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The dictionary meaning of the word "Comprehension" is the ability to understand. But this special ability has several dimensions which have different layers. The first dimension is understanding vocabulary in the given context. The second dimension involves the ability to identify and understand ideas which involves two stages - (a) Identifying and understanding main ideas and (b) Identifying implied main ideas. The third dimension is identifying supporting details, whereas the fourth dimension is identifying relationships between ideas. The fourth dimension involves two actions- (a) Understanding the use of transitions and (b) Idea organising patterns. These four can be, however, called basic dimensions. In addition to these, there are three other dimensions which involve (i) identifying facts, opinions and inferences. This dimension comprises (a) facts and opinions and (b) inferences. (ii) This dimension involves identifying purpose and tone and (iii) this dimension involves recognising arguments and their common structures. These three dimensions are called advanced dimensions.

These seven dimensions are keys to effective reading skills. First of all, you should keep in mind that whatever may be the piece of writing, it is but a sequence of words, sentences and paragraphs. The word is the fundamental building block of a piece of writing. Now, you should know that words are used in sentences and paragraphs to convey ideas and you should try to identify the main idea. It is something like an umbrella idea. Once you identify the main idea, you should try to identify implied main ideas. Actually, a passage is a series of sentences connected to each other through a logical idea flow. Every paragraph has its own main idea. Now comes the ability to predict and identify supporting details. You should remember that supporting details are generally in the form of illustrations, reasons, factual evidences, examples etc. that collectively explain a main idea. After supporting details, comes the turn of understanding the use of transition and idea organisation patterns. Now the question arises - what is transition? Transitions are actually words or phrases that show the relationship between ideas. Most of the writers often use standard structures to connect between different ideas. Idea organisation patterns may be applied in a format where the entire structure appears in a short span of two or three lines. Apart from these, four basic dimensions, you have to be aware of three advanced dimensions.

The fifth dimension involves fads, opinions and inferences. You have to know the line of demarcation between a fact and an opinion. When the writer gets emotional he/she is bound to state opinions rather than presenting facts. A fact is information that can be proved through objective evidence. An inference is an idea that you pick up while reading between the lines. It is, in fact, an implied idea. It is a common mental activity which is critical for comprehension. Next to it comes the sixth dimension which involves identifying purpose and tone. Informative descriptive writing is the most common purpose of writing. It can be of two types - (1) narrative and (2) informative articles. The tone of the author becomes clear as it is the predisposition of the author towards the subject. By identifying the tone of the author, you can judge his/her attitude or emotional standing towards the subject. This can help you improve your predictions for questions that go beyond the boundaries of the passage. Now we should come to the seventh and final dimension which involves recognising and evaluating arguments and their common structures. You should, never forget that there is an undeniable relationship between writing and thinking. While the ultimate argument of the writer usually becomes clear at the end of the writing, some writers write in the way that the readers get clues in order to understand the drift of the argument and the earlier you are able to catch the argument, the better your understanding of the passage will be.

Every written piece that you come across is written with a purpose. The author decides what his/her message about the topic is, at the very outset - before he/she writes his/her first words. Closely related to the topic of the passage is the scope of the passage - which can be looked at as the boundary of the passage. Concentrate on not just what the topic of the passage is but also on the scope of the passage. Scope means the specific components of the topic that the author wants to talk about. This is also crucial since a lot of times incorrect options are created by going outside the scope of the passage.

Next, again before putting down his/her first words, the author creates a plan of how he/she is going to achieve his/her purpose. On the basis of this plan, the author creates a series of paragraph divisions.

Directions: Read the passages given below carefully and then answer the questions given below them according to the 'contents of the passages:


In a convention hall filled with auto executives who wish they could wake up to find that 2009 was just a bad dream, David Zuchowski and his colleagues at Hyundai were doing low-key victory laps. But while they plan in 2010 to pick up where they left off, they also tempered expectations that the US sales gains achieved by the Korean automaker can be repeated. "We will not have the same margin of difference that we did last year," David Zuchowski said at the Detroit auto show. "Our sales were up 8 percent in a market that was down 21 percent. There are a lot of things that happened with our competition, with our marketing, that really put us in a different area. We think for sure that we're going to grow our volume this year and we're going to grow our market share," he added. "If nothing else changes, and we held our 4.2 percent market share into 2010, we think that in itself accounts for 45,000 units of additional volume. And we think we're going to grow our share on top of that because we have some really terrific new products."

John Krafcik, CEO of Hyundai's American sales operations, said the first goal is to hold onto the market share gains of 2009. Last year, Hyundai's US sales rose 8.3 percent to 435,064 units. Its share of the market jumped to 4.2 percent from 3 percent in 2008. Hyundai expects US sales this year to hit 11.4 million, maybe even 11.5 million units. US sales fell 21.2 percent last year to 10.4 million units. As U.S. automakers in early 2009 were concerned about their own survival, "Hyundai Assurance" was introduced as a safety net for consumers afraid of losing their jobs. Just shy of 100 customers returned cars under a program allowing buyers to walk away from loans without a negative mark on credit reports if they lost their jobs. The program has been extended through 2010.

