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SPOTTING ERRORS --100 QUESTIONS


Spotting Errors
The spotting of errors forms an indispensable part of any competitive exam. In this section, a number of sentences are given and each of them is divided into three parts (a), (b) and (c). You are required to spot the part which has an error. If there is no error, your answer is (d).
Such kind of questions are usually based on different grammatical rules and their correct usage. A sound knowledge of grammatical rules and regular practice will enable you to solve these questions.
Articles
The adjectives a, an and the are called Articles. There are two kinds of articles
(I) Indefinite article—A/An
(II) Definite article—The
Use of Indefinite Article-A/An
1. The article An is used before a word beginning with a vowel sound. eg,
(i) She is an intelligent girl.
(ii) He is an MP.
(iii) You are an honest man.
2. The article A is used before a word beginning with a consonant sound. eg,
(i) He is a university student.
(ii) He is a European.
(iii) He is a one-eyed man.
3. A/An is used before a singular countable noun when it is mentioned for the first time representing no particular person or thing. eg,
(i) He has an axe.
(ii) She is a lawyer.
(iii) A boy came to my office.
4. A/An is used before a singular countable noun which is used as the representative of a            class of things or persons. eg,
(i) A lion is a fierce animal.
(ii) A pupil should obey his teacher.
(iii) A dog is a faithful animal.
5. A/An is used to make a common noun of a proper noun. eg,
(i) My neighbour is a Daniel.
(ii) She is a Lata Mangeshkar.
(iii) His brother is a Shylock.
6. A/An is used in exclamations before singular countable nouns. eg,
(i) What an interesting movie
(ii) What a pretty girl
(iii) What a lovely morning
7. A/ An is used in its original sense of one or any. eg,
(i) She wants a car.
(ii) There are twelve inches in a foot.           
(iii) He bought a book.

Use of Definite Article—The
The definite article The is used
1. when we talk about a particular person or thing or one already mentioned. eg,
(i) Give me the book which you bought yesterday.
(ii) The dress you want is out of stock.
(iii) I met a girl. The girl was beautiful.
2. when a singular noun represents a whole class. eg,
(i) The lotus is a beautiful flower.
(ii) The cat loves comfort.
(iii) The banyan is a useful tree.
3. before the first noun in ‘noun + preposition + noun’ construction. eg,
(i) The Bharat of Ramayana is an ideal brother.
(ii) The gold of India is famous.
(iii) She likes the sweets of Jaipur.
4. before names of mountain-ranges. eg,
The Alps, The Himalayas, The Vindhyas
5. before names of groups of islands. eg,
The Andamans, The Hebrides, The West Indies
6. before names of rivers, oceans, gulfs, deserts and forests. eg,
The Ganges, The Amazon, The Nile, The Arabian Sea, The Pacific Ocean, The Indian  Ocean, The Persian Gulf, The Gulf of Mexico, The Sahara, The Black Forest
7. before names of religious and mythological books. eg,
The Veda, The Ramayana, The Bible
8. before names of newspapers and magazines. eg,
The Hindustan Times, The Times of India, The Statesman                   
9. before names of heavenly bodies, directions and things unique of their kind. eg,
The earth, The sun, The moon, The east, The north, The equator
§  ‘The’ is not used before the words ‘Heaven, Hell, God, Parliament’.
 
 



10. before names of historical buildings, places and events. eg,
The Taj Mahal, The Red Fort, The Pyramids, The Kaba, The Kurukshetra, The French Revolution
11. before musical instruments. eg,
(i) He can play the guitar.
(ii) She is fond of playing on the piano
§  When musical instruments are used as countable nouns. A/An is used. eg,
(i) We gave her a harmonium.
(ii) I have bought a violin.
 
 





12. before religious communities and political parties. eg,
The Hindus, The Muslims, The Sikhs, The BJP, The Congress Party, The Janata Dal
13. before names of ships, aeroplanes and trains. eg,
The Virat, The Vikrant, The Meghdoot
The Shatabdi Express, The Punjab Mail, The           Rajdhani Express
14. before the words denoting physical positions. eg,
The top, The bottom, The centre
The inside, The front, The back
15. before parts of body. eg,
(i) He was hit on the head.
(ii) She pulled the cat by the tail.
(iii) You caught me by the arm.
16. before names of government departments and armed forces. eg,
The Judiciary, The Legislative, The Executive, The Army, The Navy, The Air Force
17. before the dates of months. eg,
The 6th February, The 21st of December
18. before the superlative degree. eg,
(i) Honesty is the best policy.
(ii) She is the tallest girl in the class.
(iii) The rose is the sweetest of all flowers.
19. before the names of a few countries and provinces. eg,
The USA, The USSR, The Netherlands, The Sudan, The Punjab
20. before comparative degree in case of a choice. eg,
(i) She is the prettier of the two sisters.
(ii) He is the stronger of the two.
21. before the ordinals. eg,
The first, The third, The ninth

Omission of Articles
The articles a, an, the are omitted
1. before names of days and months. eg,
(i) She will go on Monday.
(ii) They are getting married in January.
2. before names of languages. eg,
(i) He cannot speak French.
(ii) She is learning Marathi.
3. before names of subjects. eg,
(i) She has no interest in mathematics.
(ii) Biology is his favourite subject.
4. before names of diseases. eg,
(i) AIDS is spreading like wild fire.
(ii) He died of cancer.
§  But ‘The’ is used before the names of a few diseases. eg, the measles , the plague, the gout, the mumps
 
 




5. before names of festivals and seasons. eg,
(i) He will go to Canada in winter.
(ii) She celebrated Christmas with her friends.
But
(i) He will go to Canada in the winter season.
(ii) She went to Delhi in the Diwali holidays.
6. before names of sports. eg,
(i) She plays tennis.
(ii) We like cricket.
7. before the names of persons, villages, cities, districts, states and countries. eg,
(i) Anjali is a beautiful girl.
(ii) London is a big city.
(iii) Paris is the capital of France.
8. before names of meals. eg,
(i) They take lunch at 2 pm.
(ii) Breakfast is ready.
§  ‘A’ is used when there is an adjective before names of meals. We use ‘the’ when we specify. eg,
(i) We had a late breakfast today.
(ii) The lunch I had at the Rajmahal was nice.
 
