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Directions (Q.1-10): Read the following passage carefully and the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
China’s rising power is based on its remarkable economic success. Shanghai’s overall economy is currently growing at around 13% per year, thus doubling in size every five or six years. Every where there are start - ups, innovations, and young entrepreneurs hungry for profits. In a series of high-level meetings between Chinese and African official, the advice that the African leaders received from the Chinese was sound, and more practical than they typically get from the World Bank. Chinese officials stress the crucial role of public investments, especially in agriculture and infrastructure, to lay the basis for private sector - led growth. In a hungry and poor rural economy, as China was in the 1970s and as most of Africa is today, a key starting point is to raise farm productivity. Farmers need the benefits of fertilizer, irrigation and high-yield seeds, all of which were a core part of China’s economical takeoff. Two other equally critical investments are also needed: roads and electricity, without which there cannot be a modern economy. Farmers might be able to increase their output, but it wont be able to reach the cities, and the cities won’t be able to provide the countryside with inputs. The government has taken pains to ensure that the electricity grids and transportation networks reach every village in China. China is prepared to help Africa in substantial ways in agriculture, roads, power, health and education. And that is not an empty boast. Chinese leaders are prepared to share new high-yield rice varieties, with their African counterparts and, all over Africa, China is financing and constructing basic infrastructure.
            This illustrates what is wrong with the World Bank. The World Bank has often forgotten the most basic lessons of development, preferring to lecture the poor and force them to privatize basic infrastructure, which is untenable, rather than to help the poor to invest in infrastructure and other crucial sectors. The Bank’s failure began in the early 1980s when under the ideological sway of then American President and British Prime Minister it tried to get Africa and other poor regions to cut back or close down government investments and services. For 25 years, the bank tried to get governments out of agriculture, leaving impoverished peasants to fend for themselves. The result has been a disaster in Africa, with farm productivity stagnant for decades. The bank also pushed for privatization of national health systems, water utilities, and road and power networks, and has grossly underfinanced these critical sectors. This extreme free-market ideology, also called “structural adjustment”, went against the practical lessons of development successes in China and the rest or Asia. Practical development strategy recognizes that public investments-in agriculture, health, education, and infrastructure-are necessary complements to private investments. The World Bank has instead wrongly seen such vital public investments as an enemy of private sector development. Whenever the bank’s ideology failed, it has blamed the poor for corruption, mismanagement, or lack of initiative. Instead of focusing its attention on helping the poorest countries to improve their infrastructure, there has been a crusade against corruption. The good news is that African governments are getting the message on how to spur economic growth and are getting crucial help from China and other partners that are less wedded to extreme free-market ideology than the World Bank. They have declared their intention to invest in infrastructure, agriculture modernization, public health, and education. It is clear and Bank can regain its relevance only if it becomes practical once again, by returning its focus to financing public investments in priority sectors. If that happens, the Bank can still do justice to the bold vision of a world of shared prosperity that prompted its creation after World War II.

1.         The author’s main objective in writing the passage is to
            a) make a case for the closure of the World Bank since it promotes US interests over those of other countries.
            b) illustrate how China can play a more concrete role in Africa.
            c) criticize the World Bank for playing a crucial role in China’s development but neglecting Africa.
            d) recommend that China adopt the guidelines of the World Bank to sustain growth.
            e) use China’s success as an example of the changes required in World Bank ideology.

2.         What advice have African leaders received from their Chinese counterparts?
            A) Focus primarily on innovation, start-ups and urban development.
            B) To ensure all citizens benefit from economic development, investment in crucial sectors should come from the government, not the private sector.
            C) Improve agricultural output through government investment to stimulate economic growth.
            a) None                       b) Only (C)                 c) Only (B)    
d) Both (A) & (B)       e) None of these

3.         What effect has the World Bank policy had on African nations?
            a) The African government has restricted private sector investment in agriculture.
            b) Africa has focused more on health and education rather than on agriculture.
            c) The agriculture sector in these countries is not as productive as it could be.
            d) US and Britain have volunteered substantial aid to Africa as Africa has complied with World Bank ideology.                e) None of these

