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ENGLISH --SBI CLERKS --SSC


Exercise on Prepositions

Directions for questions 1 to 50: Fill in the blanks with the appropriate choice of prepositions.

1.         Seeing me from across the room she came __ me, and said that the she had a message for  me.
            a) out to            b) up to             c) on to             d) off to
2.         The early colonists of Canada went ___ many hardships.
            a) out               b) to                 c) through         d) off
3.         You can’t go __ on your promise now: we are depending on You.
            a)out                b)back              c) up                d) down
4.         I have changed my mind about marrying him: I simply can’t go ___ with it.
            a) on                b) up                c) through         d) down
5.         The aeroplane crashed and went ____ in flames.
            a) out               b) up                c) on                d) off
6.         He came ___ to a  fortune last year.
            a) up                b) in                 c) on                d) off
7.         Wait till price come ___ again before you buy.
            a) low               b) up                c) on                d) down
8.         I refuse to go ___ now. I’m going on.
            a) out               b) up                c) on                d) back
9.         They have gone  ___ all the calculations again but they still can’t find the mistake.
            a) out               b) over             c) on                d) off
10.       The party went  ___ very well:  we all enjoyed ourselves.
            a) out               b) up                c) on                d) off

11.       I have started getting ___ at 5 a.m to study but I don’t know if l can keep this up.
            a) on                b) up                c) out               d) back
12.       He had an unhappy childhood and he never looks___ on it with any pleasure.
            a) on                b) up                c) out               d) back
13.       The man walked so fast that the child couldn’t keep___ him.
            a) on                b) up with         c) out               d) back
14.       She looked ___ to see who was following her.
            a) on                b) up                c) out               d) back
15.       There were so many panes of glass broken that the windows couldn’t keep__ the rain.
            a) on                b) up                c) out               d) back
16.       I’ve been looking___ a cup to match the one I broke.
            a) on                b) up                c) out               d) for
17.       Look ___ me at the station. I’ll beat the bookstall.
            a) on                b) up                c) out of            d) back
18.       Look ___I You nearly knocked my cup out of my hand.
            a) on                b) up                c) out               d) back
19.       He was kept___ in his research by lack of money.
            a) on                b) up                c) out               d) back
20.       Tom is looking ____ his first trip abroad
            a) on                b) forward to     c) out               d) back
21.       Look ___ on your way home and tell me what happened.
            a) on                b) up                c) out               d) in
22.       Before putting any money into the business, we must look very carefully ____ the accounts
            a) on                b) up                c) into               d) back
23.       I look ___ her as one of the family.
            a) on                b) up                c) out               d) back
24.       My windows look___ the garden.
            a) on                b) on to             c) out               d) back
25.       He asked me to look___ the document and sign it.
            a) on                b) up                c) over             d) back
26.       He looked ___ the book to see if he had read then sign it.
            a) on                b) up                c) out               d) through
27.       If You can afford a new car, Your business must be looking ___
            a) on                b) up                c) out               d) back
28.       You can always look ___ her address in the directory if you have forgotten it.
            a) on                b) up                c) out               d) back
29.       He looked me__ and__ before he condescended to answer my question.
            a) on…on         b) up…down     c) up…up         d) back…front
30.       I am looking ___ seeing your new house.
            a) forward         b) up to             c) out to            d) back to
31.       Children have a natural inclination to look ___ their parents.
            a) forward to     b) up to             c) out on           d) back to
32.       You will see I am right if you look ___ the matter from my point of view.
            a) on                b) at                 c) down                        d)         back
33.       He looks__ me because I spend my holidays in Bournemouth instead of going abroad.
            a) down at        b) down on        c) out of            d) back on
34.       If he doesn’t know the world he can look it ___in a dictionary.
            a) on                b) up                c) out               d) back
35.       The crowd looked___ while the police surrounded the house.
            a) on                b) up                c) out               d) at
36.       Since our quarrel, she looks __ me whenever we meet.
            a) at                 b) up to             c) down                        d) through
37.       It was some time before he came ___after being knocked out.
            a) round            b) up                c) on                d) back
38.       I had to wait for permission from the Town Council before I could go__ with my plans
            a) round            b) up                c) on                d) back
39.       He came__ to my way of thinking after a good deal of argument.
            a) round            b) up                c) on                d) back
40.       The guard dog went __ the intruder and knocked him down.
            a) round            b) for                c) on                d) back
41.       He had a sandwich and a cup of coffee, then went__ working.
            a) out               b) up                c) on                d) back
42.       It’s no use trying to keep it secret: it’s sure to come__ in the end.
            a) out               b) up                c) on                d) off
43.       I went __the proposal very carefully with my solicitors and finally decided not to accept not to accept their offer.
            a) over             b) up                c) on                d) off
44.       The gun went ___ by accident and wounded him in the leg.
            a) over             b) up                c) on                d) off
45.       The question of salary increases will come__ at the next general meeting .
            a) out               b) up                c) on                d) off
46.       Wearing black for mourning went ___ went many years ago.
            a) out               b) up                c) on                d) off
47.       She went __a beauty contest and got a prize.
            a) in for            b) up for           c)on for            d) off
48.       Those rust marks come ___ if you rub them with lemon.
            a) out               b) up                c) on                d) off
49.       The price of tomatoes usually goes___ in summer in England.
            a) out               b) down                        c) on                d) off
50.       If there isn’t enough to go ___, just put some hot water in it.
            a) out               b) round            c) on                d) off

