts
(c) They were ardently protected by the religious priests and preachers
(d) Orthodox thinking was more dominant than the rational thinking
(e) Ethics essentialisation was gravely missing among the people
Q5. The early Orientalist movement and English as the medium of instruction...
(a) Provided tacit but strong support to the liberation movement
(b) Increased understanding and awareness of the Indian education system
(c) Developed a sense of shared culture among the Indians
(d) Made Indians adequately emotional and nostalgic
(e) Encouraged students to obtain admissions in English medium educational institutions
Q6. Which of the following strengthened the hands of some writers towards the end of the 19th Century?
(a) Ram Mohan's use of the term 'Hinduism' for the first time
(b) Advent of the printing press and realisation of the importance of written texts
(c) Ram Mohan's insistence on the study of Indian texts and traditions
(d) Opening of Vedic knowledge to all the sections of the society
(e) Interference of the foreigners in the Indian cultural tradition
Q7. Choose the word which is SIMILAR in meaning of the word “fostered” as used in the passage.
(a) Promoted
(b) Appreciated
(c) Widened
(d) Aligned
(e) Involved
Q8. Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word “moved’ as used in the passage.
(a) Deterred
(b) Obliged
(c) Abandoned
(d) Motivated
(e) Adhered
Q9.  Whether
(A) As banks sharpen their internal assessment of risk before lending, they are investing in analytics, data gathering and use of social media more now than on conventional tools like score from credit information bureaus, which capture borrowing behaviour.
(B) To sanction a loan for you to buy a home or car, rather than relying solely on your credit card repayments.
(C) It is not just Kotak but others too, such as HDFC Bank, Axis Bank and even state-owned banks like State Bank of India, which use social media behaviour not only for loan sanctions but also for tailoring sales pitch for products.
(D) Loan officers at Kotak Mahindra Bank are spending more time in reading your Facebook posts, SMSes and payment data available in your mobile phone to decide.
(a) Only B-A
(b) Only D-B
(c) Only D-C
(d) Only A-C
(e) None
Q10. Also
(A) These mutations turn good cells bad by boosting the expression of a protein called PD-L1, or programmed death-ligand 1.
(B) Mutations in the Ras gene are double trouble.
(C) PD-L1 is being targeted by cancer immunotherapies, which try to unmask cancer cells, much about PD-L1 remains unknown
(D) Mutations help bad cells masquerade as good cells by uplifting protein PD-L1.
(a) Only A-B
(b) Only C-D
(c) Only B-C
(d) Only A-D
(e) None
Directions (11-15): Each of the following questions has a paragraph from which one sentence has been deleted. From the given options, choose the one that completes the paragraph in the most appropriate way.
Q11. The Great Bolshevik Revolution of October 1917 was by no means simply a “Russian” revolution. Rather, it was a watershed event and a turning point in universal human history. This revolution came after a whole chain of revolutions that broke out in Europe in the aftermath of the French Revolution of 1789, but it was the first that envisioned the end not only of the rule of capital but of private property altogether, thus of all class society as such. In his seminal writings of March-April 1917, Lenin in fact envisions an immediate “withering away of the state”. ___________________________________________.
(a) The Bolshevik Revolution was the great historic event with which the peasantry first emerged as the maker of its own history.
(b) Russian colonies were the first in history to make a direct transition from colonial subjection to socialist liberation.
(c) Unlike Britain or France, Russia was not strong enough to acquire colonies far from its frontiers.
(d) This was the most far-reaching project that any revolution had ever set for itself.
(e) Russia itself was not only a tsarist state.
Q12. The October Revolutionised the conception of a “revolution”. In a sense, all revolutions do that anyway, but the October Revolution did so in a manner that continues to have an abiding relevance. Marx and Engels had essentially visualised a proletarian revolution in Europe. Engels, in his famous letter to Karl Kautsky in 1882, had talked no doubt of the possibility of revolutions in countries such as India, Egypt and Algeria, adding that “that would certainly be the best thing for us” (that is, for the proletarian revolution in Europe), but how such revolutions in the “periphery” might unfold and, in particular, how they were related to the prospects of socialism in those countries was not theorised.