 






9. after possessive adjectives (my, our, your, his, her, their, its) and nouns in possessive case (Ram’s, lion’s). eg,
(i) This is Rahul’s car.
(ii) That is my book.
10. before school, college, church, prison, hospital, bed, market, when these places are visited or used for their primary purpose. eg,
(i) She goes to church on Sunday.
(ii) The criminal was sent to prison.
(iii) I go to bed at 10 pm.
11. before man, life, death, art, science, when these words are used in the widest sense. eg,
(i) Man is mortal.
(ii) Science has developed much in the past fifty years.
12. before the nouns used after rank of / title of. eg,
(i) He was promoted to the rank of Colonel.
(ii) He was given the title of Nawab

Tense
Kinds of Tense
There are basic tenses
1. Present Tense
2. Past Tense
3. Future Tense
There are four sub-categories of each of three
(i) Simple
(ii) Continuous
(iii) Perfect
(iv) Perfect Continuous

Uses of Tense
I. Simple Present Tense
1. Simple Present Tense is used to express universal truth, principle and proverb. eg,
(i) The earth moves round the sun.
(ii) Oil floats on water.
(iii) Fortune favours the brave.
2. This tense is used to express habitual, regular and repeated actions. eg,
(i) She drinks tea every morning.
(ii) He often gets late for school.
(iii) We like rice and curry.
3. This tense is used to express human feelings, emotions and mental activity. eg,
(i) I love my family.
(ii) She thinks he is the best.
(iii) Shilpa hates beggars.
4. This tense is used to show possession. eg,
(i) She has a piano.
(ii) This car belongs to him.
(m) They have a son and a daughter.
5. This tense is used to express a future event that is part of fixed time table or fixed programme. eg,
(i) The next train is at 6.00 tomorrow morning.
(ii) The show starts at 12 o’clock.
(iii) She goes to London next Monday.
6. This tense is used, instead of the Simple Future Tense, in clauses of time and of condition. eg,
(i) She will not come if it rains.
(ii) I shall wait till he comes.
(iii) You will get success if you try hard.

II. Present Continuous Tense
1. Present Continuous Tense is used for an action going on at the time of speaking. eg,
(i) The boys are playing cricket.
(ii) It is raining heavily.
(iii) She is sleeping in the room.
2. This tense is used for a temporary action which may not be actually happening at the time of speaking. eg,
(i) He is reading the Bible.
(ii) She is learning French.
(iii) They are working on this project.
3. This tense is used for an action that is planned or arranged to take place in the near future. eg,
(i) Her brother is arriving tomorrow.
(ii) We are going to the cinema tonight.
(iii) They are leaving for Mumbai next Friday.
4. This tense is used to express intention or likelihood and it indicates future time. eg,
(i) He is going to meet her.
(ii) Dhoni is playing to score runs.
(iii) You are going to fail.

III. Present Perfect Tense
1. Present Perfect Tense is used to indicate completed activities in the immediate past. eg,
(i) He has just arrived.
(ii) They have left for Delhi.
(iii) The show has just begun.
2. This tense is used to denote an action beginning at some time in the past and continuing up to the present moment (often with since/for phrases). eg,
(i) I have worked here for five years.
(ii) She has known him for a long time.
(iii) We have lived here since 1998.
3. This tense is used to express past actions whose time is not given and not definite. eg,
(i) Have you been to Agra?
(ii) She has read ‘Geetanjali’.
(iii) I have written five books.

IV. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
1. Present Perfect Continuous Tense is used to express an action which began at some time in the past and is still continuing. eg,
(i) She has been sleeping for four hours.
(ii) They have been living here for ten years.
(iii) We have been working on this project since May last.
2. This tense is also sometimes used for an action already finished. In such cases the continuity of the activity is emphasized as an explanation of something. eg,
(i) She has been waiting for you.
(ii) He has been playing.
(iii) They have been fighting.

V. Simple Past Tense
1. Simple Past Tense is used to indicate an action completed in the past. eg,
(i) I met her a week ago.
(ii) We left school last year.
(iii) He saw you yesterday.
2. This tense is used to indicate a situation related to past. eg,
(i) She was a good teacher.
(ii) We were very poor.
(iii) I was very happy.
3. This tense is also used to express past habits. eg,
(i) He always carried a stick.
(ii) She never came late.
(iii) I studied two hours every day.

VI. Past Continuous Tense
1. Past Continuous Tense is used to denote an action going on at sometime in the past. eg,
(i) She was playing chess.
(ii) We were talking loudly.
(iii) It was getting dark.
2. This tense is used to denote actions going on at the same time in the past. eg,
(i) While you were sleeping, she was reading.
(ii) While he was laughing, Sonu was weeping.
3. This tense is also used for persistent habits in the past. eg,
(i) She was always complaining.
(ii) He was always chewing tobacco.

VII. Past Perfect Tense
1. Past Perfect Tense is used to describe an action completed before a certain moment in the past. eg,
(i) She had written a poem even before she was eight years old.
(ii) I had seen him last five years before.
2. If two actions happened in the past, the earlier one is denoted by past perfect while the latter one is denoted by simple past. eg,
(i) The train had left before I reached the station.
(ii) She took dinner after they had gone.
(ii) We had slept before he came.

VIII. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Continuous Tense is used to express an action that had begun before a certain point in the past and continued up to that time. eg,
(i) At that time she had been living there for two years.
(ii) We had been playing football since 2000.

IX. Simple Future Tense
1. Simple Future Tense is used to express an action that is still to take place. eg,
(i) He will come here tomorrow.
(ii) We shall meet her on Monday.
(iii) You will do it.
2. This tense is also used to express intention, will, threat and determination. eg,
(i) I will never tell a lie.
(ii) He shall not come here again.
(iii) We will help her.

X. Future Continuous Tense
1. This tense is used to talk about actions which will be in progress at a time in the future. eg,
(i) She will be sleeping in the room.
(ii) They will be watching the match on TV.
(iii) I shall be reading a novel.
2. This tense is also used to express future events that are planned. eg,
(i) She will be coming here for your marriage.
(ii) I shall be staying here till Monday.

XI. Future Perfect Tense
1. Future Perfect Tense is used to indicate the completion of an action by a certain future time. eg,
(i) We shall have reached there by evening.
(ii) She will have written the letter by then.
2. This tense is used when there are two actions and it is necessary to emphasize that the preceding action completely finished before the next action starts. eg,
(i) She will have left before you go to see her.
(ii) I shall have come before she sleeps.

XII. Future Perfect Continuous Tense
Future Perfect Continuous Tense is used for actions which will be in progress over a period of time that will end in the future. eg,
(i) We shall have been living here for ten years by next August.
(ii) She will have been reading for three hours.
§  When sentence is in Indirect Narration and the reporting verb is in the past tense, all present tense of the reported speech are changed into the corresponding past tenses and the Simple past is changed into Past perfect.
§  He said that he does not wish to see any of them and orders them to go away.                                                                                                                               (Incorrect)
§  He said that he does not wish to see any of them and ordered them to go away.                                                                                                                             (Correct)
 
 










Subject-Verb Agreement
The subject and the verb are the essential parts of a sentence. A verb must agree with its subject in number and person.
§  If the subject is singular, verb must be singular.
If the subject is plural, verb must be plural.
§  Noun + s/es = Plural
Verb + s/es = Singular
 
 






Some Important Rules
Rule 1 Two or more singular nouns or pronouns joined by and take a plural verb. eg,
(i) He and his sister were playing.
(ii) Gold and silver are precious metals.
(iii) Fire and water do not agree.