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NSWERS--Prepositions

1.B      2.C      3.B      4.C      5.B      6.B      7.D      8.D      9.B      10.D

11.B    12.D    13.B    14.D    15.C    16.D    17.C    18.C    19.D    20.B

21.D    22.C    23.A    24.B    25.C    26.D    27.B    28.B    29.B    30.A

31.B    32.B    33.B    34.B    35.A    36.D    37.A    38.C    39.A    40.B

41.C    42.A    43.A    44.D    45.B    46.A    47.A    48.A    49.B    50.B


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Exercise – I

Directions for questions 1 to 50: Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate words from the options given below the sentence.
1.         ‘Waiter, bring me a …………… cup of tea.
            a) thick                                     b) strong                      c) heavy                       d) sold
2.         I drove through ………. traffic.
            a) strong                      b) heavy                       c) big                           d) solid
3.         They are all ……… a film on the T.V.
            a) seeing                      b) watching                   c) looking at                 d) observing
4.         If you ……… to be successful in life, work hard.
            a) want                                     b) wanted                     c) will want                   d) waiting
5.         They …….. me a poet.
            a) consider                   b) considers     c) will consider             d) have considered
6.         I shall go and see him before he …… this place.
a) will leave                  b) is leaving                  c) leave                        d) leaves
7.         Please call me when the dinner ……… ready.
            a) is                             b) was                          c) will be                       d) has been
8.         You must avoid ……… friendship with bad people.
            a) make                        b) making                     c) made                        d) will make
9.         They stopped ……. to go home.
            a) work                                     b) worked                     c) working                    d) to work
10.       I ……… him since last Monday.
            a) am not seeing           b) did not see    c) have not seen           d) do not see
11.       She ……….. only two letters to me so far.
            a) wrote                        b) had written                c) has written                d) is writing
12.       She ……….. anybody yet.
            a) did not marry            b) will not marry            c) have not married      
d) has not married
13.       I …… ill since last week.
            a) is                 b) was              c) have been                 d) had been
14.       The boy ………….. from fever since yesterday.
            a) is suffering   b) was suffering            c) suffered        d) has been suffering
15.       She has not seen films since her husband ………..
            a) would die                  b) died              c) has died                   d) had died
16.       They are accustomed to ………..
            a) drink                         b) drank            c) drinks                       d) drinking
17.       I shall wait here till you ………. your lunch.
            a) will finish                  b) finish            c) will have finished      d) finished
18.       She looks forward to ……… him.
            a) see               b) seeing                      c) saw                          d) sees
19.       Unless every man works hard, he ………… become prosperous in his life.
            a) can               b) could not                  c) cannot                      d) is not
20.       Man ………… moral.
            a) was              b) is                             c) will be                       d) has been
21.       We ………… in Vizag for ten years.
            a) had been living         b) had lived                   c) live               d) have been living
22.       It is high time …………….
            a) that we left    b) that we have left       c) that we had left         d) that we leave
23.       I wish I ……….. rich.
            a) were                         b) am               c) was              d) have been
24.       They said that they ……… the Taj Mahal soon.
            a) will visit        b) would visit                c) are visiting   d) may visit.
25.       He said that he ……………. from fever.
            a) is suffering               b) has been suffering    c) was suffering           
d) has been suffering
26.       I told him that I …………. a book.
            a) am reading   b) will be reading          c) was reading              d) were reading
27.       Before you go to see him, he …………. the place.
            a) will leave                  b) leave            c) left               d) will have left
28.       If I …………… the time, I shall visit the zoo.
            a) had               b) have             c) will have                   d) had been
29.       When I go home, my children …………..
            a) are playing   b) will be playing           c) will play        d) have been playing
30.       If I ………………. the money, I shall lend it to you.
            a) am               b) was              c) were                                     d) have
31.       If we ……… the time, we would visit the zoo.
            a) have             b) had               c) will have                   d) have had
32.       He talks as if he ………… here.
            a) was              b) were             c) is                             d) has been
33.       Before I went to the college the bell ……………
            a) rang                         b) has rung       c) had rung                   d) was ringing
34.       She asked me whether I ……….. the film the previous night.
            a) have seen     b) was seeing  c) have been seeing      d) had seen
35.       If you had worked hard, you ………… rich.
            a) will become b) would become           c) world have become   d) became
36.       If I were a king, I ………. you my queen.
            a) will make      b) make            c) made                        d) would make
37.       If he comes to me, I ……….. him.
            a) help              b) would help    c) shall help                  d) must help
38.       I did not go and ……… the Principal yesterday.
            a) met              b) meet             c) had met                    d) meeting
39.       She has not ………. there yet.
            a) go                b) went                         c) gone                         d) going
40.       You need not ……… home.
            a) coming         b) to come        c) come                        d) came
41.       Nehruji used to ……… with children.
            a) played          b) play              c) playing                     d) rained
42.       If it ……….. I shall not go to college.
            a) rain              b) rains             c) will rain                     d) rained.
43.       My father ……. a watch to me if I get first class.
            a) will present   b) shall present                         c) would present           d) present
44.       I will help only …………….
            a) If I will have time       b) if I shall have item     c) If I had time
            d) If I have time
45.       Do you know …………
            a) to swim        b) how to swim             c) swimming                 d) to floating
46.       Babar ………… the Moghul Empire.
            a) founded        b) has founded              c) has found                 d) has discovered
47.       You should work hard lest you……………… fail.
            a) might                        b) will               c) should                      d) should not
48.       His daughter enjoys ………… a lot.
            a) singing         b) to sing          c) to singing     d) sing
49.       I have not seen him ………..
            a) Since we have left college                 b) since we left college
            c) since we had left college                   d) since college having been left by us.
50.       If I …………. a bird, I should fly away.
            a) were             b) was              c) am               d) have been

