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CURRENT AFFAIRS NOVEMBER 11 TO 20 2018


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Important Current Affairs 11th November 2018
Art and Culture (5 Nov – 10 Nov 2018)
·       On 10 November 2018, the Delhi government announced ‘Jashn-e-Virasat-e-Urdu’, a festival to celebrate Urdu culture and its heritage.
·       The 24th Kolkata International Film Festival began in Kolkata on 10 November 2018.
·       The 49th International Film Festival of India (IFFI) 2018 will be held in Goa from 20th to 28th November 2018.
11th Asian Shooting Championship 2018 winners
·       Divyansh Singh won the silver medal in 10m Air Rifle Junior Men’s event.
·       Elavenil Valarivan won the bronze medal in 10m Air Rifle Junior Women’s event.
·       Elavenil & Hriday won the gold medal in 10m Air Rifle Junior mixed event.
·       Saurabh Chaudhary won the gold medal in the 10m Air pistol junior men’s event.
·       Manu Bhaker & Saurabh won the gold medal in the 10m Air pistol mixed team event
Miscellaneous News (5 Nov – 10 Nov 2018)
·       The Central and Andhra Pradesh governments and the World Bank have signed the $172.20 million loan agreement for an agriculture project.
·       US researchers have successfully produced electricity from a mushroom covered in bacteria.
·       NASA’s Ralph and Lucy are all set to explore Jupiter’s Trojan asteroids.
·       Tesla has appointed Robyn Denholm as the Chairman of the company’s board of directors.
Defence News (5 Nov – 10 Nov 2018)
·       INS Arihant, India’s first nuclear-powered submarine, successfully completed its first deterrence patrol.
·       The ‘M777 howitzer’ and ‘K9 Vajra-T’ were formally inducted into Indian Army on 9 November 2018.
·       The ‘Singapore-India Maritime Bilateral Exercise’ (SIMBEX) has started from 10 November 2018 at Port Blair.
Indexes and Reports (5 Nov – 10 Nov 2018)
·       According to a report by Kaspersky Lab, India is ranked 12th worldwide when it comes to the dangers associated with surfing the web.
·       A report titled ‘Global Macro Outlook 2019-20’ was released by Moody’s Investors Service on 8 November 2018.
·       According to a report by Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE), the unemployment rate in India rose to 6.9% in October 2018.
International Affairs (5 Nov- 10 Nov 2018)
·       India participated in China’s first international import expo in Shanghai on 5 November 2018.
·       More than 20 countries have committed to ‘Changsha declaration’ on agricultural and rural development in Changsha, China on 2 November 2018.
·       The 2018 ‘United Nations Pledging Conference for Development Activities’ was held on 5 November 2018.
Books and Authors (5 Nov- 10 Nov 2018)
·       AR Rahman released his biography, ‘Notes of a Dream: The Authorized Biography of AR Rahman’, written by Krishna Trilok on 3 November 2018.
·       The book, titled ‘The Fire Burns Blue: A History of Women’s Cricket in India’, co-authored by sports journalists Karunya Keshav and Sidhanta Pathak will be released on 30 November 2018.
Appointments – II (5 Nov – 10 Nov 2018)
·       The Government of India appointed former journalist Ram Bahadur Rai, former Foreign Secretary S. Jaishankar, journalist Arnab Goswami, and MP Vinay Sahasrabuddhe as members of the Nehru Memorial Museum and Library (NMML) Society.
·       The tenure of Snehlata Shrivastava, Secretary General of Lok Sabha, has been extended by Speaker Sumitra Mahajan for one year.
Appointments – I (5 Nov – 10 Nov 2018)
·       Ashok Kumar Gupta has been appointed as the Chairperson of the Competition Commission of India.
·       Senior diplomat Gaddam Dharmendra has been appointed India’s Ambassador to Iran.
·       Retired Gauhati High Court judge Pranoy Kumar Musahary was sworn in as the first Chairperson of Meghalaya Lokayukta.
·       Gafur Rakhimov was elected as the President of the International Boxing Association (AIBA).
Sports News (5 Nov – 10 Nov 2018)
·       Tennis player Luksika Kumkhum from Thailand won the L&T Mumbai Open.
·       Russia’s tennis player Karen Khachanov won the Paris Masters title.
·       In Badminton, Subhankar Dey has won the SaarLorLux Open in Germany.
·       Angad Vir Singh Bajwa won the gold medal in the men’s skeet final of the 8th Asian Shotgun Championship.
·       Rohit Sharma has become India’s highest run-scorer in T20 international cricket.
Awards and Honours – II (5 Nov – 10 Nov 2018)
·       Journalist Swati Chaturvedi has won the 2018 Press Freedom Award for Courage.
·       ‘The LAMO Center’ in Ladakh has won the UNESCO Asia-Pacific Awards for Cultural Heritage Conservation.
·       Jawahar Lal Sarin was conferred with ‘Knight of the Legion of Honour’, France’s highest civilian honour.
·       Samay Godika won the 2018 ‘Breakthrough Junior Challenge’ Prize.
Awards and Honours – I (5 Nov – 10 Nov 2018)
·       Woman Hockey player Lilima Minz was honoured with the prestigious ‘Ekalabya Puraskar’.
·       Veteran journalist and The Hindu Publishing Group Chairman N. Ram has been chosen for the prestigious Raja Ram Mohan Roy Award 2018.
·       The prestigious 2018 IPI India Award for excellence in journalism has been given to Namrata Ahuja of ‘The Week’ magazine.
Days and Events (5 Nov- 10 Nov 2018)
·       Ayurveda Day is observed on 5 November.
·       ‘World Tsunami Awareness Day’ is observed on 5 November.
·       ‘International Day for Preventing the Exploitation of the Environment in War and Armed Conflict’ is observed on 6 November.
·       World Science Day for Peace and Development is observed on 10 November.
·       The West Bengal government will observe ‘Rosogolla Day’ on 14 November.
Business & Economy (5 Nov – 10 Nov 2018)
·       The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has initiated steps to set up a wide-based digital Public Credit Registry (PCR) to capture all details of borrowers.
·       HSBC has executed India’s first financial transaction using blockchain for a deal involving an export by Reliance Industries to Tricon Energy.
·       RBI has liberalised the norms governing external commercial borrowings for infrastructure creation.
Appointment of CJs of 4 HC cleared – II
·       Justice S K Seth, senior-most judge of the Madhya Pradesh High Court, has been appointed as the Chief Justice of the Madhya Pradesh High Court.
·       Justice Sanjay Karol, the most senior judge of Himachal High Court, has been appointed as the Chief Justice of Tripura High Court.
Appointment of CJs of 4 HC cleared – I
·       The government of India cleared the appointment of Chief Justices of High Courts of Allahabad, Patna, Madhya Pradesh and Tripura on 10 November 2018.
·       Justice Govind Mathur, a senior judge of Rajasthan High Court, has been appointed as the Chief Justice of Allahabad High Court.
·       Justice A P Sahi, senior judge of Allahabad High Court, has been appointed as the Chief Justice of Patna High Court.
·       Peter inducted into Agricultural Hall of Fame
·       Peter Dhillon, a Canadian Sikh farmer, has been inducted into the Canadian Agricultural Hall of Fame. He has joined the company of great Canadians who have made their mark in agriculture and agro-food business. He is also the current Chairman of Ocean Spray, a marketing cooperative of cranberry farmers in the U.S. and Canada.
NASA to send organs on chips to space
NASA is planning to send small devices containing human cells in a 3D matrix — known as tissue chips or organs-on-chips — to the International Space Station (ISS). This will help in knowing how the cells respond to stress, drugs and genetic changes. Tissue chips are made of flexible plastic. They have ports and channels to provide nutrients and oxygen to the cells inside them.
VP inaugurated war memorial in France
On 10 November 2018, Vice President M Venkaiah Naidu inaugurated a war memorial in France to pay tribute to thousands of Indian soldiers who died in the World War I. The memorial is the first-of-its-kind built by India in France. Vice President M Venkaiah Naidu is in Paris to represent India at the Armistice of World War I centenary commemoration.
National Education Day observed on November 11
National Education Day is celebrated in India on November 11. The day is celebrated as a mark of respect to Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. He was a freedom fighter and independent India’s first Education Minister (served from 1947 to 1958). He was an eminent scholar of Urdu, Persian and Arabic. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna in 1992.

Important Current Affairs 12th November 2018
‘Quad’ to meet in Singapore on 14 November
Officials from Australia, India, Japan and the United States will hold the third ‘Quadrilateral’ or Quad meeting in Singapore on 14 November 2018. The meeting will be held on the sidelines of the East Asia Summit. The meeting will focus on infrastructure projects, maritime security cooperation and discuss regional challenges including development.
Scientists discovered two planets
Astronomers have discovered two new rogue planets that do not have stars to orbit. Researchers found the planets in the regions called the Galactic bulge and disk. As planets don’t orbit stars and are ‘free-floating,’ it’s difficult to determine the size. One planet could be similar in size to Earth, while another one may be similar to Jupiter.