Rule 2 If two singular nouns refer to the same person or thing, the verb must be singular. eg,
(i) The magistrate and collector has come.
(ii) The poet and critic has been honoured.
(iii) A red and white bull is in the field.
§  When the article is used before only one noun, one person/thing is intended and hence the verb must be singular.
 
 




When the article is used before both the nouns, two different persons/things are intended and hence the verb must be plural. eg,
(i) The magistrate and the collector have come.
(ii) The poet and the critic have been honoured.
(iii) A red and a white bull are in the field.

Rule 3 When two or more subjects are joined by as well as, like, besides, with, in addition to, together with, along with, but, except etc, the verb is used according to the first subject. eg,
(i) The leader with all his followers was arrested.
(ii) The ship along with its crew was lost.
(iii) The guru as well as his disciples is committed to celibacy.

Rule 4 Either, neither, each, every, anyone, someone, nobody must be followed by a singular verb. eg,
(i) Neither of your friends is intelligent.
(ii) Each of these substances is found in India.
(iii) Either of them has done this.

Rule 5 When the subjects joined by or, nor, either........or, neither.........nor are of different persons, the verb agrees with the nearer. eg,
(i) Either you or I am going.
(ii) Neither Rekha nor her friends were present at the party.
(iii) You or she is to blame.

Rule 6 If two subjects together express one idea, the verb is singular. eg,
(i) Honour and glory is his reward.
(ii) Whisky and soda was served in the party.
(iii) The horse and carriage is at the door.

Rule 7 If the subject of a clause is a relative pronoun (who, which, that), the verb is used according to the antecedent of the relative pronoun. eg,
(i) The boys who are playing are my friends.
(ii) It is I who am helping you.
(iii) She knows the boys who have broken the glass.

Rule 8 When plural nouns explain specific amount, distance, quantity, time or period as a whole, the verb should be singular. eg,
(i) Fifty rupees was the amount given to her.
(ii) Three hours is too short a time to judge one’s character.
(iii) Hundred miles is a long distance.

Rule 9 When nouns like glasses, shoes, scissors, pants, trousers, spectacles etc are used as subject, the verb is plural. eg,
(i) His trousers are very loose.
(ii) My scissors are sharp.
(iii) Your spectacles were on the table.
§  If a pair of is used before these nouns, the verb must be singular. eg,
(i) A pair of scissors has been bought.
(ii) A pair of shoes was presented to him.

 
 






Rule 10 Furniture, luggage, scenery, information, poetry, percentage, knowledge, advice, news, music etc are always singular and take a singular verb. eg,
(i) All his luggage was thrown out.
(ii) Wordsworth’s poetry is immortal.
(iii) The scenery of Kashmir is beautiful.

Nouns
A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing.

Kinds of Nouns
1. Proper Noun
A proper noun is the name of a particular person or place. eg,
Radha, Kolkata, India
§  Proper nouns are always written with a capital letter at the beginning.
 
 



2. Common Noun
A common noun is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind. eg,
girl, city, country, book

3. Collective Noun
A collective noun is the name of a group of persons or things taken together and spoken of as a whole, as unit. eg,
team, army, jury, fleet

4. Material Noun
A material noun is the name of metal or substance, of which things are made of. eg,
silver, cotton, wood

5. Abstract Noun
An abstract noun is usually the name of a quality, action or state considered apart from the object to which it belongs. eg,
kindness, laughter, childhood

Some Important Rules
Rule 1 Some nouns like furniture, information, poetry, scenery, machinery, work, wood, paper, glass, dust, traffic, electricity, food, grass, luggage, advice etc are always singular.
§  These are Uncountable Nouns. Neither a/an is used before them nor their plural is formed. eg,
(i) Young persons dislike the advice of elderly people.
(ii) He gave me information.
 
 






Rule 2 Some nouns have the singular and the plural alike. As, sheep, deer, swine, species etc. eg,
(i) A sheep is grazing in the field.
Sheep are grazing in the field.
(ii) It is a rare species.
There are many species of dogs.

Rule 3 Nouns expressing number like dozen, score, hundred, thousand etc are used in singular with numerical adjectives. eg,
(i) She bought three dozen oranges.
(ii) There are two score books in this almirah.
(iii) I gave him five hundred rupees.

Rule 4 Some nouns like cattle, poultry, people, police, gentry, peasantry, electorate etc are always plural. eg,
(i) Cattle are not allowed to enter this ground.
(ii) These poultry are mine.
(iii) There are few gentry in this town.

Pronouns
A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.

Kinds of Pronouns
1. Personal Pronouns
I, we, you, he, me, her, them etc.
1. If a pronoun acts as a subject of a verb, it is in nominative/subjective case and if it acts as an object of a verb, it is in objective case.
Nominative case I, we, you, he, she, it, they.
Objective case me, us, you, him, her, it, them.
2. A Pronoun is used in objective case after let. eg,
(i) Let him and me do this.
(ii) Let her and us go.
3. A Pronoun is used in objective case after a preposition. eg,
(i) She was angry with you and him.
(ii) They laughed at her and me.
4. Nominative case is used alter than if the comparison is between two nominatives. eg,
(i) As a student of science you are far better than he.
(ii) She drives faster than I.
5. Objective case is used after than if the comparison is between two objects. eg,
(i) She loves you more than me.
(ii) I know her better than him. .
6. Good manners require that the order of personal pronouns in a sentence should be 231 ie, the second person should come before the third and the third person before the first. eg,
(i) You and I must work together.
(ii) You and he will follow it.
§  While referring to unpleasant acts or accepting guilt/mistake, the order of personal pronouns in a sentence should be 123. eg,
(i) I, you and he have stolen the money.
(ii) I and you will be punished.
 
(iii) You, he and I are going to Delhi.
2. Distributive Pronouns
Each, either, neither
1. Either and Neither are used for two persons or things. eg,
(i) Either of them can do this.
(ii) Neither of you will go there.
2. Each is used for two or more than two persons/things. eg,
(i) Each of the students contributed fifty rupees.
(ii) Each of the two boys is doing his work.
§  For more than two persons or things any/anyone is used in place of either and none is used in place of neither. eg,
(i) Anyone of the students can participate in the debate.
(ii) None of these boys will enter the class.
 
 






3. Demonstrative Pronouns
This, that, these, those, such.
1. This and these are used for the persons / things which are near the speaker.
This is used for one person/thing and these is used for more than one person/ thing. eg,
(i) This computer is a present for you.
(ii) These flowers are beautiful.
2. That and those are used for the persons/things which are away from the speaker.
That is used for one person/thing and those is used for more than one person / thing. eg,
(i) That boy is my friend.
(ii) Those shirts are mine.