 _______________________________________________________.
(a) This meant that the task of carrying forward the democratic revolution in such countries fell on the working class, which had to form an alliance with the peasantry for this purpose.
(b) The focus had been on socialist revolution in Europe.
(c) The theoretical work preceding and underlying the October Revolution broke new ground.
(d) Centralisation of capital in each of the advanced capitalist countries had reached a point, in the spheres of both industry and banking, where a small financial oligarchy presided over a huge mass of finance capital that was controlled by banks and employed in industry.
(e) This theory was further developed by its integration with the understanding of imperialism that came with the First World War.
Q13. It was a hectic two weeks for the Saudi Crown Prince, Mohammed bin Salman, or MBS as he is now popularly known. In the first fortnight of November, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia initiated a purge that involved the arrest of some of his royal half-brothers, leading businessmen, artistes and media professionals. He then announced a full blockade on Yemen after a missile fired from that country fell perilously close to the international airport in Riyadh, the Saudi capital. _____________________________________________________. The Prime Minister of Lebanon, Saad Hariri, was urgently summoned to Riyadh by the Saudi King. According to reports, he was promptly arrested after landing and given a prepared speech of resignation to read.
(a) The State Department memo detailing the conversation between Prince Alwaleed and the American ambassador was released by WikiLeaks.
(b) The Lebanese President has said that the Saudi authorities are holding the Prime Minister against his will.
(c) Hariri, before his unannounced appearance on a Saudi television channel, was presiding over a Lebanese government that was, after a long time, working in a united and cohesive way.
(d) After that he did something unparalleled in the history of contemporary diplomacy or politics in the region.
(e) The Lebanese Prime Minister was ordered to come alone to Riyadh by the Saudi authorities.
Q14. About two years ago when Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam breathed his last, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government decided to live up to tradition in paying tribute to the former President. Kalam, who was famously called a “nationalist despite being a Muslim” by a Union Minister, had a road named after him in the heart of Lutyens’ Delhi. There was a catch, though: Aurangzeb Road was renamed A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Road. It was the latest instance of the time-worn “Good Muslim/Bad Muslim” binary, the liberal, nationalist Muslim versus a bigot. A few eyebrows were raised, but nobody complained. _____________________________________________________.
(a) Aurangzeb has always been criticised, projected as a villain who did nothing right.
(b) He was a pioneer in the development and use of Mysore rockets in warfare.
(c) The objective is to create antipathy towards Muslim rulers
(d) There are no good Muslims left, at least in history.
(e) Kalam deserved to be remembered by posterity.
Q15. State Bank of India is the only Indian bank to figure in the list of the world’s top 50 banks and the only one to be listed in Fortune 500. It is widely known as the banker of the nation and has 23,566 branches in the country, of which 15,037 are in rural and semi-urban areas. SBI has 189 international offices in 35 countries.__________________________. It recently acquired additional muscle by merging its five associate banks with itself, besides opening crores of new accounts under the Prime Minister’s Jan DhanYojana. This bank is now being gifted to Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) on a platter, ostensibly for the purpose of “banking the unbanked”.
(a) The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) gave its final approval to RIL to start its payment bank in March 2017.
(b) Is it the beginning of the end for State Bank of India (SBI)?
(c) The avowed objective of the government and the RBI in giving the approval to the RIL-SBI partnership was to utilise the latest technology of Reliance Jio to reach unbanked rural areas.
(d) According to SBI officers, business correspondents appointed by SBI are being asked to work for RIL, thereby giving the corporate house an established network of business correspondents.
(e) As of September 30, 2014, the bank had approximately 225 million active customer accounts, and deposits, net advances and a total assets base of Rs.14,73,785 crore, Rs.12,09,648 crore and Rs.18,74,332 crore respectively.