NASA spotted new iceberg in Antartica
NASA has spotted an enormous new Antarctic iceberg while on a mission to survey the region’s shifting sea ice and glaciers. NASA’s Operation IceBridge flight spotted the giant berg which broke off from Pine Island Glacier in October 2018. The US National Ice Centre estimates the iceberg named B-46, is 66 square nautical miles (87 square miles) in size.
ISRO invites foreign experiments
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has taken its first step towards its mid-2023-planned mission to Venus. It issued an announcement of opportunity (AO) to the international space community to propose their scientific payloads to be carried on the mission. This AO for space-based experiments to study Venus is open to international scientists from various space agencies.
ISRO looking at pool of 10 experiments
After the announcement of Gaganyaan mission, ISRO has now drawn up a list of experiments to be conducted ahead of the mission. ISRO is looking at a pool of 10 experiments to be conducted in low earth orbit, where it plans to send astronauts. The experiments could include testing of medical equipment to micro-biological experiments such as biological air filters and biosensors.
Cyclone Gaja to cross Tamil Nadu & Andhra
A deep depression in the Bay of Bengal has intensified into a cyclonic storm named Cyclone Gaza. It is likely to cross the north Tamil Nadu and south Andhra Pradesh coast on 15 November 2018. It is moving at a speed of 12 kmph is likely to intensify into a ‘severe cyclonic storm’. The coastal areas of north Tamil Nadu would experience moderate rainfall and heavy rainfall.
Voting began in Chattisgarh
The voting for the first phase of the assembly election in Chhattisgarh began on 12 November 2018. The Election Commission has set up five all-women polling booths called ‘Sangwari’ booths in various constituencies of Chhattisgarh. This will encourage women voters to exercise their franchise in the Assembly elections. These women friendly booths are being manned by all-female staff.
ASEAN countries inked 1st e-commerce agreement
Economic ministers from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) on 12 November 2018 signed an agreement to facilitate cross-border e-commerce transactions within the region. The agreement is the grouping’s first agreement on e-commerce. It also aims to deepen cooperation among ASEAN member states so as to spur the use of e-commerce as a way of driving regional economic growth.
Kochi signed a MoU with Vilnius
Kochi Corporation and Vilnius, the capital city of Lithuania, have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on 10 November 2018. The MoU is a part of the European Union (EU) project ‘International Urban Cooperation’. The primary focus of the cooperation would be urban planning, corporate planning, transport, solid water management and water management.
Power Minister inaugurated INSPIRE 2018
R K Singh, Union Minister of State for Power and New & Renewable Energy inaugurated the ‘International Symposium to Promote Innovation & Research in Energy Efficiency’ (INSPIRE 2018) on 11 November 2018. It is being organised by Energy Efficiency Services Limited and World Bank. It will focus on enhancing grid management, e-Mobility, and technologies for energy efficiency in India.
India and Morocco signed an Agreement
An Agreement on mutual legal assistance in criminal matters was signed between the Government of India and Government of the Kingdom of Morocco. It will strengthen bilateral cooperation with Morocco. It will provide a broad legal framework for the prevention, investigation and prosecution of crimes as well as in tracing, restraint and confiscation of funds meant to finance terrorist acts.
Delhi’s air quality in severe category
Delhi’s air quality continues to be in a severe category. An Air Quality Index between 401 and 500 is considered as severe. There are 6 AQI categories, namely Good, Satisfactory, Moderately polluted, Poor, Very Poor, and Severe. The AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. AQI focuses on particulate matter, ground-level ozone, Sulphur Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide.
WEF Global Future Councils began in Dubai
The two-day annual meeting of World Economic Forum’s (WEF) Global Future Councils began in Dubai on 11 November 2018. The objective of the Annual Meeting of the Global Future Councils is to convene the world’s best network of experts to identify new ideas and models that can be applied to critical global challenges. The theme of the meeting is ‘Globalisation 4.0’.
Six-month ban on fish import
Goa government introduced a six-month ban on fish import effective from 12 Nov 2018. The decision has been taken in view of continuing uncertainty about the presence of formalin in imported fish in Goa. The decision has been taken by Goa Health Minister Vishwajit Rane. This is the second ban this year on fish import, the earlier one was for fifteen days in July.
33rd ASEAN summit began in Singapore
The 33rd edition of the ASEAN Summit began in Singapore on 11 November 2018. Prime Minister of Singapore Lee Hsien Loong is the Chairman of the Summit. Prime Minister Narendra Modi is scheduled to attend the East Asia Summit and Associated meetings of ASEAN on 14th and 15th November 2018 in Singapore.
FinTech festival kicks off in Singapore
The 3rd edition of the FinTech Conference was inaugurated in Singapore alongside the ASEAN summit on 12 November 2018. The Conference will focus on themes including Artificial Intelligence, AI in Finance, ASEAN FinTech Opportunities; Cyber-Security, Financial Inclusion; Future of Banking; Future of Money. Singapore FinTech Festival 2018 is organised by the Monetary Authority of Singapore.
Global IT Challenge for Youth concluded
The three-day event of Global IT Challenge for Youth with Disabilities- 2018 concluded in New Delhi on 11 November 2018. This year 96 youth with disabilities from 18 countries including India, Indonesia, China, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Philippines, UK and UAE participated in it. On occasion, 55 awards were presented to youth with disabilities.
Union Minister Ananth Kumar passed away
Union Minister for Parliamentary Affairs, and Chemicals and Fertilizers H.N. Ananth Kumar, passed away in Bengaluru on 12 November 2018. He is a six-time member of parliament from Bengaluru South Lok Sabha seat and was representing it continuously since 1996. He held civil aviation, urban development and tourism portfolios in Atal Bihari Vajpayee cabinet during 1999-2004.
NTPC, 3 other PSUs included in CPSE ETF
The Finance Ministry has rearranged the Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSE) Exchange Traded Fund (ETF). It has included in the basket the scrips of four State-owned companies NTPC, SJVN, NLC and NBCC. The Ministry has removed GAIL, Engineers India Ltd. (EIL) and Container Corporation of India in the ETF basket.
ADB signed a US$13 million loan pact with EESL
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) will provide US$13 million loan to Energy Efficiency Services (EESL) to promote efficient energy usage in India. The loan amount will be provided by the Global Environment Facility (GEF). The grant, to be administered by ADB, is tied to the USD 200 million ADB-financed Demand-Side Energy Efficiency Sector Project.

Important Current Affairs 13th November 2018
Lewis Hamilton won Brazil Grand Prix
Formula One champion Lewis Hamilton won the Brazilian Grand Prix on 11 November 2018. The win was Hamilton’s 10th of the season and 72nd of his career. Hamilton’s win helped Mercedes secure the constructors’ championship. Verstappen finished second while Ferrari’s Kimi Raikkonen took third.
Renaming of two divisions in UP approved
The Uttar Pradesh government approved the renaming of Faizabad and Allahabad divisions as Ayodhya and Prayagraj respectively on 13 November 2018. Prayagraj division will comprise Prayagraj, Kaushambi, Fatehpur and Pratapgarh districts. Ayodhya division will include Ayodhya, Ambedkarnagar, Sultanpur, Amethi and Barabanki districts.
Six professors won Infosys Prize 2018 – II
Kavita Singh was awarded in the field of Humanities. Roop Mallik was awarded in the field of Life Sciences. Nalini Anantharaman was awarded in the field of Mathematical Sciences. SK Satheesh was awarded in the field of Physical Sciences. Sendhil Mullainathan was awarded in the field of Social Sciences
Six professors won Infosys Prize 2018 – I
Six eminent professors have been awarded the ‘Infosys Prize 2018’ across different categories of science and research. The prize has been constituted by the ‘Infosys Science Foundation’ (ISF). The annual award includes a pure gold medal, a citation and a prize purse worth US$ 100,000. Navakanta Bhat was awarded in the field of Engineering and Computer Science.
Sunscreens banned in Palau
Palau is set to become the first country to impose a widespread ban on sunscreen in an effort to protect its vulnerable coral reefs. The government has signed a law that restricts the sale and use of sunscreen and skincare products that contain a list of ten different chemicals. The ban comes into force in 2020.
Eminent Odia singer Chitta Jena passed away
Eminent Odia singer Chitta Jena passed away on 13 November 2018 in Cuttack, Odisha. He had made his debut as a playback singer in the movie Mana Akasha in 1974. He was honoured with the prestigious ‘Prafulla Kar Samman’ for his outstanding achievement in the field of music.
Retail inflation softens to 3.31% in October
According to the Central Statistics Office data, India’s retail inflation eased to 3.31% in October 2018 driven by cheaper food items. The retail inflation number is the lowest since September 2017  Vegetable prices declined by 8.06% in October 2018. Retail inflation, measured by Consumer Price Index (CPI), stood at 3.7% in September 2018 and 3.58% in October 2017.
Award given to Aung San Suu Kyi revoked
Amnesty International revoked the ‘Ambassador of Conscience Award’ given to Myanmar’s leader Aung San Suu Kyi on 13 November 2018. She received the award in 2009 when she was living under house arrest. The award was revoked because of her failure to speak out for the Rohingya minority. She was also stripped of her honourary Canadian citizenship in October 2018.