4. Indefinite Pronouns
One, some, any, everybody, somebody, anybody, everyone, someone, anyone, no one, everything, something, anything, nothing etc.
1. In referring to anybody, everybody, everyone, anyone, each etc, the pronoun he or she is used according to the context. eg,
(i) I shall be glad to help everyone of my boys in his studies.
(ii) Everyone of the Miss India contestants tried to improve herself through rigorous training.
2. The indefinite pronoun one should be used throughout, if used at all, ie, its nominative —one, objective—one, possessive—one’s and reflexive—oneself should be used. eg,
(i) One should take care of one’s house.
(ii) One should help oneself.

5. Reflexive Pronouns
Myself, yourself, himself, herself, ourselves, itself etc
1. A reflexive pronoun or an object must be put after acquit, absent, avail, resign, revenge, enjoy, exert, apply, adopt, adjust, avenge, pride. eg,
(i) I absented myself from the class.
(ii) You should avail yourself of every chance in life.
2. Verbs such as bathe, break, burst, feed, gather, hide, keep, make, move, open, qualify, rest, roll, speed, steal, stop, turn, are usually not followed by a reflexive pronoun. eg,
(i) He has qualified for the post.
(ii) You should keep from bad boys.
3. A reflexive pronoun cannot be used as a substitute for the subject. eg,
Bunti and myself decided to join the army.                                                  (Incorrect)
Bunti and I decided to join the army.                                                            (Correct)

6. Emphatic Pronouns
When myself, yourself, ourselves, herself, itself, themselves etc are used for the sake of emphasis they are called emphatic pronouns. eg,
(i) I myself went to finalise the deal.
(ii) They themselves admitted their guilt.

7. Relative Pronouns
Who, whom, whose, which, that
1. Who is used for persons only and which is used for things without life and for animals. eg,
(i) This is the man who brought the news.
(ii) The horse which I recently bought is an Arab.
2. That is used for persons and things. eg,
(i) This is the man that brought the news.
(ii) The horse that I recently bought is an Arab.
3. Who/Which is used in both defining and non- defining cases that is used in defining case. eg,
(i) The horse which she has bought is black.
(ii) I have bought a dog which is white.
Here, in the first sentence that can be used in place of which but in the second sentence it can’t be used.
4. That is used after superlative degree, all, same, only, none, nothing. eg,
(i) He was the most eloquent speaker that I ever heard.
(ii) It is only donkeys that bray.
5. Who is used in nominative case ie, it is followed by a verb while whom is used in objective case ie, it is not followed by a verb eg,
(i) This is the boy who broke the glass.
(ii) The girl whom I met today was his friend.

8. Interrogative Pronouns
Who, whom, whose, which, what
1. Who is used for person. eg,
(i) Who was knocking at the door?
(ii) Who called you here?
2. Which is used for both persons and things. It implies selection. eg,
(i) Which of these boys will win the prize?
(ii) Which of them has said so?
3. After preposition whom is used instead of who. eg,
(i) By whom was the flower plucked?
(ii) About whom are you talking?
9. Exclamatory Pronouns
When interrogative word what is used to express surprise it is called exclamatory pronoun. eg,
What! you don’t know Amitabh ?

10. Reciprocal Pronouns
Each other, one another
Each other is used for two persons/ things and one another is used for more than two persons/things.
But in modern use there is no difference in the use of each other and one another. eg,
(i) They all loved one another.
(ii) The four friends quarreled with each other.
§  From the examination point of view, you should remember that each other is used for two persons/ things and one another is used for more than two persons/things.
 
 





Adjectives
An Adjective is a word which qualifies a noun or a pronoun.

Kinds of Adjectives
1. Proper Adjectives
Adjectives formed from proper nouns are called Proper Adjectives. eg,
Proper Nouns                                     Proper Adjectives
India                                                    Indian
China                                                  Chinese
Turkey                                                Turkish
America                                              American
Shakespeare                                        Shakespearian
A Proper Adjective must begin with a capital letter.

2. Possessive Adjectives
My, our, your, his, her, their, its are called Possessive Adjectives.
Possessive Adjectives are always used before noun. eg,
My book, Your brother, His horse

3. Distributive Adjectives
Each, every, either, neither are called Distributive Adjectives.
1. Each is used for two or more than two things/persons. eg,
(i) Each boy must take his turn.
(ii) Each of the two girls is beautiful.
2. Every is used for more than two persons/ things. eg,
(i) Every word of it is false.
(ii) He gave every girl the same dress.
3. Either and Neither are for two persons/things. eg,
(i) Take either side, whichever you prefer.
(ii) Neither of the two ministers was available for comments.
4. Article is not used before the noun used after each, every, either, neither. eg,
Either a book will serve the purpose.                                                            (Incorrect)
Either book will serve ‘the’ purpose.                                                            (Correct)

4. Demonstrative Adjectives
Demonstrative Adjectives are of two kinds
(I) Definite This, that, these, those, such, same.
These adjectives point out a particular person or thing exactly.
(II) Indefinite A, an, a certain, certain, some, any, any other, another, other.
These adjectives point out persons or things in a certain sense, but not exactly.

5. Numeral Adjectives
Numeral Adjectives are of two kinds
(I) Definite These adjectives denote exact number or order of persons/things.
1. Those which denote exact number of persons/things are called cardinals. eg,
One, two, three, four etc.
2. Those which denote ‘the serial ‘order in which a person or thing stands are called ordinals. eg,
First, third, next, last etc.
3. Ordinals are used before cardinals, if they both are to be used in a sentence. eg,
(i) The first three pages of this book.
(ii) The last two scenes of this movie.
(II) Indefinite These adjectives denote number of some kind without saying precisely what the number is. eg,
many, some, enough, few, all, most, various, numerous, several etc.
§  If definite and Indefinite both Numerical Adjectives are to be used together, Indefinite Numerical Adjectives should be used before Definite Numerical Adjectives.
 
 




6. Quantitative Adjectives
These adjectives show the quantity or degree of a thing. eg,
much, little, whole, some, enough, all etc.
1. Much, little, whole are always used for quantity. eg,
much milk, little sugar, whole book
2. All, some, enough, sufficient, most are used for both quantity and number.

7. Qualitative Adjectives  
These adjectives show what quality or in what state persons or things are. eg,
big, small, brave, sick, ugly, good etc

8. Interrogative Adjectives
These adjectives are used to ask questions. eg,
(i) Which picture do you like most?
(ii) Whose wife is she?

9. Exclamatory Adjectives
What is called Exclamatory Adjective when it is used to express surprise. eg,
(i) What an idea!
(ii) What a piece of work is man!