"It elevated our brand," Zuchowski said of the Hyundai Assurance program. "People who never used to consider us now are". Car salesmen watch this "consideration rate," which is as it sounds - whether a consumer will consider a brand when making a purchase decision.

1.         According to the passage, the success of Hyundai in America is due to
                        A. consideration rate has increased manifold.
                        B. the aim of Hyundai is to retain the market share of previous year.
                        C. continue Hyundai Assurance through 2010.
a) A, B and C              b) A and C      c) A and B      d) B and C

2.         It can be inferred from the passage that
                        a) Hyundai is unable to sell their cars in American market.
                        b) Hyundai is optimistic of increasing their sales this year in America.
                        c) Car sales are going to plummet in America through 2010.
                        d) Both David Zuchowski and John Krafcik are at loggerheads.

3.         According to the passage, subjects that are discussed include
                        a) recession in the world economy.
                        b) the views Of American car manufacturers.
                        c) the health of American economy.
                        d) Hyundai's extraordinary performance and its future plans in America.

4.         Which of the following inferences is false according to the passage?
a) Hyundai is hoping to get more market share or at least maintain the last year's sales.
b) America stopped buying cars from South Korea.
c) America has still not reached its peak in car sales.
d) America has, taken a conscious decision to buy more cars.


The latest CSO data on economic growth in the States has thrown up a number of interesting trends, none perhaps more interesting than the catch-­up trend shown by what were conventionally viewed as backward states Bihar's 11% growth has already received much attention. A disaggregated look at the growth figures reveals an even more interesting fact - the huge role played by services in propelling growth in backward states. Bihar's 11% average growth figure between FY07 and FY09 (up from 6% between FY01 and FY05) hides the massive 38.13% growth in construction (up from 14% between FY01 and FY05), 17.34% growth in communication (up from 10% between FY01 and FY05), 17.33% in restaurants and hotels (up from 13% between FY01 and FY05), all major services sectors, in the same period. The boom in construction, telephones (particularly mobiles) and hospitality is mirrored in other previously slow growing states, including Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. What is even more important than the growth numbers themselves is the large number of jobs (particularly low skill and semi-skilled) that have been generated in the services sector industry. At a time when inclusive growth is the focus of government policy, such employment generating growth must be satisfying.

Impressive though the numbers are, it is easy to get carried away by them. The fact of the matter is that services can only create a certain number of jobs and certainly not enough over a sustained period of time to absorb the entire workforce. Construction, for example, may eventually be limited by weak demand. The growth in communications was very impressive in these last five years because of the mobile boom, but that might plateau. Significantly, the numbers on agriculture growth remain very low and a significant proportion of India's population still depends on agriculture. Not all the excess labour from agriculture - which needs to move out to lift productivity ­will be absorbed by services. So, industry/manufacturing will still be the key to ensuring the kind of inclusive growth we need to boost backward states and to lift people out of poverty But manufacturing needs radical policy attention in a way that services  not, to register rapid growth. The government, at Centre and in States, needs to focus on labour laws, land• acquisition and infrastructure. The strong growth in services, while welcome, should not become a reason to do nothing about promoting manufacturing and reforming agriculture. Healthy growth in those two sectors is needed to generate the demand that will eventually sustain services on a high growth path.
5.         According to the passage, growth is possible in the economy if
A. communications sector growth is static.
B. agricultural reforms are carried out
C. manufacturing is promoted.
a) A, B and C              b) A and C      c) A and B      d) B and C
6.         It can be inferred from the passage that
            a) services sector growth is possible only if mobile industry is promoted.
b) services sector growth is possible Only if manufacturing and agricultural reforms are promoted.
c) services sector growth is possible only if growth in communications sector has plateaued.
d) services sector growth is possible only if construction is promoted.
7.         Which one of the following subjects is discussed in the passage ?
a) Growth factor in Orissa
b) Importance of growth in Madhya Pradesh
c) Poverty in Jharkhand
d) Importance of agriculture and manufacturing for growth
8.         Which of the following inferences is false as per the passage?
a) Bihar has shown the maximum growth in the country.
b) Bihar has shown 38.13% growth in construction.
c) Bihar has shown 17.33% growth in restaurants and hotels.
d) Bihar has shown 11% average growth figure between FY05 and FY09.

