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Agriculture and its branches

Agriculture is composed of five specialized branches. The five branches are:

1.Agronomy; Agronomy deals with soil management and the growing of crops.

2.Horticulture; Horticulture deals with the cultivation of fruits, vegetables, and ornamental crops.

3.Agricultural Engineering; Agricultural engineering involves knowledge of farm machines and equipment. It also deals with developing new systems and practices to address problems facing agriculture.

4.Agricultural Economics; Agricultural Economics deals with the business end of farming.

5.Animal Science; Animal Science is basically the breeding and caring of animal for specific purposes, such as for their meat, milk and/or fur.


1.       WHAT IS GDP?

 Size of the economy  The WEO of October 2019 has estimated India’s economy to become the fifth largest in the world, as measured using GDP at current US$ prices, moving past United Kingdom and France. The size of the economy is estimated at US$3.202 trillion in 2020


    2018-19  GDP growth rates

Constant Prices (2011-12)


Current Prices

Annual 2018 -19 P((PROVISION

6.1 %


Q1 2019-20 (April-June)

5.1 %


Q2 2019-2020 (July-Sep)



Q.3 2019-2020(Oct-Dec)






GDPGrowth rate 2019-20




Gross National Product is measured as GDP plus income of residents from investments made abroad minus income earned by foreigners in domestic market.


In economics, Gross value added (GVA) is the measure of the value of goods and services produced in an area, industry or sector of an economy. In national accounts GVA is output minus intermediate consumption; it is a balancing item of the national accounts' production account. . GVA at Basic Constant (2011-12) Prices for the year 2018-19 is now estimated at `129.07 lakh crores showing a growth rate of 6.6 percent


National Income is the money value of all goods and services produced in a Country during the year. Per Capita in 2018-2019  as constant price was Rs92565/-  and as per current price was  Rs126406/-


Sectorwise  contribution in  GVA   agriculture 16.5% service sector 53.3% industry 29.6%









Agriculture is the primary source of livelihood for about 58 per cent of India’s population. Gross Value Added (GVA) by agriculture, forestry and fishing was estimated at Rs 19.48 lakh crore (US$ 276.37 billion) in FY20(PE). Growth in GVA in agriculture and allied sectors stood at 4 per cent in FY20.

The Indian food industry is poised for huge growth, increasing its contribution to world food trade every year due to its immense potential for value addition, particularly within the food processing industry. Indian food and grocery market is the world’s sixth largest, with retail contributing 70 per cent of the sales. The Indian food processing industry accounts for 32 per cent of the country’s total food market, one of the largest industries in India and is ranked fifth in terms of production, consumption, export and expected growth.

Market Size

During 2019-20* crop year, food grain production was estimated to reach a record 295.67 million tonnes (MT). In 2020-21, Government of India is targeting food grain production of 298 MT.

Production of horticulture crops in India was estimated at a record 320.48 million metric tonnes (MMT) in FY20 as per second advance estimates. India has the largest livestock population of around 535.78 million, which translates to around 31 per cent of the world population. Milk production in the country is expected to increase to 208 MT in FY21 from 198 MT in FY20, registering a growth of 10 per cent y-o-y.

Sugar production in India reached 26.46 MT between October 2019 and May 2020 sugar season according to Indian Sugar Mills Association (ISMA).

India is among the 15 leading exporters of agricultural products in the world. Agricultural export from India reached US$ 38.54 billion in FY19 and US$ 28.93 billion in FY20 (till January 2020).

The organic food segment in India is expected to grow at a CAGR of 10 per cent during 2015-25 and is estimated to reach Rs 75,000 crore (US$ 10.73 billion) by 2025 from Rs 2,700 crore (US$ 386.32 million) in 2015.


According to the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), the Indian food processing industry has cumulatively attracted Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) equity inflow of about US$ 9.98 billion between April 2000 and March 2020.

Some major investments and developments in agriculture are as follows:

  • In March 2020, Fact, the oldest large-scale fertiliser manufacturer in the country, crossed one million production and sales mark.
  • Nestle India will invest Rs 700 crore (US$ 100.16 million) in construction of its ninth factory in Gujarat.
  • In November 2019, Haldiram entered into an agreement for Amazon's global selling program to E-tail its delicacies in the United States.
  • In November 2019, Coca-Cola launched ‘Rani Float’ fruit juices to step out of its trademark fizzy drinks.
  • Two diagnostic kits developed by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) - Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) and the Japanese Encephalitis lgM ELISA were launched in October 2019.
  • Investment worth Rs 8,500 crore (US$ 1.19 billion) have been announced in India for ethanol production.