Degrees of Comparison
Positive Degree
The Positive Degree of an adjective is the adjective in its simple form. It is used when no comparison is made. eg,
(i) Rekha is a good singer.
(ii) He is a tall boy.

Comparative Degree
The Comparative Degree of an adjective is used when the quality of two persons or things are compared. eg,
(i) This girl is more beautiful than that.
(ii) My mango is sweeter than his.

Superlative Degree
The Superlative Degree of an adjective denotes the highest degree of quality, and is used when more than two persons or things are compared. eg,
(i) He is the most intelligent boy in the class.
(ii) She is the politest of them.

Some Important Facts
1. Senior, superior, junior, prior, inferior, posterior are followed by to instead of than.
All his colleagues are senior than him.                                                         (Incorrect)
All his colleagues are senior to him.                                                             (Correct)
2. Interior, exterior, minor, major etc are the adjectives of positive degree.
Neither more/most is used before them nor than/to is used after them. eg,
(i) His age is a matter of minor importance.
(ii) The interior decoration of his office is excellent.
3. After comparatively or relatively positive degree is used. eg,
The wind is comparatively colder today.                                                      (Incorrect)
The wind is comparatively cold today.                                                          (Correct)
4. Before enough positive degree is used. eg,
He is smarter enough to get selected for this prestigious post.                    (Incorrect)
He is smart enough to get selected for this prestigious post.                                    (Correct)
5. To is used after prefer if the comparison is between two nouns. eg,
He prefers milk to tea.
§  But rather than is used after prefer if the comparison is between two infinitives. eg,
§  She prefers to sleep rather than play.
 
 




6. To is used after preferable. eg,
Fish is preferable to chicken.
7. Perfect, complete, full, excellent, unique, circular, extreme, universal, chief, golden etc. are used neither in Comparative degree nor in superlative degree. eg,
Money is the chiefest aim of his life.                                                                        (Incorrect)
Money is the chief aim of his life.                                                                 (Correct)
8. Positive degree and as are used with so/as. eg,
Dhoni’s performance in the match was as better as Yuvraj’s.                      (Incorrect)
Dhoni’s performance in the match was as good as Yuvraj’s.                                   (Correct)

Adverbs
An Adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

Kinds of Adverbs
(A) According to their uses, adverbs are divided into three classes.
1. Simple Adverbs These adverbs modify the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. eg,
(i) You are quite right.
(ii) She can hardly believe it.
2. Interrogative Adverbs These adverbs are used for asking questions. eg,
(i) How did you come here?
(ii) Why is she not playing?
3. Relative Adverbs These adverbs are the same in form as interrogative adverbs, but instead of asking questions, they join two sentences together.
These adverbs relate to some antecedent, expressed or understood. eg,
(i) Let me know the time when you will come.
(The antecedent expressed)
Let me know when you will come.
(The antecedent understood)
(ii) I remember the house where I was born.

(B) According to their meanings, adverbs may be divided into the following classes.
1. Adverbs of Time These are the adverbs which tell us when an action takes place. eg,
(i) I hurt my knee yesterday.
(ii) He comes here daily.
2. Adverbs of Place These are the adverbs which tell us where an action takes place. eg,
(i) He follows Nisha everywhere.
(ii) She left her bag here.
3. Adverbs of Frequency These are the adverbs which tell us how often an action takes place. eg,
(i) He seldom makes mistakes.
(ii) I have called you twice.
4. Adverbs of Degree or Quantity These are the adverbs which tell us how much or in what degree or to what extent. eg,
(i) These apples are almost ripe.
(ii) He is kind enough to help her.
5. Adverbs of Manner These are the adverbs which tell us how an action takes place or in what manner. eg,
(i) The soldiers fought bravely.
(ii) He came down slowly
6. Adverbs of Reason These are the adverbs which tell us why an action takes place. eg,
(i) She therefore left school.
(ii) I am hence unable to do it.
7. Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation These are the adverbs which tell us whether an action is done or not. eg,
(i) She certainly hit him.
(ii) I did not meet her.

Some Important Adverbs
1. Too and Very
Too means ‘more than required’ and it is usually used before unpleasant adjectives.
Very means ‘in a great degree’ and it is used before pleasant/ unpleasant adjectives.
§  If the sentence is not based on too……to structure, very should be used in place of too. eg,
(i) I am too happy today.                                                                                (Incorrect)
I am very happy today.                                                                                   (Correct)
(ii) My son’s health has been too good.                                                        (Incorrect)
My son’s health has been good.                                                                     (Correct)
 
 









2. Too much and Much too
After too much a noun is used.
After much too an adjective is used. eg,
His wife’s rude behaviour gives him much too pain.                                                (Incorrect)
His wife’s rude behaviour gives him too much pain.                                                (Correct)

3. Much and Very.
(a) Very is used with positive degree and much is used with comparative degree. eg,
(i) The air is very hot today.
(ii) The air is much hotter today than yesterday.
(b) Very is used with present participle and much is used with past participle. eg,
(i) It is very surprising for me.
(ii) I was much surprised at hearing the news.

4. Fairly and Rather
(a) Fairly is used with positive degree while rather is used with both positive degree and comparative degree.
(b) Fairly is used with pleasant objectives while rather is usually used with unpleasant adjectives. eg,
(i) She is fairly wise.
(ii) This job is rather difficult.
But, rather good, rather clever, rather pretty are used.

5. Hard and Hardly
Hard means ‘difficult’ or ‘solid’. It is used as an adjective as well as an adverb.
Hardly means ‘almost not’ and it is used as an adverb. eg,
(i) It is hard to believe that he is guilty.
(ii) There is hardly any tea left.

6. Late and Lately
Late means ‘near the end of a period of time’ and lately means ‘recently’. eg,
(i) She married in her late twenties.
(ii) He had lately returned from Australia.

7. Ago
Ago is always used in past indefinite tense. eg,
(i) I met her a year ago.
(ii) This had happened a week ago.                                                               (Incorrect)
This happened a week ago.                                                                            (Correct)

8. Enough
(a) Enough is used just after the word that it qualifies.
(b) Always use positive degree of adjective/adverb before enough. eg,
(i) He is now strong enough to leave his bed.
(ii) She is enough wise to allow her son to go.                                              (Incorrect)
She is wise enough to allow her son to go.                                                    (Correct)

9. Else 
Else should always be followed by but and never by than. eg,
It is nothing else but love.

10. Still and Yet
Still is usually used in affirmative sentences and yet in negative sentences. eg,
He has not still returned the money.                                                              (Incorrect)
He has not yet returned the money.                                                               (Correct)

Position of Adverbs
1. Always, often, seldom, never, just, ever, usually, hardly, already, nearly etc are used before the main verb. eg
(i) I have told often him to write neatly.                                                       (Incorrect)
I have often told him to write neatly                                                             (Correct)
(ii) He never talks ill of his friends.
(iii) Imran always comes late.
2. Adverbs of time/place/manner are generally placed after the verb or after the object if there is one. eg,
(i) He does his work carefully.
(ii) She looked everywhere.
(iii) I met her yesterday.
§  Adverb of manner is used before the object if a clause starting with who/ which/ that is used after the object. eg,
§  She received warmly all those who had come in time.
 