Answers

S01. Ans. (e)
Sol.  Refer the last few lines of the second paragraph “On the one hand, Ram Mohan bravely went against tradition by attempting to open up Vedic knowledge to all those who might be moved to seek it, irrespective of their social origin.”
S02. Ans. (d)
Sol. Refer the first line of the passage “The early Orientalist movement and the rapid growth of English as the principal medium of instruction after the 1830s, considerably enhanced the educated Indian's familiarity with his tradition.”
S03. Ans. (d)
Sol. Refer the first few lines of the second paragraph “The success of the printing press is also tied up with certain extremely important shifts that began to occur in the social and religious thinking of early nineteenth century Bengal.”
S04. Ans. (c)
Sol. Refer the second sentence of the second paragraph “Hitherto, texts considered to be the most important in Hinduism had been zealously guarded by a class of Brahmins which prevented their wider circulation.”
S05. Ans. (c)
Sol. Refer the first two sentences of the passage “The early Orientalist movement and the rapid growth of English as the principal medium of instruction after the 1830s, considerably enhanced the educated Indian's familiarity with his tradition. But, perhaps equally importantly, it also fostered a sense of shared culture.”
S06. Ans. (b)
Sol. Refer the third last sentence of the first paragraph “Over time, the success of print-culture enormously increased the importance of written texts within a tradition that had hitherto greatly relied on orality.”
S07. Ans. (a)
Sol. Fostered means encourage the development of (something, especially something desirable). Hence it has the similar meaning to promoted.
S08. Ans. (a)
Sol. Here ‘moved’ means influenced. Hence it has the opposite meaning to ‘deterred’.
S9. Ans. (b)
Sol. ‘Whether’ means ‘expressing a doubt or choice between alternatives’.
S10. Ans. (d)
Sol. ‘Also’ means ‘in addition; too.’
“These mutations turn good cells bad and also help bad cells masquerade as good cells by boosting the expression of a protein called PD-L1, or programmed death-ligand 1.”
S11. Ans. (d)
Sol. Here sentence (d) completes the paragraph. The paragraph is giving the brief description about the Russian revolution, which was a turning point in human history broke out after French revolution, envisaged the end of capital rule and private property. The sentence before the blank is talking about the project of Lenin related to the revolution and hence the blank must be filled by the sentence related to his project. Hence only sentence (d) is making the paragraph meaningful and complete.
S12. Ans. (b)
Sol. The paragraph discusses the envision of Marx and Engels about the revolution in countries like India, Egypt and Algeria and how they are related to the prospects of socialism. After going through the sentences, we can conclude that sentence (b) is going correctly with the theme of the paragraph talking about the socialist revolution in Egypt. Hence option (b) is the correct choice.
S13. Ans. (d)
Sol. We can easily identify the theme of the paragraph that revolves around the actions of Saudi Crown Prince, Mohammed bin Salman. The sentences before the blank talks about announcement by him to siege the Yemen and sentences after the blank is about the arrest of Prime Minister of Lebanon, Saad Hariri by Saudi King and the blank must be filled by the sentence related to this theme. Going through all the sentences, we can conclude that sentence (d) is going in harmony with the paragraph talking about his move of arresting PM of Lebanon, that is exceptional. Hence option (d) is the correct choice.
S14. Ans. (e)
Sol. The paragraph is all about paying tribute to Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam by the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government by renaming a road after him. Hence the blank must be filled by the sentence representing the objective of this move. Read the sentences, sentence (e) talking about Kalam to be remembered by future generations, is making the paragraph meaningful. Hence option (e) is the correct choice.
S15. Ans. (e)
Sol. The paragraph is all about State Bank of India, the only bank to be listed in the World’s top 50 banks and in Fortune 500. The sentences before the blank is giving the description about the number of branches of SBI and the sentences after the blank talks about the recent changes in the bank structure. The blank must be filled by the sentence discussing more information regarding SBI. Only sentence (e) is giving the further description and hence making the given option the correct choice.