Largest brain-like supercomputer switched on
The world’s largest supercomputer designed to work in the same way as the human brain has been switched on for the first time. The ‘Spiking Neural Network Architecture’ (SpiNNaker) machine is capable of completing more than 200 million actions per second. The SpiNNaker machine has been designed and built in the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom.
‘Water handloom hut’ inaugurated in Manipur
The first ever ‘water handloom hut’ in Manipur was inaugurated at Loktak Lake on 11 November 2018. Five ‘water handloom huts’ have been built on phumdis (floating biomass) at Loktak Lake in Bishnupur district. The objective of ‘water handloom hut’ is to improve the socio-economic conditions of the weavers residing in the phumdis at Loktak Lake.
‘EXERCISE INDRA’ to be conducted from 18 Nov
The joint military exercise between India and Russia named ‘EXERCISE INDRA 2018’ on combating insurgency will be conducted from 18 November 2018. The exercise is being held under the aegis of United Nations (UN) at Babina Field Firing Ranges in Madhya Pradesh. The aim of the exercise is to practice joint planning and conduct to enhance the interoperability of the two Armies.
BIS appointed Siddharth Tiwari as Chief Rep
The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) has appointed Siddharth Tiwari as the Chief Representative for Asia and the Pacific on 1 November 2018. He succeeds Eli Remolona, who was Chief Representative of the Asian Office from 2008 to 2018. He has served as Executive Secretary to the ‘G20 Eminent Persons Group’ on Global Financial Governance.
Mountaineer Satyarup climbed Mt Giluwe
Indian mountaineer Satyarup Siddhanta became the first Indian to climb Mt Giluwe on 11 November 2018. The summit of the mountain is at an elevation of 4,367 metres. He had successfully climbed the Mt Everest in June 2016. Mt Giluwe is the second highest mountain in Papua New Guinea. Mt Wilhelm is the highest mountain of Papua New Guinea.
Stan Lee passed away
The comic writer Stan Lee passed away on 12 November 2018. He is the co-creator of iconic characters including Iron Man, the Fantastic Four, Spider-Man, Daredevil and the X-Men. He teamed up with artists like Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko to revitalise the comics industry.
Dr Debabhuson won the ‘Munin Barkotoki Award’
Dr Debabhuson Borah won the prestigious ‘Munin Barkotoki Literary Award 2018’ on 12 November 2018. He won the award for his book on literary criticism titled ‘Nirbochon’. The award carries a cash prize of Rs 50,000 along with a citation and a plaque. The award was named after the renowned writer, critic, and journalist Munin Barkotoki.
Statue commemorating Indian soldiers unveiled
A new statue commemorating the role of Indian soldiers in World War I was unveiled in France on 11 November 2018. The seven-foot bronze statue commemorates over 4,700 soldiers and labourers from British India who lost their lives on the Western Front during World War I. Another memorial was inaugurated by Vice President Venkaiah Naidu at Villers Guislain in France on 10 November 2018.
Shuttler Kento Momota won China Open
Kento Momota won badminton’s Fuzhou China Open on 11 November 2018. He defeated Chou Tien-chen of Taiwan in the final match. This was his 7th title of the year. The Fuzhou China Open is a part of the HSBC world tour events, and is designated as a super 750 level tournament.
MoU signed between ADNOC and ISPRL
Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserves Ltd. (ISPRL). Under the MoU, ADNOC is expected to store crude oil in the underground oil storage facility at Padur, Karnataka. ISPRL is an Indian government-owned company mandated to store crude oil for emergency needs.
‘Samudra Shakti’ exercise inaugurated
Indian and Indonesian Navy’s Bilateral Exercise ‘Samudra Shakti’ is being held from 12 to 18 November 2018. The aim of the exercise is to strengthen bilateral relations, expand maritime co-operation, enhance interoperability and exchange best practices. INS Rana of the Eastern Fleet based at Visakhapatnam under the Eastern Naval Command is participating in the exercise.
ISRO to launch communication satellite GSAT-29
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will launch ‘GSLV MkIII-D2’ mission on 14 November 2018. The mission will carry India’s high throughput communication satellite ‘GSAT-29’. ‘GSAT-29’ is a multibeam, multi-band communication satellite weighing 3,423 kgs. The satellite will be carried by Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Mark III.

Important Current Affairs 14th November 2018
Neomi Rao to replace Kavanaugh on DC Circuit
U.S. President Donald Trump has nominated Indian-American Neomi Rao to replace Supreme Court Justice Brett Kavanaugh on the DC Circuit Court of Appeals. The powerful U.S. Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit is considered next to the U.S. Supreme Court. Ms. Rao is currently the administrator of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA).
AIM & UNICEF announced Young Champions Awards
The NITI Aayog’s Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) and UNICEF have announced ‘UNICEF – Atal Tinkering Labs Young Champions Awards’ on 14 November 2018. The awards were presented to the top six most innovative solutions from across the country, which was shortlisted through the Atal Tinkering Marathon. AIM and UNICEF have also launched a 72-hour ‘Tinkering Hackathon’ from 14 to 17 November 2018.
India voted against UNGA draft resolution
India has voted against a United Nations General Assembly draft resolution on the use of death penalty. India said that it goes against the statutory law of the country where an execution is carried out in the ‘rarest of rare’ cases. The draft resolution, taken up in the 3rd Committee (Social, Humanitarian, Cultural) of the General Assembly, was approved on 13 November 2018.
India International Trade Fair inaugurated
Culture Minister Dr Mahesh Sharma inaugurated the 38th India International Trade Fair (IITF) at Pragati Maidan in New Delhi on 14 November 2018. The theme of the fair for 2018 is ‘Rural Enterprises in India’. For the year 2018, Afghanistan is the Partner Country, while Nepal is the Focus Country. Jharkhand is participating as a Partner State in the event.
Dr. Martha received lifetime achievement award
Late Dr Martha Farrell has been honoured with the ‘Lifetime Achievement Award’ at the 6th Indian Social Work Congress in New Delhi on 13 November 2018. Dr Martha is being recognised for her lifelong work towards gender equality, women’s empowerment and prevention of sexual harassment at workplace. In 1991, she co-founded the NGO named Creative Learning for Change.
Prime Minister Modi launched APIX technology
Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the APIX (Application Programming Interface Exchange) in Singapore on 14 November 2018. APIX is a banking technology platform designed to reach nearly two billion people worldwide who are still without bank accounts. APIX will support banks to reach out to those without bank accounts in 23 countries including the 10 ASEAN members countries.
WPI inflation in October jumps to 5.28%
Wholesale inflation based on the wholesale price index (WPI) stood at 5.28% in October 2018. Wholesale inflation in primary articles, which include food articles, cereals, paddy, onions, food, and milk, among others, rose by 1.79% in October 2018. WPI is computed by the Office of the Economic Advisor, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, and Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
7th RCEP Ministerial Meeting concluded
The two-day 7th Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Inter-Sessional Ministerial Meeting concluded in Singapore on 13 November 2018. Commerce and Industry and Civil Aviation Minister Suresh Prabhu led the Indian delegation to the meeting. The Minister for Trade and Industry of Singapore Mr Chan Chun Sing was the Chair of the meeting.
WCO’s regional meet began in Jaipur
A four-day regional meeting of the World Customs Organisation (WCO) began in Jaipur on 14 November 2018. Representatives of 33 member countries of Asia are attending the meeting. The participants will discuss and deliberate upon the amended Kyoto protocol, digital customs, e-commerce among other issues. WCO is an intergovernmental organisation headquartered in Brussels, Belgium.
S K Seth sworned in as Chief Justice of MP HC
Justice S K Seth took oath as Chief Justice of the Madhya Pradesh High Court on 14 November 2018. Madhya Pradesh Governor Anandiben Patel administered the oath of office to Justice Seth. Justice Seth is the senior-most judge of the Madhya Pradesh High Court. He will be the 24th Chief Justice of the MP High Court.
2nd Startup India Investment Seminar organised
‘2nd Startup India Investment Seminar’ was organised in Beijing on 12 November 2018. It was organised by the Embassy of India in China in partnership with Startup India Association (SIA) and Venture Gurukool. The event was planned to expose Chinese investors to the promising Indian startups. The 1st Startup Indian Investment event was organised in November 2017.
Northeast Youth Festival to begin from 15 Nov
Tripura will host the 6th ‘Northeast Youth Festival’ from 15 November 2018. Various sports events and cultural programmes such as folk music, folk dance, rock music, martial arts, adventure sports, handicrafts shows, yoga, and boat race will be held at the three-day festival. The 5th edition of the festival was hosted by Sikkim in 2017.
UASG conferred award to Rajasthan CM
Universal Acceptance Steering Group (UASG) conferred ‘Universal Acceptance Thought Leader Award’ to Rajasthan Chief Minister Vasundhara Raje on 13 November 2018. She was awarded for ‘Rajmail project’ that enables access to the email address to people in the state in local script. The technology for the project was developed by Rajasthan based firm ‘Data XGen Technologies’.
Children’s Day celebrated on 14 November
Children’s Day is celebrated on 14 November every year. It is celebrated on the birth anniversary of the first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. The day is celebrated across the country to increase awareness of the rights, care and education of children.