 





3. If adverbs of time/place/manner all are to be used in a sentence, the normal order is—adverb of manner, adverb of place, adverb of time. eg,
He danced in the city hall well last night.                                                     (Incorrect)
He danced well in the city hall last night.                                                     (Correct)
4. Adverbs of quantity are usually used before the word that they qualify. eg,
(i) The party was too dull.
(ii) She is quite cool.
5. Only should be placed immediately before the word it qualifies. eg,
(i) We worked only four sums.
(ii) She has slept only two hours.
6. Preposition is not used before an adverb. eg,
My sister asked me to go to market with quickly.                                        (Incorrect)
My sister asked me to go to market quickly.                                                (Correct)
7. The adverbs of frequency and quantity should be placed before the auxiliaries have to and used to. eg,
I used to often take a break from my packed schedule.                                (Incorrect)
I often used to take a break from my packed schedule.                                (Correct)
8. An adverb is not used by splitting an infinitive. eg,
She asked him to carefully write the answer.                                                            (Incorrect)
She asked him to write the answer carefully.                                                            (Correct)
9. No adverb is used before quite. eg,
Raman is absolutely quite alone.                                                                   (Incorrect)
Raman is quite alone.                                                                                     (Correct)
10. ‘Inverted form of verb’ is used in the sentences starting with seldom, never, hardly, scarcely, rarely, no sooner. eg,
(i) No sooner had he entered the class than the bell rang.
(ii) Seldom she meets her friends.                                                                 (Incorrect)
Seldom does she meet her friends.                                                                (Correct)

Conjunctions
A Conjunction is a word which two or more than two words, phrases, clauses or sentences.

Some Important Rules
Rule 1 Scarcely/hardly is always followed by when/before. eg,
Scarcely had he gone out of the office then he came.                                               (Incorrect)
Scarcely had he gone out of the office when he came.                                 (Correct)
Rule 2 Lest is followed by should.
Not is not used with it. eg,
Be careful lest you will fall.                                                                          (Incorrect)
Be careful lest you should fall.                                                                      (Correct)
Rule 3 Although/though must always be followed by yet or comma (,). eg,
Although he worked hard but he failed.                                                        (Incorrect)
Although he worked hard yet he failed.                                                         (Correct)
Rule 4 Both is followed by and and not by else, but or as well as. eg,
Both Sonu as well as Pawan have done their work.                                      (Incorrect)
Both Sonu and Pawan have done their work.                                                (Correct)
Rule 5 Rather and other are always followed by than. eg,
I have no other choice but to do it.                                                                (Incorrect)
I have no other choice than to do it.                                                               (Correct)
Rule 6 Neither ............ nor and Either .......... or are used in pairs. These are followed by the same part of speech. eg,
(i) He has invited neither him not her.                                                          (Incorrect)
He has invited neither him nor her.                                                               (Correct)
(ii) Either the step taken was right or wrong                                                 (Incorrect)
The step taken was either right or wrong.                                                     (Correct)
Rule 7 Not only is followed by but also. These always join the same parts of speech. eg,
He is going not only to open a hospital but also an inn.                               (Incorrect)
He is going to open not only a hospital but also an inn.                               (Correct)
Rule 8 Whether is always followed by or. eg,
We don’t care that you pass or fail.                                                               (Incorrect)
We don’t care whether you pass or fail.                                                        (Correct)
Rule 9 The same is followed by relative pronoun that or as. eg,
He is the same boy who broke the glass.                                                       (Incorrect)
He is the same boy that broke the glass.                                                        (Correct)
§  As is used if the verb is not clear in the sentence. eg,
This is the same dress as mine.
 
 




Rule 10 Because, since, as, as soon as are not followed by therefore, thus, etc. eg,
As he came late, therefore he was punished.                                                 (Incorrect)
As he came late, he was punished.                                                                 (Correct)