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ANSWERS—EXERCISE 1

1.B      2.B      3.B      4.A      5.A      6.D      7.A      8.B      9.C      10.C
11.A    12.D    13.C    14.D    15.B    16.D    17.B    18.A    19.C    20.B
21.D    22.D    23.A    24.B    25.C    26.C    27.A    28.B    29.B    30.A
31.A    32.A    33.C    34.D    35.C    36.D    37.C    38.B    39.C    40.C
41.B    42.B    43.A    44.D    45.C    46.A    47.B    48.A    49.B    50.A
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ENGLISH COMPREHENSION

Directions for passages : Read the following passages and answer the questions that follow:


Passage-A
Aster are rocky, metallic objects that orbit around the Sun, but are too small to be considered planets. The largest known asteroid, Ceres, has a diameter of about 1,000 kilometers. The smallest asteroids are the size of pebbles. Millions are of the size of boulders. Most are irregularly shaped-only a few are large enough for gravity to have made them into spheres. About 250 asteroids in the solar system are 100 kilometers in diameter, and at least 16 have a diameter of 240 kilometers or greater. Their orbits lie in a range that stretches from Earth’s orbit to beyond Saturn’s orbits. Tens of thousands of asteroids exist in a belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. An asteroid that hits Earth’s atmosphere is called a meteor or shooting star, because it burns and gives off a bright flash of light. Whatever does not completely burn falls on Earth as a meteorite. Between 1,000 and 10,000 tons of this material fall on Earth daily. Much is in the form of small grains of dust, but about 1,000 metallic or rocky bits fall on Earth each year.
There has been much speculation about large meteors hitting the Earth. A large asteroid or comet is thought to have landed in Mexico about 65 million years ago. The impact may have led to the extinction of many species, including the dinosaurs, by throwing dust into the atmosphere, blocking the sunlight, and causing a climate change. The period of time between such a large meteor impacts is probably in the millions of years, but smaller meteors such as the one that caused the Metro’s Cater in Arizona (about 1.2 kilometers in diameter), may hit the Earth every 50,000 to 100,000 years. There’s no historical record of a person being killed by a meteorite. The only reported injury occurred on November 30, 1954, when an Alabama woman was bruised by an eight-pound meteorite that fell on her through the roof of her house.
1.         Which of the following assumptions about asteroids is expressed in the passage?
a) They rarely become meteorites.                    b) Most are relatively small.
c) Many exist, but few actually fall on Earth.     
d) They are a major cause of death in some regions.
2.         The majority of asteroids are
(a) of the size of boulders.                                 (b) symmetrical
(c) about 1,000 kilometers in diameter.              (d) irregular in shape.
3.         Which of the following explains why a meteor is called a shooting star?
(a) It may have caused the extinction of dinosaurs.
(b) No one is known to have been killed by one.
(c) it burns in a flash of light.                             (d) It can be rocky or metallic.
4.         In the passage, why does the author mention the Metro’s Crater in Arizona?
(a) To give an example of the impact of a smaller meteor.
(b) To increase interest in astronomy.
(c) To close the passage on an interesting note.
(d) To show how meteors can wipe out animal species.
5.         The Alabama woman in the passage is mentioned to
(a) Show that meteorites can kill.
(b) illustrate the only documented injury of a human being by a meteorite.
(c) Show that meteorites can damage homes.    (d) Warn people of space objects.