Rs 75 commemorative coin to be released
The government of India will release a Rs 75 commemorative coin on the occasion of 75th anniversary of the hoisting of Tricolour for the first time by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose at Port Blair. The coin will bear the portrait of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose saluting the flag on the background of cellular jail. The coin will be composed of 50% silver, 40% copper, and 5% each of nickel & zinc.
Flipkart CEO Binny Bansal quits
Flipkart co-founder, Binny Bansal resigned as the company’s Group CEO on 13 November 2018 following an independent investigation into allegations of serious personal misconduct. Kalyan Krishnamurthy will continue to be the CEO of Flipkart. Ananth Narayanan will continue as CEO of Flipkart’s fashion arms Myntra and Jabong. He will report to Kalyan Krishnamurthy.
Sadananda & Narendra given additional charge
Union Ministers, DV Sadananda Gowda and Narendra Singh Tomar were assigned additional portfolios of the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers and the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs, respectively on 13 November 2018. The move was necessitated following the demise of Ananth Kumar. He was holding the charge of both the ministries of Parliamentary Affairs and Chemicals and Fertilisers.
‘Global Digital Content Market’ hosted by DIPP
A conference on ‘Global Digital Content Market’ (GDCM) 2018 is being hosted by the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) on 14 and 15 November 2018 in New Delhi. The focus of GDCM 2018 is on the Asia Pacific region. The aim of GDCM 2018 is to give industry stakeholders a platform to come together and discuss new avenues in the films, music, gaming and creative industry.
LEAP & ARPIT initiative launched by MHRD
On 13 November 2018, Ministry of Human Resource Development has launched two new initiatives: Leadership for Academicians Programme (LEAP) and Annual Refresher Programme In Teaching (ARPIT). ARPIT is an initiative of online professional development of 15 lakh higher education faculty.  LEAP is a 3 weeks flagship leadership development training programme for 2nd level academic functionaries.
World Diabetes Day observed on 14 November
World Diabetes Day is observed on 14 November every year. The theme of World Diabetes Day 2018 is ‘The Family and Diabetes’. The aim of World Diabetes Day theme is to raise awareness about the impact of diabetes on the family. Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attack, stroke, and lower limb amputation.

Important Current Affairs 15th November 2018
Yes Bank chairman Ashok Chawla resigned
Ashok Chawla has resigned as the Non-Executive (Independent) Chairman of Yes Bank on 14 November 2018. He has also been serving as the Chairman of National Stock Exchange, a quasi-regulator under the SEBI Act, since 2016. Former finance secretary Ashok Chawla had also worked as the Chairman of CCI or Competition Commission of India.
‘ASEAN-India Breakfast Summit’ held
Prime Minister Narendra Modi participated in the ‘ASEAN-India Breakfast Summit’ in Singapore on 15 November 2018. He reaffirmed cooperation in maritime domain and centrality of trade and investment towards prosperity of Indo-Pacific He also held separate bilateral meetings with the premiers of Singapore, Australia and Thailand.
First Ramayana Express flagged off
First ‘Ramayana Express’ was flagged off from Delhi on 14 November 2018. The Ramayana Express will make its first stop in Ayodhya followed by Hanuman Garhi Ramkot and Kanak Bhawan temple. The trains will make stops at Nandigram, Sitamarhi, Janakpur, Varanasi, Prayag, Shringaverpur, Chitrakoot, Nasik, Hampi and Rameshwaram.
Massive meteorite impact crater discovered
Scientists have discovered a 31-kilometre wide meteorite impact crater buried beneath the ice-sheet in the northern Greenland. The crater was formed when a kilometre-wide iron meteorite smashed into northern Greenland. The crater was first discovered in July 2015.
‘India-Singapore Hackathon’ winners awarded
Prime Minister Narendra Modi felicitated the six winning teams of the first ‘India-Singapore Hackathon’ on 15 November 2018. ‘India-Singapore Hackathon’ is a platform for the youth of the two countries to harness and showcase their innovations. The winning teams from India were IIT Kharagpur, NIT Trichy, and MIT College of Engineering, Pune.
Odisha signed MoU with AIFF
A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) has signed between the All India Football Federation (AIFF) and the Odisha government. As per the MoU, the Government of Odisha will act as the host of the AIFF national team camps as well as of the home of Indian Arrows. The MoU was signed at the Kalinga Stadium complex in Odisha.
PM Modi attended 13th East Asia Summit
Prime Minister Narendra Modi attended the 13th East Asia Summit (EAS) in Singapore on 15 November 2018. It was Prime Minister Modi’s 5th East Asia Summit. The members of EAS consists of 10 ASEAN nations (Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, The Philippines, Vietnam, Myanmar, Cambodia, Brunei and Laos), Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, Russia and the US.
MoU signed on ‘India-UK Cancer Research’
A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for the partnership between Department of Biotechnology (DBT) and Cancer Research UK (CRUK) was signed on 14 November 2018. The MoU was signed for the ‘India-UK Cancer Research Initiative’. It is a collaborative 5-year bilateral research initiative. Both CRUK and DBT will invest 5 million pounds each in this initiative.
‘Super-Earth’ discovered by scientists
An international team of scientists has discovered a cold ‘super-Earth’ exoplanet orbiting around the red dwarf Barnard, the second closest star system to Earth. The new planet has been named ‘Barnard’s star b’ (or GJ 699 b). It orbits its red star every 233 days near the snow-line, a distance where water freezes. Barnard’s star is six light-years away from earth.
UNSC agreed to lift sanctions against Eritrea
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) has agreed to lift sanctions against Eritrea after nine years. An arms embargo, asset freeze, and travel ban were imposed in 2009 amid claims that Eritrea supported militancy in Somalia. The resolution was drafted by the United Kingdom and backed by the United States and its allies.
Ghost galaxy spotted next to Milky Way
Scientists of the European Space Agency (ESA) has discovered a massive and very faint galaxy near the Milky Way. The name of the galaxy is Antlia 2 or Ant 2 and is known as a dwarf galaxy. The Galaxy was discovered with the help of Gaia satellite.
Despite its size, the galaxy has very few stars.
Ant 2 is 10,000 times fainter, meaning that it has about one 10,000th the number of stars. Justice Mathur took oath as Allahabad HC CJ Justice Govind Mathur took oath as the Chief Justice of the Allahabad High Court on 14 November 2018. The oath was administered by Uttar Pradesh Governor Ram Naik. Justice Mathur was appointed as a judge in the Rajasthan High Court in September 2004. He was transferred to the Allahabad High Court from Rajasthan High Court in November 2017.
26th COCSSO began in Himachal Pradesh
26th ‘Conference of Central and States Statistical Organisations’ (COCSSO) began from 15 November 2018 at Dharamshala in Himachal Pradesh. The conference is organised by the Union Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. The theme of the conference is ‘Quality Assurance in Official Statistics’.
Hima Das appointed as Youth Ambassador
Hima Das has been appointed as UNICEF India’s Youth Ambassador. She will work towards supporting various initiatives by UNICEF.  She will also work towards raising awareness about the rights and needs of the children. She won the gold medal in Women’s 4 x 400 m Relay event at the 2018 Asian Games.
Delhi Police launched e-learning site ‘NIPUN’
Delhi Police commissioner Amulya Patnaik has launched the e-Learning portal of Delhi Police called ‘NIPUN’ on 14 November 2018. The e-learning portal aims to give online training and information through specialised courses designed by experts in the field. The website will also act as a tool for feedback mechanism and bridge communication gap.
‘Tall ships sail together’ expedition began
Chief of Indian Navy, Admiral Sunil Lanba flagged off a ‘tall ships sail together’ expedition on 14 November 2018. The expedition will cover a distance of 1,200 nautical miles from Kochi to Muscat to retrace the trade links that existed between the erstwhile Malabar coast and the Persian Gulf. The event is held as part of the 10th-anniversary celebrations of the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium.
Sanjay Karol sworn in as CJ of Tripura HC
Justice Sanjay Karol sworn in as the new Chief Justice of the Tripura High Court on 14 November 2018. Tripura Governor, Kaptan Singh Solanki administered the oath of office and secrecy to Justice Karol. Justice Karol was previously a judge of the Himachal Pradesh High Court. He has become the fourth Chief Justice of Tripura High Court.
Scheme for cooperative startups launched
Agriculture Minister Radha Mohan Singh launched ‘Yuva Sahakar-Cooperative Enterprise Support and Innovation Scheme’ on 14 November 2018. The aim is to provide cheaper loans to startups in the cooperative sector and those having innovative projects costing up to Rs 3 crore. The scheme will be implemented by the National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC).
International Cherry Blossom Festival began
The ‘India International Cherry Blossom Festival 2018’ was inaugurated in Shillong on 14 November 2018. It is the festival that highlights the pink cherry flowers blooming all over the city in early November. A similar festival is also held in Japan but it is celebrated in the spring when the cherry trees bloom.
‘World Philosophy Day’ observed on 15 November
‘World Philosophy Day’ is annually observed on the third Thursday of November to honour the philosophical reflections around the world. The aim of the day is to raise public awareness of the importance of philosophy. It also aims to underline the importance of the universalization of philosophy-teaching for future generations. ‘World Philosophy Day’ was introduced in 2002 by UNESCO.