Having investigated the nature of the relationship between price and trading volume for 50 Indian stocks, our findings indicate evidence of positive contemporaneous correlation  between price changes and trading volume in Indian stock markets. All the stocks, except Reliance Power show asymmetric behaviour, which is in line with the research findings. Investigation of dynamic relationship between returns and trading volume shows very interesting results. We find evidence that in the Indian market, past returns cause trading volume, which can be easily conceived in an emerging market where the state of development of the market possibly does not allow instantaneous information dissemination. These results are further supported by the variance decomposition. However, in most cases the relationship lacks economic significance even though it is statistically significant. The results of impulse response analysis indicate that both returns and volume are mostly affected by their own lag and that volume is more autoregressive than returns, that is, any shock in either returns or volume does not affect the return series beyond one lag. In case of unconditional volatility and trading volume, we find a positive contemporaneous relationship between trading volume and unconditional volatility.
9.         According to. the passage, the research findings show
A) positive contemporaneous relationship between trading volume and volatility.
B) Reliance Power confirms the general trend.
C) information is not disseminated instantaneously in the stock market.
a) A, B and C              b) A and C      c) A and B      d) B and C
10.       It can be inferred from the passage that
a) the trading volume does not depend on the past returns.
b) the trading volume largely depends on the past returns.
c) the trading volume has no positive correlation with volatility.
d) the trading volume depends on the variance decomposition.
11.       According to the passage, subjects that are discussed do not include
a) trends in returns vis-à-vis volatility.
b) stock market losses during recession.
c) information dissemination being slow within the market.
d) results of the research have more of statistical significance than economic.
12.       According to the passage, which one of the following inferences is false?
a) Any shock in either returns or volume affects the return series beyond one lag.
b) In case of unconditional volatility and trading volume, there exists a positive contemporaneous relationship between trading volume and unconditional volatility.
c) Both returns and volume are mostly affected by their own lag.
d) The state of development of the market possibly does not allow instantaneous               information dissemination.

What can the leader of a democratic country do when one quarter of its population presents a petition opposing repayment of foreign debt and backs it up with a mass protest outside his residence, with red torches firing up the snowy landscape? To stave off revolt and breakdown of order, the head of state has two options: repudiate the debt altogether to restore public faith in the government or buy time by resorting to constitutional technicalities.
Iceland's President, Olafur Grimsson, faced this dour choice on New Year's Eve in Reykjavik and picked the latter course because of tremendous parallel pressure from creditors like the UK and the Netherlands and capital markets. Instead of immediately signing the bill that would have repaid London and Amsterdam $5 billion or renouncing all liability, he announced a national referendum for a clear national verdict. The country's finance minister has expressed confidence that public opinion can be moulded fast in the run-up to the referendum, by appealing to the average Icelanders' identity of being "honest hard-working people" who honour debts.
The two creditor nations, which are furious at the delays and setbacks to repayment, should be hoping for such an outcome because they themselves are cash-strapped and hurting from the aftermath of the financial crisis. The saga of Iceland's fall from the glorious perch of the Nordic Tiger into a supplicant that defaults on its debts is emblematic of the ripple effect of the financial collapse of late 2008. One of the first economies to fall into the red immediately after the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy, Iceland had risen since the mid-nineties on a wave of excessive leverage facilitated by state deregulation. All three of its big banks - Glitnir, Kaupthing and Landsbanki - collapsed like dominoes in a single week of mayhem in October 2008.
13.       According to the passage, the state of affairs in Iceland is due to
A. financial collapse of 2008.
B. the creditor nations are in dire straits themselves.
C. Iceland was one of the first economies to have fallen in 2008.
a) A, B and C              b) A and C      c) A and B      d) B and C
14.       It can be inferred from the passage that
Text Box: (b)a) Iceland is a poor country.
b) Iceland is trying to repay the loan to the creditor nations.
c) Lehman Brothers have not given enough loan to Iceland.
d) the citizens of Iceland are not hard-working.
15.       According to the passage, subjects that are not discussed include
a) recession in the world economy.
b) why Iceland is defaulting on repayment of its loans.
c) the revolt within the country for immediate repayment of loan to creditors.
d) UK and Netherlands have not agreed to sanction additional loans.
16.       According to the passage, which one of the following inferences is not true?
a) Icelanders have actually revolted.
b) The creditor nations were not happy at the defaults by Iceland.
c) The three major banks of Iceland - Glitnir, Kaupthing and Landsbanki - have collapsed.
d) Iceland's President, Olafur Grimsson resorted to delaying tactics.