ANSWERS—PASSAGE A

1.b       2.d       3.c       4.a       5.d   


Passage - B
A highly-acclaimed motion picture of 1979 concerned a nearly disastrous accident at a nuclear power plant. Within a few weeks of the film’s release, in a chilling coincidence, a real-life accident startlingly similar to the fictitious one occurred at the Three Mile island plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The two incidents even corresponded in certain details, for instance both in the film and in real life, one cause of the mishap was a false meter reading caused by a jammed needle.
Such similarities led many to wonder whether the fictional movie plot had been prophetic in other ways. The movie depicted officials of the power industry as seriously corrupt, willing to lie, bribe, and even kill to conceal their culpability in the accident. Did a similar cover-up  occur in the Three Mile lsland accident ? Perhaps we will never know. We do know that, despite the endeavours of reporters and citizen groups to uncover the cause of the accident, many of the facts remain unknown. Although they declare that the public is entitled to the truth, many of the power industry leaders responsible have been reluctant to cooperate, with independent, impartial investigators.
1.         The nuclear accident described in the movie
a) was successfully concealed by power industry leaders and officials.
b) was caused by a series of coincidences.
c) as a surprisingly accurate foreshadowing of actual events.
d) took place at the Three Mile island.
2.         Officials of the nuclear power industry
a) have committed murders to make possible a cover-up of the incident at Harrisburg.
b) had predicted that nuclear accidents were likely to occur.
c) have cooperated with the film industry.
d) have been reluctant to reveal the full story about the Three Mile island incident.
3.         According to the passage, public concern over the accident near Harrisburg
a) had no effect on the subsequent investigation.
b) was lessened by the quick response of industry leaders and officials.
c) prompted widespread panic throughout Pennsylvania.
d) persisted as many questions were left unanswered.
4.         Reporters looking into the accident at Three Mile island
a) uncovered more facts than did citizen groups.
b) did not succeed in uncovering all the facts about the cause of the accident.
c) cooperated closely with power industry officials.
d) kept document information from the public.
5.         All of the following are true, EXCEPT….
a) The movie about a nuclear accident has been praised.
b) The Press has sought fuller information about the Three Mile island mishap.
c) A mechanical breakdown was a partial cause of the Harrisburg accident.
d) The release of the movie came only weeks after the Three Mile island accident.



ANSWERS—PASSAGE B

1.c       2.d       3.d       4.b       5.d   




Argumentative Style Passages
Directions for questions 1to 10: Read the following passages and answer the questions that follow:
Passage – 1
Genetic engineering enables scientists to create plants, animals and micro-organisms by manipulating genes in a way that does not occur naturally. These genetically modified organisms (GMO) can spread through nature and interbreed with nature organisms, thereby contaminating non ‘GE’ environments and future generations in an unforeseeable and uncontrollable way.
Their release is ‘genetic pollution’ and is a major threat because GMOs cannot be recalled once released into the environment. While scientific progress on molecular biology has a great potential to increase our understanding of nature and provide new medical tools, it should not be used as justification to turn the environment into a giant genetic experiment by commercial interests. The biodiversity and environmental integrity of the world’s food supply is too important to our survival to be put at risk.
Biological diversity must be protected and respected as the global heritage of humankind and one of our world’s fundamental keys to survival. Governments are attempting to address the threat of GE with international regulations such as the Bio safety Protocol.
We believe GMOs should not be released into the environment as there is not adequate scientific understanding of their impact on the environment and human health. We advocate immediate interim measures such as labeling of GE ingredients, and the segregation of genetically engineered crops and seeds from conventional ones.
We also oppose all patents on plants, animals and humans, as well as patents on their genes. Life is not an industrial commodity. When we force life forms and our word’s food supply to conform to human economic models rather than their natural ones, we do so at our own peril.
1.         How can GMO pollute the nature and non GE environments?
a) By using non-renewable resources                b) By throwing natural waste injudiciously.
c) By violating biological laws.                          d) By interbreeding with natural organisms.
2.         Why is genetic pollution seen as a threat?
a) Because it causes environment pollution.      
b) Because GMO violates Bio safety Protocol   
c) Because GMO cannot be called back if once introduced.
d) Because GMO is not natural but synthetic.
3.         Why is the author against GMOs?
a) Because he believes that natural genes should not be tampered with.
b) GMOs are a menace to environment integrity.                      
c) GMOs do not understand nature as it exists.
d) GMO are bi-products of industries.
4.         What should be seen as a heritage of mankind?
a) Nature          (b) GE ingredients        (c) Biological diversity  (d) All of the these.
5.         The author preaches for which of the following?
      (a) Ban on the use of GE genes.                        (b) Patents on genes of living organisms.
      (c) Protection of world’s food supply      (d) labeling GE ingredients and segregating GMOs.