Important Current Affairs 16th November 2018
China builds an ‘artificial sun’
China has built an ‘artificial sun’ that reaches temperature six times that of the core of the sun. The reactor named ‘Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak’ (EAST) is designed to replicate the processes of the sun as part of a project to turn hydrogen into cost-effective green energy. It involves fusion of hydrogen atoms together to form heavier elements, such as helium.
National Press Day observed on 16 November
National Press Day is observed on 16 November every year. On this day, Press Council of India (PCI) started functioning as a moral watchdog. The PCI was first set up in the year 1966 by the Parliament on the recommendations of the ‘First Press Commission’. The PCI has been mandated by Parliament to improve the standards of journalism and maintain its freedom.
FSSAI sets up ‘Eat Right’ awards
Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has instituted the ‘Eat Right Awards’. The award has been instituted for food related start-ups to reward innovation and promote entrepreneurship in the area of food safety and applied nutrition. A jury of eminent professionals and experts in the food sector will select the winners.
Tajikistan launched a hydro-electric project
Tajikistan inaugurated a US$ 3.9 billion ‘Rogun hydro-electric project’ on 16 November 2018. It has been built on the Vakhsh River in southern Tajikistan. The project will enable Tajikistan to eliminate domestic energy shortages and export electricity to Afghanistan and Pakistan. The first of six turbines in the Rogun hydroelectric dam went online on 16 November 2018.
Tribunal to decide on ban on 2 militant groups
The Government of India has set up a tribunal for adjudicating whether or not two Tripura-based militant outfits should be declared banned organisations under the law. The two militant outfits are National Liberation Front of Tripura and All Tripura Tiger Force. The tribunal will be headed by Delhi High Court Judge Justice Suresh Kait.
Exports grew by 17.86% in October 2018
According to the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, India’s exports grew by 17.86% to 26.98 billion dollars in October 2018. India’s exports stood at 22.89 billion dollars in October 2017. The sectors which recorded healthy growth includes petroleum, engineering, chemicals, pharma and gems and jewellery sector.
Government delegated powers to local bodies
The Government of India has delegated powers to local bodies to ensure compliance of environmental conditions for buildings, construction and area development projects Local bodies such as Municipalities, Development Authorities and District Panchayats shall stipulate environmental conditions. The conditions include natural drainage, water conservation and among others.
World Bank provides US$155.7 million to Nepal
The World Bank provided over US$ 155 million in financial assistance to Nepal on 14 November 2018.  The first project comprising a credit of US$ 133 million will finance the improvement & maintenance programme targeting around 477 bridges along Nepal’s strategic roads network. The second project in the form of a grant of US$ 22.7 million to support the Food & Nutrition Enhancement Project.
Africa’s first ever high speed train unveiled
French President Emmanuel Macron and Morocco’s King Mohammed VI have inaugurated Morocco’s first high-speed rail line, the first ever such line in Africa. The king Mohammed VI named the first line as ‘Al Boraq’. It will connect the economic hubs of Tangier and Casablanca. The $2 billion project was launched in September 2011.
World Tolerance Summit inaugurated in Dubai
The two-day summit to mark the World Tolerance Day was inaugurated in Dubai on 16 November 2018. The theme of the Summit was ‘Prospering from Pluralism: Embracing Diversity through Innovation and Collaboration’. The summit is expected to focus on the crucial role of women and the youth in spreading tolerance in their societies.
South Asian Regional Conference inagurated
The conference on ‘Urban Infrastructure: New Approaches to Public & Private Partnerships and Municipal Finance Innovations’ was inaugurated in New Delhi on 15 November 2018. The conference was organised by NITI Aayog, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the Asian Development Bank. Key issues of the Urban Infrastructure were discussed at the conference.
Food Park in Aurangabad district inaugurated
Union Minister for Food Processing Industries Harsimrat Kaur Badal inaugurated the second Mega Food Park in Maharashtra on 15 November 2018. The Food Park is located in Paithan Taluka of Aurangabad district, Maharashtra. The first Food Park was inaugurated on 1st March 2018 in Satara district, Maharashtra. The Mega Food Park Scheme is implemented by Ministry of Food Processing Industries.
2 North East Circuits inaugurated in Arunachal
Two projects under Swadesh Darshan Scheme were inaugurated in Arunachal Pradesh on 15 November 2018. These projects are ‘Bhalukpong- Bomdila – Tawang Project’ & ‘Nafra- Seppa- Pappu, Pasa, Pakke Valleys- Sangdupota- New Sagalee- Ziro- Yomcha Project’. Swadesh Darshan scheme is the flagship schemes of the Ministry of Tourism for the development of thematic circuits in the country
Fitch retains rating for India at ‘BBB-minus’
Fitch Ratings retained India’s sovereign rating at ‘BBB-minus’. ‘BBB-minus’ is the lowest investment grade rating. Fitch forecasts India’s growth to rebound to 7.3% in FY19 and 7.5% in FY20. The Fitch Ratings added that a recent analysis conducted by it found that India had the highest medium-term growth potential among the largest emerging markets.
JICA to fund Bengal power project
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) will extend Rs. 5,000-crore loan to a 1,000 MW Turga pumped storage project in West Bengal. The project is coming up in the Ayodhya Hills in Purulia district, West Bengal. The project is scheduled for completion by 2027. A pumped storage power plant works as a large storage battery which generates power during peak periods.
‘Aadi Mahotsav’ being organised from 16 Nov
‘Aadi Mahotsav’, a National Tribal Festival is being organised from 16th to 30th November 2018 in New Delhi by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs. The theme of the festival is ‘A Celebration of the Spirit of Tribal Culture, Craft, Cuisine and Commerce’. The Mahotsav will comprise of display and sale of items of tribal art and craft, tribal medicine and healers, tribal cuisine etc.
International Day for Tolerance: 16 November
The ‘International Day for Tolerance’ is annually observed on 16 November. The aim of the day is to educate people about the need for tolerance in the society and to help them understand the negative effects of intolerance. The United Nations has launched a new global campaign named ‘TOGETHER’ to promote tolerance, respect and dignity across the world.
‘Himalayan State Regional Council’ constituted
NITI Aayog has constituted the ‘Himalayan State Regional Council’ to ensure sustainable development of the Himalayan region. The ‘Himalayan State Regional Council’ will be chaired by the NITI Aayog member Dr VK Saraswat. The council will also consist of the Chief Secretaries of the Himalayan States as well as the Secretaries of key Central Ministries, and senior officers of NITI Aayog.
Sunil Mehta panel formed ‘Sashakt India AMC’
Sunil Mehta panel has formed an Asset Management Company (AMC) for resolving large bad loans. The AMC will be called as ‘Sashakt India Asset Management’. The panel is now working towards identifying potential investors for an Alternative Investment Fund (AIF) which will fund the AMC. Sunil Mehta panel is working for the faster resolution of stressed assets in public sector banks.
‘Toxic’ declared Oxford Word of the Year
Oxford Dictionary has declared the adjective ‘toxic’ as the Word of the Year 2018. The adjective toxic is defined as ‘poisonous’ and first appeared in English in the mid-seventeenth century from the medieval Latin ‘toxicus’. The Oxford Word of the Year is a word or expression that is judged to have lasting potential as a term of cultural significance.

Important Current Affairs 17th November 2018
Adobe CEO in Business Person of the Year list
Shantanu Narayen, the Chief Executive Officer of Adobe has been named by Fortune in its ‘2018 Business Person of the Year’ list. In the list, Shantanu Narayen is at 12th position. The list has been topped by the CEO of insurance company ‘Progressive Tricia Griffith’. In choosing Fortune’s ‘Business Person of the Year’, the publication weighs 10 financial metrics like profits and revenue.
Human ancestor fossil discovered in Kutch
Scientists have discovered a fossilised upper jaw of an eleven million-year-old human ancestor in Kutch, Gujarat. The find significantly extends the southern range of ancient apes in the Indian Peninsula. Apes, or hominoids, are a group of primates from Africa and Southeast Asia that includes the gibbons and the great apes: chimps, orangutans, gorillas, and humans.
Odisha govt announced new Biotechnology Policy
Odisha government announced a new ‘Biotechnology Policy 2018’ to attract investments in the sector at the Make in Odisha Conclave on 15 November 2018. As per the policy, all biotechnology units shall be allotted land at a concessional rate as per the Industrial Policy Resolution of the state government. An additional subsidy of 25% shall be available to reputed anchor tenants.
India’s first interactive credit card launched
IndusInd Bank has announced the launch of ‘IndusInd Bank Nexxt Credit Card’. The card empowers customers with a choice of payment options such as EMI, Reward Points or Credit at the push of a button, on the card, at the point of sale (POS). The bank claims it to be the nation’s first interactive credit card with buttons.
Mobile banking transactions tripled in Sept
According to the monthly data released by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the number of transactions on mobile banking apps grew almost 3.5 times at 447 million in September 2018. The value of such transactions also grew more than 2.4 times at ₹2.07 lakh crore. Prepaid Payment Instruments (PPIs) also grew moderately in both volume and value terms at 357 million and ₹17,700 crore.