Buoyed by strong demand from automobile, infrastructure, consumer durables, and capital goods industries, the price of steel and profitability of steel firms are firming up. In addition to private demand, the government's stimulus packages have also helped. Analysts expect the margins of steel companies to expand by 500 basis points in the quarter ending December last year; because of the rally in the base metal prices. Crude steel production in the quarter ended December last year grew 2.6% and prices increased by 2% in the same period. Broadly, during April-December 2009, steel consumption grew by 8% and growth gathered momentum during the last three months partly due to the low base effect of the previous year. In fact, Indian steel-makers had reduced production by up to 40% in October-December 2008, as demand dropped significantly due to the slowdown and credit crunch. Even though fears of oversupply kept steel prices under pressure in the domestic market - globally, too, companies had reduced the price of the metal - strong demand is now pulling up prices. Long product prices increased by nearly Rs. 4,000 per tonne in the second half of December and analysts expect prices to rise by another Rs. 1,000 per tonne this month. Even on the bourses, Tata Steel, JS'W Steel, Sterlite and SAIL have outperformed the broader markets with gains of around 55% in the quarter ended December and the BSE Metal Index too outperformed the Sensex. Despite the global slowdown, demand for steel in the domestic market remained strong due to the quick recovery in the automobile industry and government, spending on infrastructure projects. In fact, a recent note from Nomura Research says that steel companies in India have enjoyed high operating rates resulting in robust performances. Even globally, the World Steel Organisation says that the slump in steel demand has bottomed out and is expected to grow by 9% this year as demand rebounds in the US, Europe and Japan. The organisation expects steel prices to increase by 10% in the next three months and inventory build-up will take place in anticipation of an increase in raw material costs.
17.       According to the passage,
A. Steel industry in India has done very well in the last one year.
B. The demand for steel has seen a decrease in the last one year.
C. During 2008 the demand for steel had gone down due to slowdown.
D. Government spending on infrastructure has helped the steel industry in India.
a) A, B, C and D are correct               b) A, B and D are correct
c) A, B and C are correct                    d) A and D are correct
18.       The passage infers that
a) the slowdown in the world economy has drastic effect on steel industry in India.
b) the demand and supply position of steel in India was very healthy during recession.
c) steel prices have been slashed in the last quarter.
d) the share prices of steel companies have been on the decline in the last quarter.
19.       The recession caused
a) the demand for steel to go down all over the world.
b) the demand for steel to go down drastically in India.
c) the construction activity to increase.
d) the automobile industry to increase their sales.
20.       Which of the following statements is false?
a) In the second half of December - the steel rates have increased by Rs. 4,000 per tonne.
b) In this January the steel rates would have gone up by another Rs. 1,000 per tonne.
c) Sensex has outperformed the BSE Metal Index.
d) During April - December 2009 the steel consumption has increased by 8%.

A year has gone by since the fall of Lehman Brothers. This may be the time to recall the forecasts post September 2008 about the global crisis biting harder in 2009 and 2010. While the still-fragile world economy seems a good way away from a definitive turnaround, it's a relief that things aren't as dire as predicted. US authorities feel America's recession may be ending, though its economy will be feeble for some time. The IMF sniffs a global recovery, with Asia in the lead and the US and Western Europe showing signs of being on the mend. China, which claims that its economy is on the path of revival, has had good news in the form of expanded investment output and credit.
In India, there's been reason for cheer as well. That August's excise tax mop-up was up 22.5 percent has reassuring implications for manufacturing, more so when taken together with recent index of industrial production figures. Factory output grew 8.2 percent in June and 6.8 percent in July. There's been an uptrend in manufacturing, including of consumer durables. Auto, cement and steel have been doing well. More recently, healthy corporate tax collections have not only boosted market confidence but also a debt-burdened government's coffers. In addition, there are indications India Inc is back in hiring mode.
India may pat its back for having weathered the global crisis well despite not being decoupled from it. The evidence is to be found in better-than-expected growth in 2008-09 and this fiscal's first quarter. What's helped is a financial sector which was relatively insulated from the mayhem in recession hit countries, thanks to its relative lack of exposure to complex financial instruments that did many a financial giant in and also the austere fiscal and monetary measures.
It is, however, too early to think about economic activity throughout the world, be it fiscal concessions or lowered interest rates. The RBI has done well to resolve to stick with eased monetary policy for now. Since the picture is yet unclear about the capricious monsoon's impact, the pick-up in industry needs support in India, monetary and fiscal stimuli must be wound down carefully. If done too early, it may impact the pace of recovery; if too late, it may put inflationary pressure on convalescing economies. For now, policy makers should focus on nurturing green shoots towards a full-fledged recovery.
21.       Which of the following is true in context of the passage?
a) The world economy has completely recovered from global recession
b) US is the first country to tide over the effects of recession in the world
c) A decline in the corporate tax collection in India has been a cause of worry among corporate giants and the government officials alike
d) The privileges meant to lift the economy during recession should continue for some time even If the signs of improvement are noticeable
22.       Why does the author suggest slow and gradual withdrawal of the fiscal and monetary incentives in India ?
a) So as to keep pace with other world markets which have not been able to recover as fast as Indian economy
b) The effect of inadequate monsoon rains is yet to be seen in economy and thus continuing the financial support is necessary.
c) As the recovery from recession has just begun in India, a withdrawal of the incentives would adversely affect the pace of revival
d) Only (b) and (c)
23.       Which of the following word/ group of words is most similar in meaning to the word CONVALESCING as used in the passage?
a) Already struggling              b) Weakening              c) Recovering
d) Debt laden
24.       What, according to the author, has been the result of strict monetary policy and fiscal measures on India's financial sector ?
A) It drove the Indian economy into recession.
B) Many other Asian markets especially Chinese made most of the profit of recession in the West while India lagged behind.
C) Despite facing the recession, India's financial sector was not hit as badly as the financial sectors of other countries in the western
a) Only C                    b) Only B        c) Only A and B                     d) Only B and C
25.       Which of the following is true with respect to current Chinese economy?
a) It has recovered from recession at a rate higher than that of the other Asian counterparts
b) It has been showing some signs of improvement as various sectors have improved upon their business
c) It has succeeded in achieving a complete turnaround since the beginning of recession
d) The inability of Chinese markets to safeguard their position has been adversely affecting the markets worldwide