ANSWERS—PASSAGE 1

1.d       2.c       3.a       4.c       5.d   


Passage – 2
The African continent has been the location of some of the bloodiest and violent conflicts of recent decades. In Rwanda, for example, there was genocide on an unprecedented scale. In Europe and the USA there has been strong criticism of international organizations such as the United Nations for their slowness in reacting to crisis in Rwanda and Somalia.
But the question to be asked is whether the involvement of other African countries in these conflicts is really this philanthropic. We have seen in places such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo that many countries such as Zimbabwe are involved in the war to procure the diamond mines and other resources in the warzones and thus have a greater vested interest in fuelling the wars over resolving them. The neighbouring countries in Africa rather have their own way than sort the crises which according to them can become international disputes in future. These countries do no better by sending their own troops to stabilize the country and restore the rightful ruler. In fact, the situation degenerates into the civil wars we see elsewhere on the continent.
Just because the intervening country used infantry or tanks instead of negotiation or aerial bombardment (Kosovo), doesn’t make it any more likely to restore peace. On a global scale, Vietnam is the classic example of how using infantry to intervene in a guerrilla war is a futile exercise. On an African stage, the infantry intervention by neighbouring countries has only increased the death toll, not the success at ending the war.
6.         Which the following places saw genocide?
(a) Congo                     (b) Zimbabwe                (c) Rwanda                   (d) Somalia
7.         How are the neighboring countries in Africa trying to help those countries which are facing conflicts ?
            (a) By educating the citizens of the war-torn areas.
            (b) By providing food supplies to the poor and deprived.
            (c) By negotiating with the conflicting groups.
            (d) By using infantry and tanks to restore peace.
8.         Why does the author doubt whether the involvement of Zimbabwe in Congo is really genuine ?
            (a) Because Zimbabwe has vested interests in other resources.
            (b) Because it is unable to restore peace.
            (c) Because it is slow in negotiating with other governments.
            (d) Because it hasn’t informed UN about the steps it is taking.
9.         What is the problem that African countries are facing?
            (a) The Africans are illiterate and uneducated.
            (b) The African government is inefficient.
            (c) There are wars and conflicts causing violence in Africa.
            (d) The united Nations is reluctant to help the poor economies of African countries.
10.       Which of the following has been futile attempt in restoring peace in African countries?
            (a) Zimbabwe’s intervention                   (b) Guerrilla war of Vietnam
            (c) Infantry intervention and tanks         (d) Criticism of United Nations by African countries.