9th Annual Defence & Security Dialogue held
India and China held the ‘9th Annual Defence and Security Dialogue’ in Beijing on 13 November 2018. The Indian delegation was headed by Defence Secretary Sanjay Mitra and Chinese delegation was headed by Deputy Chief of Joint Staff Department of the Central Military Commission. Both sides agreed on enhancing defence exchanges and interactions at different levels between the two militaries.
Indian Navy completes refit of Maldivian ship
Maldivian Coast Guard Ship (MCGS) Huravee successfully completed refit at the naval dockyard Visakhapatnam. The MCGS Huravee was originally commissioned as INS Tillanchang, a Trinkat-class patrol vessel built by the Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers, Kolkata in March 2001. It was gifted to the Maldives by the Government of India in April 2006.
India’s 1st elephant hospital opens in Mathura
India’s first specialised hospital for elephants was formally opened in Mathura on 16 November 2018. The hospital is located close to the elephant conservation and care centre and is designed to treat injured and sick elephants. The unique medical centre offers wireless digital X-ray, laser treatment, dental X-ray, thermal imaging, ultrasonography, hydrotherapy and quarantine facilities.
Justice Amareshwar sworn in as CJ of Patna HC
Justice Amareshwar Pratap Sahi sworn in as the Chief Justice of Patna High Court on 17 November 2018. Bihar Governor Lalji Tandon administered the oath of office to Justice Sahi. Justice Sahi was a judge of the Allahabad High Court before his appointment as the Chief Justice  of Patna High Court.
Ad-filmmaker Alyque Padamsee passed away
Prominent ad filmmaker and actor Alyque Padamsee passed away on 17 November 2018 in Mumbai. As a film actor, he was known for his role in Richard Attenborough’s film Gandhi where he played Muhammad Ali Jinnah. He was known as the Father of modern Indian advertising. He was conferred with Padmashri Award in 2000 and he also received Sangeet Natak Akademi Tagore Ratna in 2012.
‘Gau Samridhi scheme’ launched in Kerala
Kerala Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan launched the ‘Gau Samridhi Plus Scheme’ on 16 November 2018. The government subsidised scheme will give insurance coverage to dairy farmers at low premium rates. The farmers belonging to the general category will be getting 50% subsidy on premiums while those belonging to scheduled caste & scheduled tribe category would get a 70% subsidy on the premium.
9th Session of the India – Kyrgyz IGC held
The 9th Session of the India-Kyrgyz Inter-Governmental Commission on Trade, Economic, Scientific and Technological Cooperation (IK-IGC) was held on 15 and 16 November 2018 in New Delhi. Both sides agreed to hold business to business forums between Kyrgyz and Indian companies. The parties agreed to hold the tenth meeting of IK-IGC in Bishkek, the Kyrgyz Republic in 2019.
India & ADB signed $105 Million Loan agreement
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Government of India signed a $105 million loan agreement on 16 November 2018. The loan amount will be used for financing the power transmission system upgrades in Himachal Pradesh. The loan is part of the $350 million multi-tranche financing facility (MFF) for Himachal Pradesh Clean Energy Transmission Investment Program
India & ADB signed $300 Million Loan agreement
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Government of India signed a $300 million Loan Agreement to support lending by India Infrastructure Finance Company Limited (IIFCL) on 16 November 2018. It will enhance the availability of long-term finance for PPP projects and improve the operational capacity of IIFCL. The funding is expected to fund at least 13 sub-projects through IIFCL.
India & ADB signed $169 Million Loan agreement
Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Government of India signed a $169 million loan agreement on 16 November 2018. The loan amount will be used to develop climate-resilient water supply, sewerage, and drainage infrastructure in at least 10 cities in the State of Tamil Nadu. Around 4 million people will benefit from piped water and sewerage connections and improved drainage.
Three members of NCW nominated by WCD
The Women and Child Development Ministry (WCD) has nominated three people to be members of the National Commission for Women (NCW). The three members are Chandramukhi Devi, Soso Shaiza and Kamlesh Gautam. They shall hold office for a period of three years or till the age of 65 years or until further orders.
President Kovind to visit Vietnam & Australia
President Ram Nath Kovind will visit Vietnam and Australia from 18 to 24 November 2018 with an aim to strengthen ties with the Indo-Pacific nations. He will be in Vietnam in the first leg of his trip. The President’s second leg of the visit will be in Australia from 21 to 24 November 2018. This is the first visit by an Indian President to Australia.
1,023 fast track courts to be set up
The Union Ministry of Women and Child Development has decided to use ‘Nirbhaya Fund’ to set up 1,023 Fast Track Special Courts (FTSCs) to dispose of pending cases of rape of children and women. In the first phase, 777 FTSCs may be set up in nine states, and in the second phase, 246 FTSCs will be set up. The ‘Nirbhaya Fund’ was announced by the Government of India in 2013.
Gukesh, Savitha won gold medals in Chess
Gukesh D and Savitha Shri B won gold medals in U-12 Open and girls category respectively at the World Cadets Chess Championship in Spain on 16 November 2018. The Championship was held for the age groups U-8, U-10 and U-12, girls and Open. The 2nd and 3rd places were won by Murzin Volodor of Russia and Chasin Nico of the USA in the open category.
Asim Kumar Roy appointed Bengal Lokayukta
Retired Calcutta High Court judge Asim Kumar Roy was appointed the Lokayukta of West Bengal on 16 November 2018. He is the 2nd Lokayukta in the state after Samaresh Banerjee, who had served in the post between 2006 and 2009. The West Bengal Assembly had in July 2018 passed the Lokayukta (Amendment) Bill, 2018.

Important Current Affairs 18th November 2018
Prez Kovind to inaugurate ‘CII Agro Tech’ fair
President Ram Nath Kovind will inaugurate the ‘CII Agro Tech 2018’ in Chandigarh on 1 December 2018. CII Agro Tech 2018 is a biennial four-day agro technology and business fair. It is organised by Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). The theme for the 2018 is ‘Technology in Agriculture: Increasing Farmer’s Income’.
‘Shri Renukaji Fair’ commenced in Himachal
The six-day ‘Shri Renukaji Fair’ commenced in Himachal Pradesh on 18 November 2018. It is a religious assembly dedicated to Lord Parashuram and his mother Bhagwati Renuka Ji. The fair also depicts the rich cultural heritage of Sirmour district. The festival commenced with the arrival of the palanquin of Lord Parashuram from the ancient temple in Jamu Koti village to the bank of Renuka lake.
WDoR is observed on 18 November
The World Day of Remembrance for Road Traffic Victims (WDoR) is observed on the third Sunday of November each year. The slogan for 2018 is ‘Roads have Stories’. The World Day of Remembrance for Road Traffic Victims was started by RoadPeace in 1993. On 26 October 2005, the United Nations endorsed it as a global day to be observed every third Sunday in November each year.
International Affairs – II (12 – 17 Nov 2018)
·       The annual meeting of World Economic Forum’s (WEF) Global Future Councils began in Dubai on 11 November 2018.
·       Tajikistan inaugurated a US$ 3.9 billion ‘Rogun hydro-electric project’ on 16 November 2018.
·       The two-day summit to mark the World Tolerance Day was inaugurated in Dubai on 16 November 2018.
·       The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) has agreed to lift sanctions against Eritrea.
International Affairs – I (12 – 17 Nov 2018)
·       The 33rd edition of the ASEAN Summit began in Singapore on 11 November 2018.
·       The 7th Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Inter-Sessional Ministerial Meeting concluded in Singapore on 13 November 2018.
·       Palau became the first country to impose a widespread ban on sunscreen in an effort to protect its vulnerable coral reefs.
Mou & Agreements – II (12 – 17 Nov 2018)
·       The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Government of India signed a $105 million loan agreement for financing the power transmission project in Himachal Pradesh.
·       The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Government of India signed a $300 million Loan Agreement to support lending by India Infrastructure Finance Company Limited (IIFCL).
Mou & Agreements – I (12 – 17 Nov 2018)
·       An Agreement on mutual legal assistance in criminal matters was signed between the Government of India and Government of the Kingdom of Morocco.
·       Kochi Corporation and Vilnius, the capital city of Lithuania, have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on 10 November 2018.
·       Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) has signed a MoU with the Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserves Ltd.
India and World – II (12 – 17 Nov 2018)
·       Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the APIX (Application Programming Interface Exchange) in Singapore on 14 November 2018.
·       ‘2nd Startup India Investment Seminar’ was organised in Beijing on 12 November 2018.
·       India and China held the ‘9th Annual Defence and Security Dialogue’ in Beijing, China.
India and World – I (12 – 17 Nov 2018)
·       Officials from Australia, India, Japan and the United States will hold the third ‘Quadrilateral’ or Quad meeting in Singapore.
·       Prime Minister Narendra Modi participated in the ‘ASEAN-India Breakfast Summit’ in Singapore on 15 November 2018.
·       Prime Minister Narendra Modi attended the 13th East Asia Summit (EAS) in Singapore on 15 November 2018.