The monsoon deficit, which now stands at 28 percent, has confirmed our worst fears that a drought-like situation may be in the offing. About 161 of the 600 odd districts in the country are affected by it. Though the government is confident of dealing with the situation, there is no denying the negative impact it will have on an economy already battered by a global economic recession. If there is a silver lining it is that there are enough food grain stocks in the country helped by a quick action to import sugar and pulses and place restrictions on the export of wheat and rice.
That said, it should not lead anyone to assume that it is going to be business as usual. While there is a relative stability at the macro-economic level, it is going to be a tough call for the people at large, especially in rural areas. Individual farmers, big or small, do not have cushioning required to weather bad years. The rural poor of course are already in a precarious position.
There is also the wider implication. A major part of the domestic demand for goods originates from the rural sector. With the drought taking a firmer grip, this market will shrivel. The rural sector has become a crucial element of the Indian economy. It is being seen as the new market frontier by those in the manufacturing and the retail sectors. Those plans and projections will now have to be put on hold because of the emerging drought situation. Experts are arguing that losses in agricultural production will impact the overall growth rate by only less than one percent. But this hides the real implications. The millions who could have become the potential consumers in India's villages and thus become the market drivers will now be missing from action.
The drought has to be seen and tackled at different levels, but ultimately, the government's task should be to reduce the misery of farmers and consumers. The authorities have to ensure that prices are kept under check and there is no rampant hoarding of critical grains and pulses. This will be another crucial test for this government.
26.       Which of the following is true in context of the passage?
a) The government has taken adequate measures to protect the farmers against the effects of the deficient monsoon
b) There has been a rampant hoarding of food material which is escalating the rise in their prices
c) The relative stability at the macro level has been a result of the stability in the rural sectors
d) According to the experts, agricultural production does not impact the overall growth rate very significantly.
27.       Which of the following statements would weaken the author's claim in the sentence 'The millions who could have become the potential consumers in India's villages and thus become the market drivers will now be missing from action as used in the passage ?
a) A recent report suggests that the drought has hit the economy of rural areas more than the urban areas
b) Many retail chain giants aiming at venturing into wholesale trade in the rural areas have withdrawn due to the impending drought
c) The inflation has risen by more than 4% in rural areas as compared to the urban areas in the last three months
d) Many organisations have been targeting the rural markets as new business avenues in the upcoming quarter of the year
28.       Which of the following suggestions does the author make in the given passage?
a) In order to deal with the drought like situation, more and more food grains must be imported to meet the demand
b) To divert all the efforts on dealing with the impending drought from the current concentration on recession
c) Rural sector playing an important role in the economy should be paid attention in order to safeguard the markets
d) The manufacturing and the retail sectors should be given special privilege packages by the government so that they can take a firmer grip on rural markets.
29.       Despite a significantly deficient monsoon, why is the government confident of dealing with the situation ?
a) The number of districts affected by drought is within a manageable proportion
b) The stock of food grains is 'sufficient in the country, boosted by its increased import and decreased exports
c) No instability in the economy is observed either at the macro level or the micro level due to the drought
d) The government has enough instruments to safeguard all the sectors in such a situation
30.       What is the author's main intention in writing the passage?
a) To highlight 'how the neglect of rural areas in the face of an impending drought would affect the economy adversely
b) To suggest the steps that the government should take in order to control the food shortage created as a result of the drought
c) To call for safeguarding the interest of the manufacturing and retail sectors in rural areas for business growth in these sector
d) To highlight how the government has failed miserably to address the problems that the farmers have been facing during drought