ANSWERS—PASSAGE 2

6.c       7.d       8.a       9.c       10.c   

Philosophical Style Passages
Directions : Read the following passages and answer the questions that follow:
Passage – 1
It is truly said that even a holy man cannot live in peace without satisfying his wicked neighbors. It is therefore not a question whether one wants to live in peace; the more important question is whether the wicked will tolerate it. To bring tolerance among the neighbors so that you can live in peace, they demand that you please them. It is natural with them to be jealous of things which you enjoy but which they could not hope to have. Although in theory it sounds good to preach “live and let live” and “treat thy neighbor as thyself” in actual practice; it is seldom followed. One thing is clear: that anyone seeking peace, freedom and happiness, must select a suitable neighborhood.
For a society or a country to be well governed, a certain discipline and self-control becomes necessary. Allowing each to live as he likes is sure to lead to chaos as the interests of individuals are likely to conflict. What will follow is violence and untruth. Suffering has been the lot of mankind even after centuries of civilization and culture, and it speaks ill of the society and the world that did not benefit from these.
Have we ever thought why our civilization and culture with all their promises and traditions of religion, science, philosophy, sociology, economics, politics and what else there is – have so far failed to give a positive shape to a normal human society where every one can live in peace, can enjoy happiness and be free? We hardly realize that this is due to the bane of permissive society which is not the product of today as some think but which is an evil that made inroads, through in small measure, right from the beginning of our civilization and culture.
For example, the divine rights of royalty and the might and main of privileged class have scant respect for self-control and discipline. Their behavior pattern was governed by their attitude which held self-control in contempt and discipline as abasement.
In permissive society, exceptions become the rule and the rules remain as mere exceptions. So whatever principles, commandments, rules, etc. were formulated by religion, ethics, sociology,     economics, law, etc. have remained operative only for those who respect and obey them. Others who defied the structure and authority behaved cynically. After much deliberation on the issues of right and wrong, a framework of rules, customs and commandments happens to be projected – and do we not find them uniformly good everywhere? – but these, however, fail to be imperative.
1.         The primary purpose of the passage is to
            a) discuss about the tolerance of people in permissive society regarding the wrong doing that are happening in the society.         
            b) discuss about a holy man living in peace with his neighborhood.
            c) analyse the culture and tradition of a specific society.
            d) justify the importance of suffering in creating a successful society.
2.         The meaning of the word ‘abasement’ given in the 4th paragraph of the passage is:
            a) devastation               b) reduction                  c) degradation              d) esteem
3.         According to the passage
            a) A suitable neightborhood can be selected easily.
            b) Each individual should be allowed to live his life in his own way.
            c) In permissive society, each individual is made to abide by the rules and regulations that are laid down.
            d) The curse of the permissive society has been present since the very beginning of the human civilization.
4.         The author has defined the attitude of the divine rights of royalty as:
            a) disciplined and rule-oriented              b) full of life and happiness
            c) full of sympathy and compassion       d) very less respect for self-control and discipline
5.         What does the author imply by the statement ‘a holy man cannot live in peace without satisfying his wicked neighbors’?
            a) Peace and happiness are the secrets of a successful life.
            b) One cannot live in peace unless the wicked people tolerate this attitude.
            c) ‘Treat thy neighbor as thyself’ is seldom followed in real life.
            d) A society or country cannot be well-governed unless people develop strong interaction with each other.

ANSWERS—PASSAGE 1

1.a       2.c       3.d       4.d       5.b   


Passage – 2
In his book, The Myth of the Framework, Popper stated, “I hold that orthodoxy is the death of knowledge, since the growth of knowledge depends entirely on the existence of disagreement.” In short, everything should be open to critical analysis. Nothing is sacred in that regard. Thomas Jefferson said, “Question with boldness even the existence of a God; because, if there be one, he must more approve of the homage of reason, than that of blind-folded fear.”
One of Popper’s main contributions to political theory was The Open Society and Its Enemies. In it, he reformulates Plato’s question of “Who should rule” into “How do we arrange our institutions to prevent rulers (whether individuals or majorities) from doing too much damage.” He is probably best known for his principle of falsification. Falsificationism is the idea that science advances by unjustified, exaggerated guesses followed by unrelenting criticism. Only hypotheses capable of clashing with observation reports are allowed to count as scientific. Those that aren’t are considered metaphysical and exist outside the realm of science. Faith, for example, is not a matter of science. It’s metaphysical in nature. On that basic alone subjects such as creationism don’t quality as science.
6.         Which of the following works deals with political theory?
            a) The Myth of the Framework               b) The Open Society and Its Enemies
            c) Falsification of Political Principles      d) None of the above
7.         What is metaphysical and not science?
            a) Observation              b) Hypothesis   c) Faith             d) Growth of knowledge
8.         According to Popper, what is the relationship between orthodoxy and knowledge?
            a) Orthodoxy helps in growth of knowledge       
b) Orthodoxy and knowledge are two sides of the same coin.
c) knowledge leads to orthodoxy.                     
d) Orthodoxy causes death of knowledge because it does not believe in disagreement.
9.         What is the theory of Falsification?
            a) Any guess which is substantiated and validated by observation is science.
            b) Beliefs which are justified by an authority are rational.
            c) A rationalist is someone who keeps his ideas open to criticism.
            d) Science adheres to its positions regardless of shifts in reality.
10.       Why did Jefferson say that existence of God should be questioned?
            a) If God exists, His existence should be critically analysed.
            b) God would approve reasoning of His existence rather than blind belief in Him.
            c) The debate of His existence is metaphysical and not scientific.
            d) This helps in increasing our knowledge about God.