Defence News (12 – 17 Nov 2018)
·       Indian and Indonesian Navy’s Bilateral Exercise ‘Samudra Shakti’ was held from 12 to 18 November 2018.
·       The joint military exercise between India and Russia named ‘EXERCISE INDRA 2018’ on combating insurgency will be conducted from 18 November 2018.
·       Chief of Indian Navy, Admiral Sunil Lanba flagged off a ‘tall ships sail together’ expedition on 14 November 2018.
Awards and Honours (12 – 17 Nov 2018)
·       Dr Debabhuson Borah won the prestigious ‘Munin Barkotoki Literary Award 2018’ on 12 November 2018.
·       Late Dr Martha Farrell has been honoured with the ‘Lifetime Achievement Award’ at the 6th Indian Social Work Congress in New Delhi.
·       Universal Acceptance Steering Group (UASG) conferred ‘Universal Acceptance Thought Leader Award’ to Rajasthan Chief Minister Vasundhara Raje.
Appointments – II (12 – 17 Nov 2018)
·       Retired Calcutta High Court judge Asim Kumar Roy was appointed the Lokayukta of West Bengal.
·       Chandramukhi Devi, Soso Shaiza and Kamlesh Gautam have been appointed as members of the National Commission for Women (NCW).
·       Justice Amareshwar Pratap Sahi sworn in as the Chief Justice of Patna High Court.
Appointments – I (12 – 17 Nov 2018)
·       The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) has appointed Siddharth Tiwari as the Chief Representative for Asia and the Pacific on 1 November 2018.
·       Justice Govind Mathur took oath as the Chief Justice of the Allahabad High Court
·       Hima Das has been appointed as UNICEF India’s Youth Ambassador.
·       Justice Sanjay Karol was sworn in as the new Chief Justice of the Tripura High Court.
Govt Schemes & Policies – II (12 -17 Nov 2018)
·       Odisha government announced a new ‘Biotechnology Policy 2018’ to attract investments in the sector at the Make in Odisha Conclave.
·       Kerala Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan launched the ‘Gau Samridhi Plus Scheme’.
·       The Ministry of Women and Child Development has decided to use ‘Nirbhaya Fund’ to set up 1,023 Fast Track Special Courts to dispose of pending cases of rape of children and women.
Govt Schemes & Policies – I (12 – 17 Nov 2018)
·       Delhi Police commissioner Amulya Patnaik has launched the e-Learning portal of Delhi Police called ‘NIPUN’.
·       Agriculture Minister Radha Mohan Singh launched ‘Yuva Sahakar-Cooperative Enterprise Support and Innovation Scheme’.
·       Ministry of Human Resource Development has launched two initiatives: Leadership for Academicians Programme (LEAP) and Annual Refresher Programme In Teaching (ARPIT).
Days & Events – II (12 – 17 Nov 2018)
·       26th ‘Conference of Central and States Statistical Organisations’ (COCSSO) began from 15 November 2018 at Dharamshala in Himachal Pradesh.
·       A conference on ‘Global Digital Content Market’ (GDCM) 2018 was hosted by the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) on 14 and 15 November 2018 in New Delhi.
Days & Events – I (12 – 17 Nov 2018)
·       ‘World Diabetes Day’ is observed on 14 November every year.
·       ‘National Press Day’ is observed on 16 November every year.
·       The ‘International Day for Tolerance’ is observed on 16 November every year.
·       ‘World Philosophy Day’ is annually observed on the third Thursday of November.
·       A four-day regional meeting of the World Customs Organisation (WCO) began in Jaipur on 14 November 2018.
Art & Culture (12 – 17 Nov 2018)
·       ‘Aadi Mahotsav’, a National Tribal Festival is being organised from 16th to 30th November 2018 in New Delhi by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs.
·       The ‘India International Cherry Blossom Festival 2018’ was inaugurated in Shillong on 14 November 2018.
·       Tripura hosted the 6th ‘Northeast Youth Festival’ on 15 November 2018.
Miscellaneous News – II (12 – 17 Nov 2018)
·       NITI Aayog has constituted the ‘Himalayan State Regional Council’ to ensure sustainable development of the Himalayan region.
·       The comic writer Stan Lee passed away on 12 November 2018.
·       Prominent ad filmmaker and actor Alyque Padamsee passed away in Mumbai.
·       India’s first specialised hospital for elephants was formally opened in Mathura.
Miscellaneous News – I (12 – 17 Nov 2018)
·       Oxford Dictionary has declared the adjective ‘toxic’ as the Word of the Year 2018.
·       The first ever ‘water handloom hut’ in Manipur was inaugurated at Loktak Lake.
·       The Election Commission has set up five all-women polling booths called ‘Sangwari’ booths in various constituencies of Chhattisgarh.
·       Indian mountaineer Satyarup Siddhanta became the first Indian to climb Mt Giluwe.

Important Current Affairs 19th November 2018
Kundli-Manesar section inaugurated
Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the Kundli-Manesar section of the Kundli-Manesar-Palwal (KMP) western peripheral expressway on 19 November 2018. The expressway will decongest the road traffic from Delhi, especially reducing the number of trucks entering Delhi. Besides, the project will also provide a high-speed link between northern Haryana and southern districts.
New online platform launched by NSE
National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) launched a mobile application and web-based platform named ‘NSE goBID’ 19 November 2018. The platform will allow retail investors to invest in treasury bills (T-Bills) of 91 days, 182 days and 364 days and various government bonds from one year to almost 40 years. It will also allow investors to make payments directly from their bank accounts.
Hookah bars permanently banned in Punjab
Hookah bars have been permanently banned in Punjab as President Ram Nath Kovind has given his assent to the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Bill, 2018 to check use of tobacco. Punjab is the third state in the country after Gujarat and Maharashtra where hookah bars or lounges were banned through law. The Punjab assembly had passed the Bill in March 2018.
Ustad Amjad Ali Khan given a lifetime award
Sarod master, Ustad Amjad Ali Khan was presented the ‘Sumitra Charat Ram Award for Lifetime Achievement’ on 17 November 2018. He was awarded for his immense contribution to the enrichment and promotion of the Indian classical music. The award was presented to him by former diplomat Lalit Mansingh. He was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 2001.
New open online learning programme launched
The Kerala Infrastructure and Technology for Education (KITE) has rolled out its Online Open Learning training platform named ‘KOOL’. The platform can be used to train teachers, students and the general public. KOOL has been designed in a MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) model. KOOL has an array of features for learners in the form of animated learning assistants and video tutorials.
AB Pandey appointed as new Revenue Secretary
The central government appointed UIDAI CEO Ajay Bhushan Pandey as new Secretary Revenue He will replace Hasmukh Adhia, who will retire on 30 November 2018. He will continue to hold additional charge of CEO of UIDAI and also Chairman of GST Network.
Brigadier Kuldip Singh passed away
Kuldip Singh Chandpuri, known as the hero of the Battle of Longewala during the 1971 Indo-Pak war, died on 17 November 2018. Brig Chandpuri was a recipient of the Maha Vir Chakra, the country’s second-highest gallantry award, for his role at Longewala, an outpost in the Thar desert of Rajasthan. Brig Chandpuri was commissioned into the 23rd Battalion of the Punjab Regiment in 1963.
CSE won Indira Gandhi peace prize
‘Centre for Science and Environment’ (CSE) has won Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development 2018. The award is conferred by Indira Gandhi Trust every year on the late Indira Gandhi’s birth anniversary. The international jury for the awards was headed by former President Pranab Mukherjee.
Alexander Zverev won ATP Finals in London
Tennis player Alexander Zverev won the ATP Finals in London on 19 November 2018. He defeated Novak Djokovic in the finals. Alexander Zverev became only the fourth player to beat Roger Federer and Novak Djokovic back-to-back in the semi-final and final of the same tournament. He also became the youngest winner of the ATP title.
8th NCWP began in Ranchi
The 8th National Conference of Women in Police (NCWP) began in Ranchi, Jharkhand on 19 November 2018. The two-day conference which is being organised by Bureau of Police Research & Development in collaboration with Jharkhand Police. It is the only national-level platform to address the various issues of Women in Police.
Conference on ‘Police Communication’ began
A 2 day Conference, ‘Modernisation of Police Communication and Challenges thereof’, began in New Delhi on 19 November 2018. Directorate of Coordination Police Wireless (DCPW), a nodal advisory body to the Home ministry for the Police Telecommunication in the country is organising the conference. The conference will provide a forum for discussing various issues of communication.
Two new satellites to BeiDou Navigation System
China has added two more satellites to its BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS). The satellites were launched into space on a ‘Long March-3B’ rocket carrier. With the successful launch, the basic BDS constellation deployment is complete. It will be the fourth global satellite navigation system after the US GPS system, Russia’s GLONASS and the European Union’s Galileo.