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), under the direction of the Union Human Resource Development Ministry, has decided to do away with class X exams in all schools that are affiliated to it from 2010. This decision is welcome as India's education system, ranging from school-level education to higher institutes of learning, is in serious need of reform if the country's demographic dividend is to pay off. Introducing a degree of flexibility in the system by abolishing the class X boards is a good first step.
Students will be subjected to continuous comprehensive evaluation (CCE) instead of having to write exams, while those who want to switch schools can test themselves by taking an optional online test. A related development is the introduction of a grading system to replace marks in CBSE schools, which will also serve the dual purpose of reducing exam stress on students while making the system more flexible. Educationists have stressed that continuous assessment of a student's performance in class is a much more effective method of evaluation than examinations, which might produce abnormal results due to the pressure to excel within a particular time range. Assessing students throughout the year is at the same time a more rigorous test of what they have learned. Mugging up textbooks in the two months leading up to the boards will no longer yield the desired result.
But these measures, while beneficial, cannot by themselves fix what ails our education system. Class XII exams remain the same, not to mention the deep-seated problems in our higher education system. Exam stress isn't caused by exams per se, but rather their use as a filtration device to narrow access to limited higher educational opportunities. The space for quality higher education needs to be opened up by allowing autonomy for colleges and permitting the entry of for-profit rather than pseudo-charitable institutions, ending the licence-permit-quota raj in this area.
31.       Why, according to the author, are the steps taken by the CBSE not adequate for the revival of education system in India ?
a) Board exams have not been abolished at all the levels
b) Grading system does not make a significant difference in the stress level of the students
c) Opportunities for higher learning remain fewer than the number of applicants for these
d) Only (a) and (c)
32.       Why, according to the author, is continuous and comprehensive evaluation better than the current evaluation system?
A. CCE has been previously proved to be a more efficient method of evaluation by some of the States in India.
B. CCE puts pressure on the students to excel, thus making them more competent and ready for the global market competition.
C. It reduces rote learning among the learners for the sole purpose of obtaining higher marks.
a) Only A        b) Only A and C                     c) Only C        d) Only A and B
33.       Which of the following statements would most appropriately precede the given statement had it been a part of a bigger passage ?
Therefore the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), under the direction of        the Union Human Resource Development Ministry, has decided to do away with class           X exams in all schools.'
a) This step was welcomed by many experts but many State governments refused to follow the directions
b) The education ministry is seriously considering to put forward a proposal to abolish hoard exams from standard X
c) Experts suggested that the abolition of Board exams at standard X was the only immediate step that could curb the increasing levels of stress among students
d) A recent research has indicated that the stress level among the students is higher in the standard KR board examinations than that of standard X exam
34.       Which of the phrases given below the following statement should be placed in the blank space provided so as to make a meaningful and grammatically correct sentence ?
Although written exams are capable of screening a large number of candidates, wherever? desired -
a) these may lead to biased results as many perform well in them by, rote learning
b) they can be used wherever the num­ber of seats is limited as compared to the number of applications
c) they are still favoured, by students and educationists throughout the world
d) the Candidates are better versed with writing exams than being assessed throughout the year in the name of Continuous and comprehensive evaluation
35.       Which of the following suggestions does the author make in order to improve the state of higher education ?
a) Introduction of grading system in higher education as well.
b) Allowing for profit institutions to enter the field of higher education
c) Closing down all pseudo-charitable institutions running in the name of higher education
d) Keeping the controls of institutes for higher learning in government's own hands