4.         What is the difference in the Chinese and World Bank approach to development?
            a) Unlike the World Bank, China favours the public sector and restricts private sector participation in crucial sectors.
            b) Contrary to China’s strategy of dependence on the private sector, the World Bank pressurizes governments to take the lead in investing the agriculture.
            c) While the World Bank has focused on agriculture, China’s priority has been rooting out corruption so that investment in infrastructure is utilized appropriately
            d) The Chinese government has retained control over essential services like transport while the World Bank favours private sector involvement.
            e) None of these

5.         What is China’s view on the development of the transportation and power networks?
            a) Development in these sectors is not as important as investing in agriculture.
            b) Resources need to be diverted from the rural to the urban areas to meet the needs of the growing population in cities.
            c) The government should be solely responsible for developing these services so all citizens have access to them.
            d) None of these

6.         Which of the following cannot be said about structural adjustment?
            a) It is the World Bank’s free market ideology adapted by Asian countries.
            b) Under this strategy public sector investment in priority sectors is discouraged
            c) As a development strategy it has failed in Africa.
            d) With this strategy there has been a lack of adequate investment in critical sectors.
            e) It is an ideology advocated by the World Bank which needs to be modified to facilitate economic growth.

7.         Which of the following is NOT true in the context of the passage?
            A) China’s involvement in Africa so far has been restricted to advising its leaders.
            B) The World Bank was created by the US and Britain for the sole purpose of furthering their interests.
            C) China’s economy was once in the same state as many African countries are today.
            a) None                       b) Only (B)     c) Only (A)    
d) Both (A) & (B)       e) None of these

8.         What has / have been the outcome/s of Shanghai’s economy prospering?
            A) The World Bank has changed its development strategy
            B) China’s importance globally has been enhanced
            C) Rural areas are being neglected to promote development of cities.
            a) Only (B)                 b) Both (A) & (B)       c) Both (B) & (C)      
            d) All (A), (B) & (C) e) None of these

9.         Why is the author optimistic about Africa’s future?
            a) The World Bank has committed itself to invest huge sums in Africa’s development.
            b) Africa has decided to adopt a structural adjustment ideology which has benefited many nations.
            c) Africa has committed itself to adopting China’s strategy for economic growth.
            d) China has urged the World Bank to waive the interest on its loans to Africa.

10.       What advice has the author given the World Bank?
            a) Support China’s involvement in developing Africa
            b) Reduce the influence of the US and Britain in its functioning.
            c) Adopt a more practical ideology of structural adjustment.
            d) Change its ideology to one encouraging both public and private sector investment in basic infrastructure.
            e) Focus on fighting corruption rather than interfering in the governance of developing countries.

            Directions (Q.11-13): Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.

11.       Sway
            a) fluctuate                 b) influence                c) govern
            d) dependence                         e) unsteady

12.       Core   
            a) centre                      b) heart                       c) adequate
            d) intermediate                       e) essential

13.       Stress
            a) highlight                 b) strain                      c) taxing
            d) tension                    e) emphasis

            Directions (Q.14-15): Choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.

14.       untenable
            a) viable                      b) unsound                  c) consistent
            d) superior                  e) attractive

15.       empty
            a) full                          b) objective                 c) meaningful
            d) occupied                 e) intelligent
Directions (Q.16-25): Read each sentence to find out whether there is any error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part off the sentence. The number of that part is the answer. If there is no error, the answer is 5). (Ignore errors of punctuation, if any).