QUIZ 5

Directions (01- 10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

From ‘apparel to aerospace’, ‘steel to software’, the pace of technological innovation is quickening. No longer can companies afford to miss generation of technology and expect to remain competitive. Adding to the pressure, innovations are increasingly crossing industry boundaries; a new fiber developed by the textile industry has potential for building materials and medical equipment. Some companies are adept at using a diversity of technologies to create new products that transform markets. But many others are floundering because they rely on a technology strategy that no longer works in such a fast changing environment. The difference between success and failure is not how much a company spends on research and development (R&D), but how it approaches it.
There are two possible approaches. Either a company can invest in R&D that an older generation of technology the ‘break through’ approach-or its focus on combining existing technologies into hybrid technologies – the ‘technologies fusion’ approach. It blends incremental technical improvements from several previously separate field of technology to create products that revolutionise markets.
In a world where the old maxim ‘one technology one industry’ no longer applies, a singular breakthrough strategy is inadequate; companies need to include both the breakthrough and fusion approaches in their technology strategy. Relying on breakthroughs alone fails because it focuses the R&D efforts to narrowly, ignoring the possibilities of combining technologies. Yet many western companies still rely almost exclusively – on the breakthrough approach. The reasons are complex: a distrust of outside innovations and not-invented here engineering and arrogance and aversion to sharing research results.
Q1. Which of the following is false according to the passage?       
(a) Technological innovation is taking place at a fast pace 
(b) All technological innovations have applicability in other industries    
(c) Companies failing to adopt new technology may fail.   
(d) Companies which adopt technologies of other industries have an advantage   
(e) Technology becomes obsolete in a fast changing environment.
Q2. Which of the following would correctly reflect the position regarding the two approaches to technology adoption? 
(a) Both the approaches are to be used at the same time     
(b) ‘Breakthrough’ approach is only to be used       
(c) ‘Technology fusion’ approach is only to be used           
(d) ‘Breakthrough approach’ is preferable for many companies     
(e) None of these       
Q3. Which of the following has the same meaning as the word ‘generation’ as it has been used in-the passage?  
(a) Family      
(b) Class        
(c) Offspring  
(d) Phase        
(e) Level        
Q4. Which of the following features of technology has been highlighted most prominently by the author of the passage?
(a) Its improper utilization by some companies       
(b) The speed at which innovations are happening  
(c) The expenses involved in developing technology          
(d) The two approaches to adopting technology      
(e) None of these       
Q5. What does the author want to highlight by using the example ‘apparel to aerospace’ and ‘steel to software’?    
(a) Many industries are trying to improve technology        
(b) His knowledge about the various industries       
(c) The wide spread of technological innovations   
(d) The speed of the technological innovation         
(e) None of these       
Q6. What, according to the author, is adding to the pressure on the companies?
(a) Applicability of technologies of other industries to them
(b) Increasing speed of technological innovations
(c) Work load on their R & D departments
(d) Finding funds for increased R & D activities
(e) Demand from customers for improved products
Q7. What is the immediate effect, according to the passage, if a company does not innovate?
(a) It closes down.
(b) It ceases to be competitive in the market.
(c) The prices of its products go up.
(d) Its R & D departments close down.
(e) It adds pressure on itself.
Q8. What, according to the author, is the major drawback of the breakthrough approach of technological innovation?
(a) It is expensive to innovate with this approach.
(b) It cannot give answers to modern technological problems.
(c) This approach has been overused.
(d) It cannot create new products.
(e) It does take in development in other fields.
Q9. Which of the following is the correct way, according to the author, of spending money on research?
(a) Spend more money on breakthrough research.
(b) Spend no money on breakthrough research.
(c) Spend more money on technology fusion research.
(d) Spend no money on technology fusion research.
(e) None of these
Q10. Why do Western companies avoid the technology fusion approach?
(a) Distrust of outside researchers
(b) Feeling that what one does alone is right
(c) Failure to share results with others
(d) All of the above
(e) None of these
Directions (11- 15): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.
In a poor country like India, as income rises people first concentrate on increasing their consumption of what they regard as basic or more essential consumer goods. For the poor, these goods would primarily include cereals and for people at successive levels of higher income protective foods, simple non-food consumer goods, more modern, better quality non-food consumer goods and simple consumer durables, better quality consumer goods, and so on. When the demand for basic and more essential consumer goods is more or less met, demand for the next higher level of consumer goods begins to impinge on consumer decision making and their consumption increases. There is thus a hierarchy of income levels and a hierarchy of consumer goods. As incomes rise and one approaches the turning point referred to, there is an upward movement along the hierarchy in the demand for consumer goods which exhibits itself in a relative increase in the demand for these goods.
If one examines the past consumption behaviour of households in India, one finds confirmation of the proposition just made. Until the mid-seventies one notices a rise in the proportion of consumption expenditure on cereals, and thereafter, a steady decline reflecting a progressive increase in the relative expenditure on non-cereal or protective foods. About the same time the rising trend in the share of food in total consumption expenditure also begins to decline, raising the proportion of expenditure on non-food consumer goods. Simultaneously one also notices a sharper rise in the proportion of expenditure on consumer durables. Thus, what one sees is an upward movement in consumer demand along the hierarchy of consumer goods which amounts to a major change in consumer behaviour. There are two features of this change to which attention particularly needs to be drawn.
If we examine the price behaviour of food items over the past several years, we find that the prices of protective foods (edible oils, pulses, sugar, meat, fish etc) have been rising more sharply than those of cereals on account of an inadequate supply response to the increase in demand. This is particularly unfortunate because it affects the poorer segments of the population, whose need to increase consumption of protective foods is being thwarted by an excessive rise in prices. In the Approach to the Seventh Plan, importance was given to edible oils, pulses and some of the other protective foods but the overall impression created was that food grains still hold the centre of the stage. Whereas it is important to meet the demand for agricultural inputs to sustain the impetus of food grain production and to reduce the regional imbalance in agriculture development, the thrust of agricultural policy now must be more on increasing availability of protective food at reasonable prices.
Q11. As income rises in a poor country like India, the poor people concentrate on increasing their consumption of
(a) protein foods
(b) modern, non-food consumer goods
(c) cereals
(d) protective foods
(e) All
Q12. Whenever there is a decline in the proportion of consumption expenditure on cereals
(a) it reflects an increase in the expenditure on non-cereal protective foods.
(b) it does not reflect an increase in the expenditure on non-cereal or protective food.
(c) it reflects a further increase in the expenditure of cereal foods.
(d) Both (a) and (b)
(e) None of these
Q13. For the poor, the basic consumer goods include items like
(a) edible oils and pulses
(b) non-cereal protective food
(c) meat and fish
(d) cereals
(e) eggs
Q14. Prices of protective food have risen because
(a) prices of cereals have come down.
(b) there is no agricultural development.
(c) there is inadequate supply to demand.
(d) price of non-cereal food has come down.
(e) None of these
Q15. In the approach to the seventh plan, the overall impression was that priority should be given to 
(a) food grains
(b) protective foods
(c)  non-food products
(d) the identification of consumer behavior
(e) consumer satisfaction