ANSWERS—PASSAGE 2

6.b       7.c       8.d       9.a       10.b   






Factual Style Passages

Directions for questions 1 to 10: Read the following passages and answer the questions that follow:
Passage – 1
Earthquakes are the shaking, rolling or sudden shock of the earth’s surface. They are the Earth’s natural means of releasing stress. More than a million earthquakes rattle the world each year. The West Coats is most at risk of having an earthquake, but earthquakes can happen in the Midwest and along the East Coast. Earthquakes can be felt over large areas although they usually last less than one minute. Earthquakes cannot be predicted – although scientists are working on it! There are about 20 plates along the surface of the earth that move continuously and slowly past each other. When the plates squeeze or stretch, huge rocks form at their edges and rocks shift with great force, causing an earthquake. Think of it this way: Imagine holding a pencil horizontally. If you were to apply a force to both ends of the pencil by pushing down on them, you would see the pencil bend. After enough force was applied, the pencil would break in the same way. As the plates move they put forces on themselves and each other. When the force is large enough, the crust is forced to break. When the break occurs, the stress is released as energy which moves through the Earth from the form of waves, which we feel and call an earthquake. The theory of plate tectonics is an interesting story of continents drifting from place to place breaking apart, colliding against each other. The plate tectonic theory is supported by a wide range of evidence that considers the earth’s crust and upper mantle to be composed of several large, thin, relatively rigid plates that move relative to one another. The plates are all moving in different directions and at different speeds. Sometimes the plates crash together, pull apart or sideswipe each other. When this happens, it commonly results in earthquakes.
1.         Earthquakes are earth’s means of:
            a) rolling around                        b) releasing stress                    c) shocking the earth
            d) shocking the earth                e) shaking the east and west coasts
2.         Earthquakes are felt over large areas although:
            a) they cannot be predicted       b) they last less than a minute
            c) more than a million earthquakes unnerve the world every year.
            d) the West Coast is most at risk.
3.         The pencil acts like the:
            a) Earth’s crust                         b) Plates           c) Shifting rocks           d) Released energy
4.         The plate tectonics theory is about:
            a) the violent movement of the earth’s surface.  b) the forces that manifest in the rocks
            c) the continents moving about                          d) the collision of continents.
5.         The tectonic theory finds support in:
            a) a wide range of evidence                   b) the composition of earth’s crust
            c) the crashing of the plates                  d) the occurrence of the earthquakes

ANSWERS—PASSAGE 1

1.b       2.b       3.a       4.c       5.b   





Passage – 2
Education – the pursuit of knowing is an all encompassing process that must lead to the highest realization of our ability. In our conventional language, a person who has specialized knowledge and professional degrees in a particular subject is called educated. This accumulated knowledge helps him to make a successful career in his chosen field and earn a comfortable living. This education indeed is only one dimensional. In this era of overstressing a single dimension we are developing oblivion to the other aspects that are unequivocally important. The process of education begins the moment we are born. As we enter the world, the eyes gaze at the surrounding things and the ears listen to the various sounds. As we grow, we pick up actions and words from those around us. It is obvious that we learn those things quickly and easily to which we are exposed early and frequently. This very nature or tendency of our comprehension forms the foundation of all our learning in all the years to come. Hence it is of utmost value to familiarize a child early with the positive energy of his mind. Our educational syllabi are quite vast and well compiled. We are made aware of the infinite universe, wonders of science and technology, logics of mathematics but we do not find it necessary to explain or be explained the wonders and power of the mind. Mind which is the genesis of all human thoughts and thus the originator of all human creation. This is either the irony of our progressive world or the short sightedness of our educated society.
6.         The passage defines education as:
            a) the pursuit of knowing.                      b) an encompassing process
            c) a gradual realization process                         d) the highest realization of one’s ability.
7.         Traditionally, an educated person is
            a) a person who explores the various facets of a particular subject.
            b) a person with professional degrees
            c) a person with specialized knowledge and professional degrees.
            d) an expert in various subjects.
8.         The one dimensional approach results in:
            a) overstepping a single dimension        b) earning a comfortable living
            c) gaining success in a chosen field      d) developing oblivion towards other aspects.
9.         The foundation of all our learning is:
            a) early learning through frequent exposure       b) the positive energy of a child’s mind
            c) the capability to comprehend swiftly             
d) picking up actions and words around us.
10.       According to the passage, the inadequacy in the syllabi is:
            a) that it is quite vast and not well compiled      
b) that it creates awareness of the infinite universe.
c) that it does not explain the power of the mind.
d) that it overlooks the genesis of human thought.