‘Qaumi Ekta Week’ begins from 19 November
‘Qaumi Ekta Week’ (National Integration Week) will be observed all over the country, from 19th to 25th November, 2018. The aim of the week is to foster and reinforce the spirit of Communal Harmony, National Integration and pride in vibrant, composite culture and nationhood. A week long programmes will be observed during ‘Qaumi Ekta Week’
Shubhankar won ‘Rookie of the year’ honours
Indian golfer Shubhankar Sharma became the first Indian to emerge as the ‘Sir Henry Cotton Rookie of the Year 2018’ on the European Tour. He follows Jon Rahm (2017), Wang Jeunghun (2016), Byeong Hun An (2015) and Brooks Koepka (2014) who have been the four Rookies before him. He is the third Asian in last four years to get this honour, after Byeong Hun An (2015) and Wang Jeunghun (2016).
Lakshya won bronze medal in badminton
India’s Lakshya Sen settled for a bronze medal in the World Junior Badminton Championship on 17 November 2018. He was defeated by Kunlavut Vitidsarn of Thailand in the men’s singles semifinals. Saina Nehwal is the only Indian to have won a gold in the ‘World Junior Badminton Championship’ during the 2008 Pune edition.
Tripura to host 7th International Tourism Mart
Tripura will be hosting ‘International Tourism Mart’ from 22 November 2018. The aim is to promote the tourism industry in the Northeastern states of the country. Tripura is hosting the ‘International Tourism Mart’ for the first time. The event is funded by the Union Ministry of Tourism.
Definition of kilogram changed
The world’s standard definition of the kilogram, the ampere, the kelvin and the mole has been changed. The definition of the kilogram is based on the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK), a cylinder of a platinum alloy stored at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in France. The new definition of Kilogram will be replaced by the Planck constant.
Novel penned by former IB official launched
Maharashtra Director General of Police Datta Padsalgikar launched the novel ‘The Velvet Gloves’ on 17 November 2018. The novel has been written by former Intelligence Bureau (IB) officer Balakrishna Kamath. The plot of ‘The Velvet Gloves’ is about the tussle between Indian intelligence agencies and the US law enforcement agency FBI.
Naturopathy Day observed on 18 November
The AYUSH Ministry celebrated its first ‘Naturopathy Day’ across the country on 18 November 2018. The aim of the day is to promote the drug-less system of medicine to prevent diseases by altering the diet and lifestyle. Naturopathic medicine is a system that uses natural remedies to help the body heal itself.
World Toilet Day: 19 November
World Toilet Day is observed on 19 November every year. The day is about inspiring action to tackle the global sanitation crisis. The 2018 campaign is based on the following narrative: ‘When nature calls, we need a toilet’. World Toilet Day was established by the World Toilet Organisation in 2001.

Important Current Affairs 20th November 2018
APEC summit held in Papua New Guinea
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit was held on 17 and 18 November 2018 in Papua New Guinea. This is the first time Papua New Guinea, the poorest of the 21 countries in APEC, has hosted the summit. The capital of Papua New Guinea is Port Moresby and its currency is ‘Papua New Guinean kina’.
‘Global talent rankings’ released
The annual ‘Global Talent’ rankings was released by IMD Business School in Switzerland on 20 November 2018. The rankings are based on three factors: Investment and Development, Appeal, and Readiness.  India got the 53rd rank. Switzerland has topped the global ranking for the fifth year in a row. Within Asia, Singapore got the 13th rank.
HDFC disburses Rs 1,100 crore subsidy
HDFC bank has disbursed over Rs 1,100 crore subsidy to over 51,000 customers under the government’s flagship scheme PMAY (Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana). It has provided loans of over Rs 9,800 crore under PMAY-Credit Linked Subsidy Scheme (CLSS).’ The loans were provided to customers belonging to EWS (Economically Weaker Section), LIG (Low Income Group) and MIG (Middle Income Group) category.
Russia, Iran, & Turkey to hold Syria talks
Russia, Iran and Turkey will hold the next round of talks on Syria’s conflict on November 28-29 in Astana, Kazakhstan. The meeting will be the 11th in the Astana peace process, which was set up in early 2017 by Russia and Iran. The Astana process was launched after Russia’s military intervention in Syria.
SBI CAP Ventures launches SME & Housing Fund
SBI CAP Ventures Ltd. has launched Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) and Affordable Housing Funds. SBI CAP Ventures Ltd is an alternative asset manager and subsidiary of SBI Capital Markets. SBI CAP SME Fund aims to raise Rs 400 crore and the Affordable Housing Fund Rs 350 crore.
Report on IPRS released by Commerce Ministry
The report on ‘Industrial Park Rating System’ (IPRS) was released on 19 November 2018. The report was prepared by the Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion (DIPP), Ministry of Commerce & Industry. The IPRS is being developed to assess industrial parks in the country. Development of IPRS would help increase the competitiveness of industries and promotion of the manufacturing sector.
Maldives to rejoin Commonwealth countries
The Maldives cabinet has approved to rejoin the Commonwealth, two years after withdrawing from the 53-nation grouping. The country left the Commonwealth during former President Abdulla Yameen’s administration in October 2016. Ibrahim Mohamed Solih sworn in as President of Maldives on 17 November 2018.
GROWTH-India telescope’s first observation
The ‘GROWTH-India telescope’ at the Indian Astronomical Observatory located in Hanle, Ladakh has made its first science observation which is a follow-up study of a nova explosion. Novae are explosive events involving violent eruptions on the surface of white dwarf stars, leading to temporary increase in brightness of the star. This recurrent nova has been named ‘M31N-2008’.
14th edition of children’s festival began
The 14th edition of international children’s theatre festival, ‘JashneBachpan’, was inaugurated in New Delhi on 17 November 2018. The festival is organised by the National School of Drama (NSD). The nine-day theatre festival will see performances from Switzerland, Sri Lanka and Indonesia along with their Indian counterparts. The festival will conclude on 25 November 2018.
Sanjay Kumar appointed as Chief of ED
IRS officer Sanjay Kumar Mishra was appointed as the full-time Chief of the Enforcement Directorate (ED) on 18 November 2018. He was appointed as the Principal Special Director in ED in October 2018 and was given the ‘additional’ charge of ED director for three months. The post of ED director is an additional secretary rank post in the Union government.
‘Women Empowerment campaign’ launched
‘Nari Sashaktikaran Sankalp Abhiyan’ or Women Empowerment campaign was launched in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh on 20 November 2018. The month-long campaign is aimed to empower women in the state through various programmes. The campaign will educate women about the schemes being run by central and state governments for their welfare and security.
RBI’s new body to look into PCA issues
On 19 November 2018, the Reserve Bank of India’s (RBI) Central Board decided to constitute a ‘Board for Financial Supervision’ (BFS). BFS will examine the framework for banks under Prompt Corrective Action (PCA). The Central Board also decided to constitute an expert committee to examine the Economic Capital Framework (ECF).
‘Global education monitoring report’ released
‘Global education monitoring report 2019’ was released by UNESCO on 19 November 2018. According to the report, the literacy levels in rural households of India dip with seasonal migration. About 80% of seasonal migrant children in seven cities lacked access to education near work sites. The report said that the construction sector absorbs the majority of short-term migrants.
Military exercise ‘Vajra Prahar’ commenced
The joint military exercise ‘Vajra Prahar’ between India and the United States commenced in Jaipur on 19 November 2018. The aim is to enhance the interoperability of the two armed forces. The armies will train on different aspects including hostage rescue, building intervention, desert survival, medical aid and combat firing.
AirSewa 2.0 portal and app unveiled
The Ministry of Civil Aviation has introduced the upgraded version of AirSewa 2.0 web portal and mobile app for air travellers. Major improvements include features such as secure sign-up and log-in with social media, chatbot for travellers support, and improved grievance management. The web portal and application will help to capture air travellers’ feedback for policy interventions.
‘Ease of Doing Business Challenge’ launched
The Prime Minister, Narendra Modi launched the ‘Ease of Doing Business Grand Challenge’ on 19 November 2018. The objective of this challenge is to invite innovative ideas based on Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, Big Data Analytics, Blockchain and other cutting-edge technology to reform Government processes. The platform for the Grand Challenge is the Startup India Portal.
Africa Industrialisation Day: 20 November
‘Africa Industrialisation Day’ is observed on 20 November every year. It’s a day dedicated to raising necessary awareness about Industrialisation in Africa. 2018 Theme: ‘Promoting Regional Value Chains in Africa: A pathway for accelerating Africa’s structural transformation, industrialization and pharmaceutical production’
‘World Malaria Report 2018’ released by WHO
World Health Organisation (WHO) has released ‘World Malaria Report 2018’ on 19 November 2018. According to the report, India and 10 other countries in sub-Saharan Africa accounted for around 70% of estimated malaria cases (151 million) and deaths (274,000) in 2017. India registered a 24% decrease in malaria cases in 2017 as compared to 2016.
Jalaj Srivastava is IWAI chairman
Jalaj Srivastava has been appointed the Chairman of the Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) on 19 November 2018. He is a 1984 batch Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer. At present, he is working as Additional Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture. The IWAI comes under the Union Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways.
Universal Children’s Day: 20 November
Universal Children’s Day is observed on 20 November every year. The aim of the day is to promote international togetherness, awareness among children worldwide, and improving children’s welfare. United Nations Universal Children’s Day was established in 1954. On 20 November 1989, the UN General assembly adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

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