Objective Questions
Directions Find out the part which has an error in the following sentences. If there is no error, your answer is (d).
1. You can not withdraw (a)/ all your money until (b)/ you give a prior notice. (c)/ No error (d)
2. You should behave with others (a)/ the same way which you (b)/ would expect them to behave with you. (c)/ No error (d)
3. Either he nor his brother (a)/ was informed about the venue (b)/ of the meeting of our society. (c)/ No error (d)
4. He not only believes (a)/ in hard work but also (b)/ in honesty of the highest order. (c)/ No error (d)
5. No sooner did she (a)/ reach the station (b)/ then it started raining. (c)/ No error (d)
6. The captain and his wife (a)/ were invited for the (b)/ cultural function at my home. (c)/ No error (d)
7. He tried (a)/ to open the can (b)/ by a can opener. (c)/ No error. (d)
8. Let no one (a)/ remain with doubt that (b)/ India is getting stronger and stronger. (c)/ No error (d)
9. When the students reached late (a)/ the teacher objected their entering the class (b)/ without his permission. (c)/ No error (d)
10. Sheela advised to her (a)/ child not to play (b)/ with the ball on the road. (c)/ No error (d)
11. The expert mason reported (a)/ to the owner of the hotel that (b)/ there was no question of the wall’s falling down. (c)/ No error (d)
12. “This blade’s edge is sharper (a)/ than any other blades’s,” (b)/ said the representative of the company. (c)/ No error (d)
13. Your son’s-in law’s friend is serioulsy ill and (a)/ he wants you (b)/ to see him as soon as possible. (c)/ No error (d)
14. You know it well that your success in life (a)/ depends not on my advice (b)/ but on somebody’s else. (c)/ No error (d)
15. He suggested to me (a)/ that I should go to nursery (b)/ to bring some beautiful summer’s flowers. (c)/ No error (d)
16. No sooner we entered (a)/ than he got up (b)/ and left the room. (c)/ No error. (d)
17. He ultimately decided (a)/ to willingly and cheerfully accept. (b)/ the responsibility entrusted to him. (c)/ No error(d)
18. Harish is (a)/ very much willing (b)/to come with you. (c)/ No error (d)
19. Mahesh thought that he would pass (a)/ in the examination although he did not (b)/ answer most of the questions correct. (c)/ No error (d)
20. Kunal’s father advised him (a)/ not to ride the motorcycly (b)/I lately at night. (c)/ No error (d)
21. Looking into the situation (a)/ that prevailed a few years ago (b)/ he was taken that decision. (c)/ No error (d)
22. If you had not come in time (a)/ the child would have taken (b)/ by the dacoits. (c)/ No error (d)
23. I knew our college library was run chaotically (a)/ but only recently did I discover (b)/ how bad the situation is. (c)/ No error (d)
24. They talked for a while (a)/ and then they will continue to play (b)/ the game till tomorrow morning. (c)/ No error (d)
25. We got everything ready (a)/ for all of them (b)/ long before they arrived. (c)/ No error (d)
26. He looks more depressed (a)/ than her but I don’t (b)/ know the reason. (c)/ No error (d)
27. The person which was (a)/ recommended for the position (b)/ did not fulfil the prescribed qualifications. (c)/ No error (d)
28. Between you and I (a)/ he probably (b)/ won’t come at all. (c)/ No error (d)
29. If all of you quarral (a)/ among yourself we shal not (b)/ be able to solve your problems. (c)/ No error (d)
30. They have invited Ramesh and I (a/ to the function (b)/ to be held in the next month. (c)/ No error (d)
31. We should drink several glasses (a)/ of the water daily (b)/ if we want to remain healthy. (c)/ No error (d)
32. Children who have had (a)/ good Pre-School Education are most likely (b)/ to out do other children at school. (c)/ No error (d)
33. On my request Jatin (a)/ introduced me to his friend (b)/ who is singer and scientist. (c)/ No error (d)
34. The burglars were caught just as (a)/ they were about to (b)/ escape from the jail. (c)/ No error (d)
35. The teacher drew (a)/ and attention of the boys,(b)/ to the importance of regular practise.(c)/ No error (d)
36. He has brought (a)/ four breads (b)/ for lunch today. (c)/ No error-(d)
37. This data are (a)/ very useful to arrive (b)/ at correct conclusion. (c)/ No error (d)
38. “I have never seen (a)/ such a lovely spectacles in my life,” (b)/said the passer by. (c)/ No error (d)
39. When you see his offsprings. (a)/ you can’t (b)/ believe that he is above seventy. (c)/ No error (d)
40. An earthquake (a)/ is a natural phenomena (b)/ and nobody can check it, be sure. (c)/ No error (d)
41. The Secretary of the worker’s union remarked that (a)/ the present government is so selfish that (b)/ it cared very little about solving anyone else’s problem. (c)/ No error (d)
42. Please explain to me (a)/ how is a digital computer different (b)/ from an analogue computer. (c)/ No error (d)
43. We had swam (a)/ across the river (b)/ before the sunset. (c)/ No error (d)
44. The Secretary and Treasurer (a)/ were not present (b)/ at today’s meeting. (c)/ No error (d)
45. Neither Rakesh nor I (a)/ are leaving. (b)/ for Hyderabad. (c)/ No error (d)
46. My book is superior (a)/ than yours although it has (b)/ cost me much less. (c)/ No error (d)
47. When Charles was in hospital (a)/ his sister sent (b)/ much fruit then his uncle. (c)/ No error (d)
48. Dilip’s performance in the film (a)/ was worst than Amit’s (b)/ but was not as bad as Vinod’s. (c)/ No error (d)
49. The teacher said that (a)/ Ajay was capable of (b)/ doing more better work. (c)/ No error (d)
50. A severe cold (a)/ Prevented the president (b)/ being present (c)/ at the function (d)
51. After he had read the two first chapters (a)/ of the novel, he felt like (b)/ reading the book at one sitting. (c)/ No error (d)
52. The girl said that (a)/ she preferred the blue gown (b)/ than the black one. (c)/ No error (d)
53. Raju cannot walk (a)/ much than two miles (b)/ at a stretch. (c)/ No error. (d)
54. I often give him money (a)/ and I gave him few (b)/ yesterday also. (c)/ No error. (d)
55. It is always easy (a)/ to talk about a thing (b)/ than to do it ourselves. (c)/ No error (d)
56. The doctor advised him (a)/ to give off smoking (b)/ but he did not pay any heed. (c)/ No error (d)
57. Their father has left (a)/ behind a huge sum to be (b)/ destributed among the two brothers. (c)/ No error (d)
58. No effort has been made (a)/ at all to cash on (b)/ the refurnished image of Indian tennis. (c)/ No error (d)
59. The elegantly designed collection (a)/ for ladies has an emphasis (b)/ with style, veriety and colour. (c)/ No error (d)
60. As soon as he reached the venue (a)/ he enquired from the supervisor (b)/ about the closing time of the examinaiton. (c)/ No error (d)
61. The table’s wood (a)/ is infested with mite (b)/ and I am likely to dispose it of (c)/ No error (d)
62. The finance Minister (a)/ boasts of improving (b)/ the economic condition of the country’s. (c)/ No error (d)
63. He told her that (a)/ he had ever seen here (b)/ with his mind’s ege. (c)/ No error (d)
64. Unfortunately for me (a)/ the root cause of my frustration (b)/ lies in the Government dubious policy. (c)/ No error (d)
65. I have read (a)/ many plays of Shaw’s (b)/ who is called the Shakespeare of our age (c)/ No error (d)
66. We have carefully considered (a)/ the Impotence of issues (b)/ raised in the report. (c)/ No\ error (d)
67. Every man, woman and Child (a)/ is now aware of the terrible consequences (b)/ of habit of smoking. (c)/ No error (d)
68. Ravi prefers self-employment (a)/ to job in (b)/ any office. (c)/ No error (d)
69. In a fit of temper (a)/ he tore up a sweet letter (b)/ which his wife had written to him. (c)/ No error (d)
70. He used very inaccurate (a)/ language for (b)/ he knew no better. (c)/ No error (d)
71. The gentleman (a)/ together with his wife (b)/ and daughter were drowned. (c)/ No error (d)
72. It is in 1929 (a)/ that we first (b)/ flew to the United States. (c)/ No error (d)
73. Our country need (a)/ a number of self sacrificing (b)/ devoted political leaders. (c)/ No error (d)
74. The issues are complex (a)/ and has been obscured (b)/ by other factors. (c)/ No error (d)
75. He reminded me that (a)/ he has often told me (b)/ not to play with fire. (c)/ No error (d)
76. The taxi driver who had come (a)/ to receive us at the airport (b)/ was speaking fluently French. (c)/ No error (d)
77. The only criteria (a)/ to judge (b)/ a person (c)/ is to observe his behaviour (d)
78. We are confident enough (a)/ to earn our livelihood (b)/ by toiling hardly. (c)/ No error (d)
79. The observers feel that the stronger team (a)/ has to face defeat because (b)/ the players don’t play whole hearted. (c)/ No error (d)
80. You seem to be (a)/ enough rich to buy (b)/ anything you like. (c)/ No error (d)
81. Radha came (a)/ to the meeting much later (b)/ than I expect. (c)/ No error (d)
82. I have been working (a)/ for this organisation (b)/ for the last ten years. (c)/ No error (d)
83. I know he is having (a)/ a lot of books on (b)/ how to improve English. (c)/ No error (d)
84. If it snowed (a)/ tomorrow we’ll (b)/ go for skating. (c)/ No error (d)
85. He told me that (a)/ he wrote a letter (b)/ to his superior for a certain reason. (c)/ No error (d)
86. Cattles were (a)/ grazing in the meadows (b)/ near our farm. (c)/ No error (d)
87. The information supplied to us (a)/ were not as useful as (b)/ we first thought it would be. (c)/ No error (d)
88. It was evident (a)/ to me that there (b)/ was any mistake (c)/ in that account (d)
89. The audience (a)/ are requested (b)/ to be in its seats. (c)/ No error (d)
90. He says that (a)/ a two miles walk (b)/ always keeps him healthy and fresh. (c)/ No error (d)
91. The guide told us that (a)/ where the island was (b)/ and went on narrating its history. (c)/ No error (d)
92. How do you say that (a)/ neither he or Ramesh (b)/ has qualified in the examinaion. (c)/ No error (d)
93. Unless you return (a)/ his book he will (b)/ not talk to you. (c)/ No error (d)
94. He neither gave satisfaction (a)/ as a cook (b)/ nor as a chauffeur. (c)/ No error (d)
95. Hardly had I reached (a)/ the airport where I learnt (b)/ about the powerful bomb explosion. (c)/ No error (d)
96. If you are good to people (a)/ you will be treated (b)/ well by themselves. (c)/ No error (d)
97. This is one company who not only sells (a)/ its products but also gives (b)/ good after sales service. (c)/ No error (d)
98. I asked him (a)/ whom he thought would be (b)/ able to get the first prize. (c)/ No error (d)
99. They visited the place (a)/ because they wanted to see for themself (b)/ the damage caused by the floods. (c)/ No error (d)
100. There should be (a)/ no misunderstanding (b)/ between your father and she. (c)/ No error (d)