ANSWERS—PASSAGE 2

6.d       7.c       8.d       9.a       10.c   


Analytical Style Passages
Directions for questions 1 to 10: Read the following passages and answer the questions that follows
Passage – 1
If you want to incubate an author who will show lifelong sympathy for children and animals. it seems best to sequester him at an early age and then subject him to a long regime of domestic torture. This was the formula that worked so well for Kipling, as evidenced in his frightening autobiographical story, “Baa Baa, Black Sheep,” and it is almost uncanny to see how closely Saki’s early life followed the same course. Abandoned to the care of cold and neurotic aunts in England while his father performed colonial duties in India, he and his siblings had to learn how to do without affection, and how to resist and outpoint adult callousness and stupidity. But without those terrible women-and the villains in Saki’s gem-like tales are almost always female-we might not have had the most-fearsome aunts in fiction, outdoing even Wodehouse’s. Aunt Agatha or Wilde’s Lady Bracknell. As is by no means uncommon in such cases, Saki was of the extreme right, and even an admirer must concede that some of his witticisms were rather labored and contrived as a consequence. Several of his less amusing stories are devoted to ridicule of the women’s suffrage movement, which was cresting during his heyday, while a persistent subtext of his work is a satirical teasing of his contemporary and bete noire, the ponderously socialistic Bernard Shaw.
1.         Incubation is a basis for:
            a) authors being subjected to domestic torture  
            b) authors creating literary masterpieces          
c) authors displaying lifelong sympathy for children.
d) authors writing historical pieces.
2.         According to the passage, ‘Baa Baa, Black Sheep’ is a
            a) A nursery rhyme                   b) An altruistic poem                 c) A satire on sheep
            d) An autobiographical
3.         Saki and his siblings, according to the passage, were deprived of:
            a) warmth                     b) food              c) education                  d) entertainment
4.         The “terrible women” refers to:
            a) The villains in Saki’s stories              b) The aunts who took care of Saki
            c) The aunts in Wilde’s stories              d) Wodehouse’s Aunt Agatha
5.         It can be ascertained from the passage that:
            a) The main plots in Saki’s stories where women dominated                  
            b) the playwright, Bernard Shaw was Saki’s arch rival
            c) Saki’s childhood had robbed him of his innocence
            d) the women’s suffrage movement was peaking in Saki’s time.
ANSWERS—PASSAGE 1

1.c       2.d       3.a       4.b       5.d   


Passage – 2
Whether made of highly polished metal or of glass with a coating of metal on the back, mirrors have fascinated people for millennia: ancient Egyptians were often depicted holding hand mirrors. With their capacity to reflect back nearly all incident light upon them and so recapitulate the scene they face, mirrors are like pieces of dreams, their images hyper-real and profoundly fake. Mirrors reveal truths you may not want to see. Give them a little smoke and a house to call their won, and mirrors will tell you nothing but lies. To scientists, the simultaneous simplicity and complexity of mirrors make them powerful tools for exploring questions about perception and cognition in humans and other neuronally gifted species, and how the brain interprets and acts upon the great tides of sensory information from the external world. They are using mirrors to study how the brain decides what is self and what is other, how it judge distances and trajectories of objects, and how it reconstructs the richly three-dimensional quality of the outside world from what is essentially a two-dimensional snapshot taken by the retina’s flat sheet of receptor cells. They are applying mirrors in medicine, to create reflected images of patients’ limbs or other body parts and thus trick the brain into healing itself. Mirror therapy has been successful in treating disorders like phantom limb syndrome, chronic pain and post-stroke paralysis.
6.         Mirrors are made of:
            a) highly polished metal                        b) translucent glass                  c) shining steel
            d) pieces of wood
7.         Which of the following qualities do mirrors possess?
            a) a dreamy quality                   b) an ability to reflect back incident light
            c) the power to mask reality      d) the capacity to add glory
8.         Scientists are aided by mirrors in which of the following ways :
            a) Mirrors assist in investigating questions concerning discernment and cognition.
            b) Mirrors increase perception and cognition in humans.
            c) Mirrors are helpful in judging the neurological capacity of an individual.
            d) Mirrors help in addressing neuron alteration problems.
9.         Mirror therapy has been successful in healing which of the following.
            a) vanity                       b) limps            c) mild pain                   c) paralysis
10.       How, according to the passage, does the brain alter images?
            a) The brain reconstructs the images               
b) The brain retrieves obtuse images
c) The trajectories of the brain are illusive        
d) The brain retain only the positive

ANSWERS—PASSAGE 2

6.a       7.b       8.a       9.d       10.a   




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