Internationally comparable data on the migration of the highly skilled is incomplete, but sources confirm an increase in migration flows during the 1990s, from Asia to the United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. The increase comes from strong demand in OECD countries for IT and other skills in science and technology as well as the selective immigration policies that favour skilled workers. Not all skilled migrants are in search of educational, economic or intellectual opportunities. Sometimes, they are forced to leave their homes as a result of war, or political, ethnic and religious persecution.
Skilled migration between OECD countries is also on the rise but appears dominated by temporary flows of advanced students, researchers, managers and IT specialists, suggesting more a pattern of brain 'circulation than a draining of skills from one place to another.
The United States is the main pole of attraction for foreign skilled workers; 40% of its foreign-born adult population has tertiary level education. But the United States is not the only magnet. Canada also attracts talent and, despite its modest loss of skilled migrants to the US, is in fact a net importer of human capital. Skilled migration to Germany and France has been lower in recent history, but these countries have now implemented policies to attract foreign students, researchers and IT workers. The costs and benefits of brain drain and circulation of talent are highly debated. International mobility of skilled workers can generate global benefits by improving knowledge flows and satisfying the demand for skills. The contribution of foreign skilled workers to economic growth and achievement in host countries, in particular to research, innovation and entrepreneurship, is increasingly recognised. But, it is important to distinguish between emigrants from OECD countries and those from developing countries.
In home countries in the developing world, the challenge is greater. For these countries, capturing benefits mostly depends on attracting -back skilled emigrants and providing opportunities for them to use their new technological competencies. Returnees also can bring valuable management experience, entrepreneurial skills and access to global networks. They may even bring venture capital. But this is looking on the bright side. Mostly, the problems caused by the brain drain in poorer countries are great. Migrants from developing countries are generally more likely to stay in the host country than migrants from advanced countries. In the longer run, however, return flows of people and capital may not only offset some potential negative effects of international migration but also constitute an economic development strategy in its own right.
The harsh reality is that only a handful of countries have been successful in luring their talented emigres back home. Up to a third of R&D professionals from the developing world are believed to reside in the OECD area. While there are often media reports of successful Indian entrepreneurs in the United States who establish branches or even firms in India only a small number actually return. In 2000, it was estimated that some 1,500 highly qualified Indians returned from the United States, although more than 30 times that number depart each year.
The relative success of some countries in fostering return migration has been attributed to the opening up of their economies and policies to foster domestic investments in innovation and R&D. Developing countries with some infrastructure in R & D, like India, are more likely to attract the return of migrants, as well as money and business contacts. "Immigrant entrepreneur networks" can also help home countries capture benefits and know-how from emigrants overseas. Indian professionals in the US have been the primary drivers of knowledge and capital flows to India. The Indian government has contributed to the emergence of these private networks through legislative and tax rules that encourage remittances and investment from Indians abroad.
Governments can do quite a lot to address the causes of brain drain. Science and technology policies are key in this regard. Developing centers of excellence for scientific research and framing conditions for innovation and high tech entrepreneurship can make a country attractive to highly skilled workers, both from within the country and from outside. The task is not easy and it takes time; India's investment in human resources in science and technology and own R & D capabilities dates from the 1950s.
The risk of a brain drain is real. Yet countries can create opportunities for research, innovation and entrepre­neurship at home and stimulate a return flow of migrants and capital, as well as win access to international innovation networks. With the right mix of policies and sustained international co-operation, several countries could, as one Indian official pointed out, see the "brain drain" be transformed into a "brain bank".
36.       What, according to the author, is/ are the benefit(s) of migration ?
A. Migrant workers contribute to the economy of the country they migrate to.
B. There is a significant exchange of new knowledge and ideas.
C. The migrant workers help fill the skill gaps in the country they migrate to.
a) Only (C)      b) All (A), (B) and (C)            c) Only (B) and (C)     d) Only (A) and (B)
37.       What, according to the author, is/ are the cause(s) of brain drain?
A. Search for academic opportunities
B. Need to lead an extravagant life
C. Disturbances in one's own country
a) Only (A)      b) Only (A) and (B)    c) Only (B)      d) Only (A) and (C)
38.       Which of the following is/are true in the/context of the passage ?
A. The brain drain phenomenon can be worked on to one's advantage if all countries co-operate with each other.
B. The US has the maximum number of foreign immigrants.
C. There are no skilled immigrants from Canada.
a) All (A), (B) and (C)            b) Only (B)      c) Only (C)      d) Only (A) and (B)
39.       Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the given passage?
a) Brain Drain - Advantages and Disadvantages
b) Brain Drain and the Developing Entrepreneur
c) Migration of Labour Class - A Global Phenomena
d) Immigrant Entrepreneur Networks
40.       What, according to the author, can the government do to tackle brain drain ?
A. Establish centers for scientific research
B. Encourage creativity and innovation
C. Frame policies that are conducive to entrepreneurship .
a) Only (B)      b) Only (A)     c) Only (B) and (C)     d) All (A), (B) and (C)
41.       Why, according to the author, is the migration of skilled workers a larger problem in the developing countries ?
a) As the developing countries are then pressurised by the developed countries to call the migrant workers back
b) As it is difficult for the developing countries to attract migrants back to their home country
c) As the workers in the developed countries remain jobless since all the vacant positions are occupied by the migrant skilled workers
d) As the GDP of the developing countries falls rapidly due to migration
42.       How, according to the author, can the developing countries benefit from the migrant skilled workers?
A. Skilled migrant workers send part of their earnings to their home country thereby contributing to its economy.
B. On their return migrant workers put to use their newly acquired technological know-how in their home country.
C. Once the migrant Workers return they bring in new global contacts and also invest capital.
a) Only (A) and (B)    b) All (A), (B) and (C)            c) Only (B) and (C)     d) Only (C)
43.       How, according to the author, have some countries attracted their migrant skilled workers back?
a) By establishing Immigrant Entrepreneur Networks in order to persuade the migrant workers to come back
b) By garnering the government's help in calling them back
c) By adopting stringent tax payment rules for the migrant workers
d) By investing in research and development and framing of policies that encourage domestic investment

A new chapter has been added to the decades long scientific quest for water on the moon. An instrument on the Chandrayaan-1, known as the Moon Mineralogy Mapper, has detected unmistakable signs of water molecules at many places on the surface of our celestial neighbour. Years before humans set foot on the moon, scientists conjectured that there might be water there. But when samples of lunar rock and soil brought back by the Apollo astronauts were analysed, the results dampened such hopes. The moon appeared to be, in the words of one scientific paper, "an exceedingly dry place". The, search for water on the moon, however, revived in the 1990s when two US spacecraft, the Clementine and the Lunar Prospector, found evidence for what was said to be water in the form of ice in permanently shadowed craters at the poles. But this evidence has been hotly contested. So much so that last year Japanese researchers declared that careful analysis of images taken by the Kaguya/ SELENE spacecraft did not throw up any sign of ice inside a key crater at the South Pole. But it was also last year that US scientists published a study that used new techniques to examine beads of volcanic glass collected by two Apollo missions. They found minute traces of water. That suggested that water had been a part of the moon since its formation and could be found deep inside it.
The discovery of traces of water by the Chandrayaan-1, supported by findings from two US deep space missions that gazed at the moon as they passed by, is of huge scientific interest. Scientists have long speculated that solar wind, carrying charged particles from the sun, could interact with the lunar soil to produce water. Now evidence from Chandrayaan-1 and the other two spacecraft indicates that such a process is likely to be at play on the moon. Water, it would seem, is being constantly generated all over the lunar surface. Much of it may well boil off into space; some of it may percolate deeper down into the soil. Some of the water could end up at the bottom of deep polar craters, which have recently been described as some of the coldest places in the entire solar system. Such water, it is said, will benefit any future efforts to establish a manned outpost on the moon, supplying drinking water and rocket fuel. The day when such a need might arise seems very far off indeed. It is not even clear when humans might next go to the moon, let alone set up bases there. For the present, it is science that profits most from the Chandrayaan 1's discovery of water. Missions of space exploration should not be judged by any immediate returns they produce. The excitement over such voyages is a testament to our desire to better understand the world around us and the universe beyond.
44.       Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage ?
A. Space missions have meaning only when they produce immediate results.
B. Japanese researchers found key evidence to suggest there is no 'water anywhere on the moon.
C. The moon appears to be an exceedingly dry place according to
latest findings.
a) C only         b) B only         c) B & C          d) A, B & C
45.       Which of the following statements is/are implied in the passage?
A. Water is being constantly produced on the moon's surface.
B. Establishing a manned outpost on the moon will become a reality soon.
C. Scientists have been looking for signs of water on the moon since very long.
a) A & B         b) A, B & C    c) A & C         d) B only
46.       According to the passage
a) clearly, humans are expected to land on the moon shortly.
b) Chandrayaan -1 is the first mission to discover traces of water on the lunar surface.
c) globally scientists have had consistent findings in their studies.
d) man's quest for knowledge of the universe is reflected in space exploration missions.
47.       The title most apt for this passage is
a) Quest for Water on the Moon: A Significant Step Forward
b) Success of Joint Space Missions
c) Chandrayaan-1 : Pride of India
d) None of these