16.       It is not worthy(a) /the company’s reputation(b)/to compromise on quality(c)/for the sake of profit.(d)/ No error (e)

17.       The company which has(a) / won the government contract(b) / also plans to invest(c) / with the power sector.(d)/ No error (e)

18.       Implementing these measures(a) / will help the government(b) / to save more of(c) / 400 crores each year.(d)/ No error (e)
19.       You have failed to produce(a) / no evidence to support(b) / the charge that he(c) / is responsible for the error.(d)/ No error(e)

20.       As per the agreement(a) / scientists from both of(b) / the countries will work(c) / together to find a solution.(d)/ No error. (e)

21.       Negotiations with the bank(a) / are at an advanced(b) / stage and we hope to(c) / signed the deal soon.(d)/  No error .(e)

22.       These goods have been(a) / damaged and as such(b) / should be declared(c)/ unsuitable for sale./(d)  No error(e)

23.       On account of the(a) / high land prices we(b) /are set up the factory(c) / one the outskirts of the city.(d)/ No error
24.       Bhutan is a beautiful(a) / country which almost(b) / eighty percent of the(c) / population lives in villages.(d)/ No error. (e)

25.       Out of the six companies(a) / shortlisted for the project five(b)/ have already(c) / made its presentations.(d)/ No error (e)

            Directions (Q.26-30): Which of the phrases a), b), c) and d) given below should replace the phrase given in bold in the following sentences to make the sentence grammatically correct? If the sentence is correct as it is and there is no correction required, mark e), i.e ‘No correction required’ as the answer.

26.       The minimum eligibility age shall be less to sixty years to allow more senior citizens to avail of the benefits of the scheme.
            a) should be lowered              b) should be lower                  c) being lesser
            d) must be lessen                    e) No correction required

27.       The latest study by Nasscom indicates possibly short of five lakh qualified engineers in the IT industry.
            a) the possible shortage off    b) possibly short by    c) possibility of shortage
            d) a possible shortage of        e) No correction required

28.       China has to be prepared to meet many age-related social and financial challenges in the coming years.
            a) is been preparing                b) was prepared          c) have been prepared
            d) has preparations                 e) No corrections required

29.       It is necessary to ascertain that we can do to attract investment to the manufacturing sector.
            a) how we can do                    b) what we can do       c) more can be done
            d) that has been done              e) No correction required.

30.       Despite all my efforts I could not prevail him to attend next week’s conference.
            a) was unable to prevail         b) cannot prevail for   c) could not prevail on
            d) am not able to prevail with            e) No correction required

            Directions (Q.31-35): In each of the following sentences there are two blank spaces. Below each five pairs of words have been denoted by numbers a), b), c), d) and e). Find out which pair of words can be filled up in the blanks in the sentence in the same sequence to make the sentence meaningfully complete.

31.       The Chairman in his speech stated the ________ in company profits was _______ to team building.
            a) incline, owing         b) rise, liable              c) slump, accountable
            d) surge, due               e) plunge, response

32.       The main ________ of healthcare reforms is _________ medical care to every citizen.
            a) purpose, available b) cause, providing     c) challenge, accessing
            d) assurance, qualified           e) focus, extending

33.       Being _______ of how he wanted his career to progress, he began discussing his _____ with senior colleagues.
            a) convinced, misconduct      b) unsure, options       c) unresolved, aspirations
            d) practical, intentions                       e) spontaneous, future

34.       Experts feel that the amendment to the Act will adversely _______ private sector _______ in infrastructure development.
            a) effect, participation                        b) facilitate, claim      c) influence, involvement
            d) measure, investment                      e) expedite, stake.

35.       His absence at the crucial meeting cannot be as he ______ the country at important international for a.
            a) helped, represents              b) condoned, participates      
c) permitted, engages                         d) sanctioned, governs                       e) forgiven, promote

            Directions (Q.36-40): Rearrange the following six sentences (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) and (F) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph: then answer the questions given below them.
            a) In fact, today, social entrepreneurship is no different from starting a profit - motivated company.
            b) The major challenge they face is employee selection and retention.
            c) For decades social development in India meant charity.
            d) However, the challenges social organisations experience are tougher.
            e) This is because while volunteering for social work is not new, attracting talented people and tapping their potential at lower costs is difficult.
            f) In recent years, however, economic changes have brought business sense and professionalism to the sector.