Answers with Explanations
1. (b) Use ‘unless’ for ‘until’
2. (b) Use ‘as’ in place of ‘which’
3. (a) Neither he nor his
4. (a) Say ‘he believes not only’
5. (b) Use ‘than’ for ‘then’
6. (b) Use ‘to’ in place of ‘for’
7. (c) Say ‘with a can opener’
8. (b) Use ‘in’ for ‘with’
9. (b) Insert ‘to’ after ‘objected’
10. (a) Remove ‘to’
11. (c) Say ‘the falling down of the wall’
12. (d) No error
13. (a) Say ‘son-in-law’s’
14. (a) Say ‘somebody else’s’
15. (c) Say ‘summer flower’s’
16. (a) Insert ‘had’ after ‘sooner’
17. (b) Place ‘accept’ before ‘willingly’
18. (b) Remove ‘much’
19. (c) Say ‘correctly’
20. (c) Use ‘late’ for ‘lately’
21. (c) Use ‘took’ for ‘was taken’
22. (b) Use ‘have been’ in place of ‘have’
23. (c) Say ‘the situation was’
24. (a) Use ‘will talk’ for ‘talked’
25. (a) Say ‘we had got’
26. (b) Use ‘she’ for ‘her’
27. (a) Use ‘who’ in place of ‘which’
28. (a) Use ‘me’ for ‘I’
29. (b) Use ‘yourselves’ in place of ‘yourself’
30. (a) Say ‘Ramesh and me’
31. (b) Remove ‘the’
32. (b) Insert ‘a’ before ‘good’
33. (c) Insert ‘a’ before ‘singer’
34. (c) Remove ‘the’
35. (b) Say ‘the attention’
36. (b) Say ‘four pieces of bread’
37. (a) Use ‘These’ for ‘This’
38. (b) Say ‘spectacle’
39. (a) Use ‘offspring’ for ‘offsprings’
40. (b) Say ‘a natural phenomenon’
41. (b) Use ‘was’ in place of ‘is’
42. (b) Place ‘is’ after ‘computer’
43. (a) Use ‘swum’ for ‘swam’
44. (b) Use ‘was’ in place of ‘were’
45. (b) Say ‘am leaving’
46. (b) Use ‘to’ for ‘than’
47. (c) Use ‘more’ in place of ‘much’
48. (b) Say ‘was worse’
49. (c) Remove ‘more’
50. (c) Put ‘from’ before being
51. (a) Say ‘the first two’
52. (c) Use ‘to’ for ‘than’
53. (b) Say ‘more than’
54. (b) Use ‘a little/ some’ in place of ‘few’
55. (a) Say ‘easier’
56. (b) Say ‘to give up’
57. (c) Use ‘between’ for ‘among’
58. (b) Say ‘cash in on’
59. (c) Use ‘on’ in place of ‘with’
60. (b) Say ‘enquired of’
61. (a) Say ‘The wood of the table’
62. (c) Say ‘country’
63. (d) No error
64. (c) Say ‘Government’s dubious policy’
65. (b) Say ‘many plays of Shaw’
66. (b) Insert ‘the’ before ‘issues’
67. (c) Say ‘of the habit of smoking’
68. (b) Insert ‘a’ before ‘job’
69. (b) Say ‘the sweet letter
70. (a) Insert ‘a’ before ‘very’
71. (c) Use ‘was’ for ‘were’
72. (a) Say ‘It was’
73. (a) Say ‘needs’
74. (b) Use ‘have’ for ‘has’
75. (b) Use ‘had’ for ‘has’
76. (c) Say ‘French fluently’
77. (a) Chage Giteria to criterion, criteria singular criterion.
78. (c) Say ‘toiling hard’
79. (c) Use ‘heartedly’ in place of ‘hearted’ '
80. (b) Say ‘rich enough’
81. (d) Say ‘I had expected’
82. (d) No error
83. (a) Use ‘has’ for ‘is having’
84. (a) Use ‘snows’ in place of ‘snowed’
85. (b) Say ‘he had written’
86. (a) Use ‘Cattle’ for ‘Cattles’
87. (b) Use ‘was’ in place of ‘were’
88. (c) Replace ‘any’ by ‘some’ some is used in affirmative
89. (c) Use ‘their’ for ‘its’
90. (b) Say ‘a two-mile walk’
91. (a) Remove ‘that’
92. (b) Use ‘nor’ for ‘or’
93. (a) Say ‘Until you return’
94. (a) Place ‘neither’ after ‘satisfaction’
95. (b) Use ‘when’ in place of ‘where’
96. (c) Say ‘well by them’
97. (a) Use ‘which’ for ‘who’
98. (b) Use ‘who’ in place of ‘whom’
99. (b) Say ‘for themselves’
100. (c) Use ‘her’ for ‘she’

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