The International Monetary Fund has played a significantly enhanced role in promoting global economic growth and stability. In one of the important 'decisions taken at the Pittsburgh G-20 summit, the IMF has been given the mandate to assist in a new mechanism for a peer review of every country's economic policy framework and performance. Policies of many countries including India are already being reviewed by the IMF and after the G-20 summit the richer countries' policies will be subject to scrutiny. Of course, much will depend on how the IMF goes about fulfilling the mandate. But the decision at the summit is in itself a big step towards ensuring that the policies pursued by the G-20 countries "are collectively consistent with more sustainable and balanced trajectories for the global economy." In a related development, the IMF itself will be restructured and made more democratic so as to reflect the current global economic order rather than what prevailed in 1945 when it was set up. Its executive board will become more broad-based. The IMF's system of quotas - from which the voting power of individual members is derived - will be realigned in such a way that developing countries including India and China, now having a 43 percent share, get five percent more. That, however, falls short of the 50 percent share the developing countries have been asking for. But the G-20 ought to be compli­mented for finally moving forward on a long-pending agenda of internal reform of the IMF and the World Bank.
The IMF will be able to alter the economic policies of countries that have directly or indirectly contributed to the global economic crisis. At Pittsburgh, there were few concrete suggestions for an orderly unwinding of "global imbalances" - the huge current account deficit of the United States matched by the current account surplus of China. It is not clear whether the IMF will be in a position to influence China's exchange rate policy (leading to a revaluation of the yuan) or the US's inclination to consume. Obviously, continued global cooperation will be necessary even as the world economy climbs out of the recession. The IMF, which has forecast a gradual recovery, has gained in reputation by its generally deft handling of the crisis. For instance, it mobilised resources swiftly and stepped up lending to the countries in need, thereby containing the crisis. Even more significantly all the loans came without the onerous conditions and advice of the kind that showed a disregard for national sensibilities as it happened during the Asian crisis over a decade ago.
48.       "... collectively consistent with ... the global economy" means
a) framing of policies by G-20 countries in such a way that the global economy shows sustained and balanced performance.
b) continued growth for. G-20 countries must be ensured consistently.
c) ensuring equal economic growth for all the countries.
d) None of these
49.       The title most aptly suited to this passage is
a) Handling of global economic crisis - Key role of IMF
b) G-20 countries - Economic bullies or powerhouses
c) G-20 countries - Impact of their policies on global economy
d) Global cooperation key to combating economic crisis
50.       Which of the following statements is/are true in the context of this passage ?
A. In the past needy countries were given loans under stringent conditions.
B. As per IMF the recovery from the present economic crisis will be a slow process.
C. G-20 countries policies are exempt from IMF's scrutiny.
a) C only         b) A, B & C    c) A & B         d) A & C



1.(a)     2.(b)     3. (d)   4. (b)    5. (d)   6. (b)    7. (d)   8. (a)    9. (b)    10. (b)

11. (b)  12. (a)  13. (c)  14. (b)  15. (d) 16. (a)  17. (a)  18. (a)  19. (a)  20. (c)

21. (d) 22. (b)  23. (c)  24. (a)  25. (c)  26. (d) 27. (d) 28. (c)  29. (b)  30. (a)

31. (d) 32. (c)  33. (c)  34. (a)  35. (b)  36. (b)  37. (d) 38. (d) 39. (a)  40. (d)

41. (b)  42. (b)  43. (d) 44. (a)  45. (a)  46. (d) 47. (c)  48. (a)  49. (d) 50. (c)

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