36.       Which of the following should be the FIFTH sentence in the paraaraph?
            a) A                 b) B                 c) C                 d) D                 e) E

37.       Which of the following should be the SIXTH (LAST) sentence in the paragraph?
            a) B                 b) C                 c) D                 d) E                 e) F

38.       Which of the following should be the SECOND sentence in the paragraph?
            a) B                 b) C                 c) D                 d) E                 e) F

39.       Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence in the paragraph?
            a) A                 b) B                 c) C                 d) D                 e) E

40.       Which of the following should be the THIRD sentence in the paragraph?
            a) A                 b) B                 c) C                 d) D                 e) E

            Directions (Q.41-50): In the following passage there are blanks each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.

            Does Indian industry need democracy? The Indian economy’s sustained growth today is (41) by incomplete democracy. While millions of Indians endure poverty, only a tiny majority (42) prosperity. On the other hand, many Latin American countries have registered (43) growth rates under military dictators and today one of the fastest growing economies in the world-China - has an (44) rather than a democratic government. So why does India need democracy for sustained growth? To many, democracy (45) slower decision-making with corrupt politicians and red-tapeism etc. Industry should therefore be (46) with less, not more, democracy. However, while China (47) consumption in order to save and invest more than half its output to produce 10% growth, India (48) almost two-thirds of its output and manages to achieve 9% growth from one-third of its output. (49) India’s democracy is not inefficient when it comes to making (50) use of resources.

41.       a) deprived                  b) hampered                c) eliminated
            d) faced                       e) threaten

42.       a) pursuit                    b) acquisition              c) benefit
            d) enjoy                       e) value

43.       acceptable                   b) insignificant                       c) variable      
            d) inflated                   e) affordable

44.       a) autonomous            b) economical                         c) authoritarian
            d) egalitarian              e) orthodox

45.       a) imply                      b) mentions                 c) attract
            d) features                   e) means

46.       a) gracious                  b) adapted                   c) fascinated
            d) pleased                   e) urged

47.       a) bans                        b) curtails                   c) regulate
            d) ceases                     e) discourage

48.       a) consumes                b) selects                     c) indulges
            d) disperse                  e) hoard

49.       a) Accordingly                        b) Totally                    c) Thus
            d) Even                       e) Likely
50.       a) ultimately               b) capably                   c) modest
            d) secure                     e) effective


1.e       2.e       3.c      4.e       5.e       6.a      7.d      8.e       9.c      10.d

11.b    12.e     13.a    14.a    15.c    16.a    17.d    18.c    19.b    20.b

21.d    22.e     23.c    24.b    25.d    26.a    27.d    28.e     29.b    30.c

31.d    32.e     33.b    34.c    35.a    36.b    37.d    38.e     39.c    40.a

41.b    42.d    43.a    44.c    45.e     46.d    47.b    48.a    49.c    50.e

Explanation—PAPER THREE

1.e; 1, 3 and 4 are false while 5 is more comprehensive than 2.
2.e; Both (B) & (C)   
3.c; The passage says” “For 25 years, the bank tried to get governments out of agriculture ... the result ... farm productivity stagnant for decades.”
4.e; 1 is quite close but China does not restrict the private sector.
5.e; In fact, the passage is silent on transportation though it talks about roads.     
6.a; Rather, it is “against the practical lessons of development successes in China and the rest of Asia.”
7.d; (A) is not true because China is even financing and constructing basic infrastructure. (B) has simply not been mentioned any where in the passage.        
8.e; No such outcome has been mentioned or hinted at.      
9.c; The African governments have declared their intention to invest in infrastructure, agriculture modernisation, public health, and education.
10.d; Practical development strategy recognizes that public investments are necessary complement to private investment.
16.a; Insert of after worthy.  
17.d; Substitute in for with.  
18.c; Substitute than for of.  
19.b; Substitute any for no.   
20.b; Delete of.
21.d; Substitute sign.
23.c; Substitute have for are
24.b; Substitute where for which.     
25.d; Substitute their for its.
36.b; - 40.a; C F A D B E


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