Answers

S1. Ans. (b)
Sol. Sentence (b) is not true in the context of the passage.
S2. Ans. (a)
Sol. Refer the first sentence of the last paragraph “In a world where the old maxim ‘one technology one industry’ no longer applies, a singular breakthrough strategy is inadequate; companies need to include both the breakthrough and fusion approaches in their technology strategy.”
S3. Ans. (d)
Sol.  Here ‘Phase’ is going correctly and similar with the word ‘generation’ in the context of the passage.
S4. Ans. (d)
Sol. The author has highlighted the two approaches that have been described in the entire passage.
S5. Ans. (c)
Sol. The author wanted to highlight the widespread of technological innovations, as indicated in the first sentence of the passage, “From ‘apparel to aerospace’, ‘steel to software’, the pace of technological innovation is quickening.”
S6. Ans. (a)
Sol. Refer the third sentence of the first paragraph “Adding to the pressure, innovations are increasingly crossing industry boundaries; a new fiber developed by the textile industry has potential for building materials and medical equipment.”
S7. Ans. (b)
Sol. Refer the second sentence of the first paragraph “No longer can companies afford to miss generation of technology and expect to remain competitive.”
S8. Ans. (e)
Sol. Refer the second sentence of the last paragraph “Relying on breakthroughs alone fails because it focuses the R&D efforts to narrowly, ignoring the possibilities of combining technologies.”
S9. Ans. (e)
Sol. Refer the last sentence of the first paragraph “The difference between success and failure is not how much a company spends on research and development (R&D), but how it approaches it.”
S10. Ans. (d)
Sol. Refer the last two sentences of the passage “Yet many western companies still rely almost exclusively – on the breakthrough approach. The reasons are complex: a distrust of outside innovations and not-invented here engineering and arrogance and aversion to sharing research results.”
S11. Ans. (c)
Sol. Refer the first two sentences of the passage “In a poor country like India, as income rises people first concentrate on increasing their consumption of what they regard as basic or more essential consumer goods. For the poor, these goods would primarily include cereals and for people at successive levels of higher income protective foods, simple non-food consumer goods, more modern, better quality non-food consumer goods and simple consumer durables, better quality consumer goods, and so on.”
S12. Ans. (a)
Sol. Refer the second sentence of the second paragraph “Until the mid-seventies one notices a rise in the proportion of consumption expenditure on cereals, and thereafter, a steady decline reflecting a progressive increase in the relative expenditure on non-cereal or protective foods.”
S13. Ans. (d)
Sol. Refer the first few lines of the first paragraph “For the poor, these goods would primarily include cereals and for people at successive levels of higher income protective foods, simple non-food consumer goods, more modern, better quality non-food consumer goods and simple consumer durables, better quality consumer goods, and so on.”
S14. Ans. C
S15. Ans. (a)
Sol. Refer the second last sentence of the passage “Approach to the Seventh Plan, importance was given to edible oils, pulses and some of the other protective foods but the overall impression created was that food grains still hold the centre of the stage”.

thanks bankersadda.com   QUIZ 1 TO 5 MARCH 2018

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