Government Initiatives

Some of the recent major Government initiatives in the sector are as follows:

  • In May 2020, Government announced the launch of animal husbandry infrastructure development fund of Rs 15,000 crore (US$ 2.13 billion).
  • In September 2019, Prime Minister, Mr Narendra Modi launched National Animal Disease Control Programme (NADCP), expected to eradicate foot and mouth disease (FMD) and brucellosis in livestock. In May 2020, Rs 13,343 crore (US$ 1.89 billion) was allocated to the scheme.
  • In May 2019, NABARD announced an investment of Rs 700 crore (US$ 100 million) venture capital fund for equity investment in agriculture and rural-focused start-ups
  • Under Union Budget 2019-20, Pradhan Mantri Samman Nidhi Yojana was introduced where a minimum fixed pension of Rs 3000 (US$ 42.92) was to be provided to the eligible small and marginal farmers, subject to certain exclusion clauses, on attaining the age of 60 years.
  • The Government of India came out with Transport and Marketing Assistance (TMA) scheme to provide financial assistance for transport and marketing of agriculture products in order to boost agriculture exports.
  • The Agriculture Export Policy, 2018 was approved by the Government of India in December 2018. The new policy aimed to increase India’s agricultural export to US$ 60 billion by 2022 and US$ 100 billion in the next few years with a stable trade policy regime.
  • The Government of India is going to provide Rs 2,000 crore (US$ 306.29 million) for computerization of Primary Agricultural Credit Society (PACS) to ensure cooperatives are benefitted through digital technology.
  • The Government of India launched the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY) with an investment of Rs 50,000 crore (US$ 7.7 billion) aimed at development of irrigation sources for providing a permanent solution from drought.
  • Government plans to triple the capacity of food processing sector in India from the current 10 per cent of agriculture produce and has also committed Rs 6,000 crore (US$ 936.38 billion) as investments for mega food parks in the country, as a part of the Scheme for Agro-Marine Processing and Development of Agro-Processing Clusters (SAMPADA).
  • The Government of India has allowed 100 per cent FDI in marketing of food products and in food product E-commerce under the automatic route.

Achievements in the sector

  • The Electronic National Agriculture Market (e-NAM) was launched in April 2016 to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities by networking existing APMCs. It had 16.6 million farmers and 131,000 traders registered on its platform until May 2020. Over 1,000 mandis in India are already linked to e-NAM and 22,000 additional mandis are expected to be linked by 2021-22.
  • Sale of tractors in the country stood at 804,000 units in 2019 with export of 80,475 units.
  • During FY20 (till February 2020), tea export stood at US$ 709.28 million.
  • Coffee export stood at US$ 742.05 million in FY20.


Road Ahead

India is expected to achieve the ambitious goal of doubling farm income by 2022. The agriculture sector in India is expected to generate better momentum in the next few years due to increased investment in agricultural infrastructure such as irrigation facilities, warehousing and cold storage. Furthermore, the growing use of genetically modified crops will likely improve the yield for Indian farmers. India is expected to be self-sufficient in pulses in the coming few years due to concerted effort of scientists to get early maturing varieties of pulses and the increase in minimum support price.

Going forward, the adoption of food safety and quality assurance mechanisms such as Total Quality Management (TQM) including ISO 9000, ISO 22000, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP), Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Good Hygienic Practices (GHP) by the food processing industry will offer several benefits. The agri export from India is likely to reach the target of US$ 60 billion by the year 2022.







Food production of india


As per 3rd Advance Estimates, the estimated production of major crops during 2019-20 is as under:

·       Foodgrains  –  295.67 million tonnes. (record)

o   Rice  –  117.94  million tonnes. (record)

o   Wheat  –  107.18  million tonnes. (record)

o   Nutri / Coarse Cereals  –  47.54 million tonnes. (record)

o   Maize  –  28.98 million tonnes. (record)

o   Pulses  –  23.01 million tonnes.

o   Tur  –  3.75 million tonnes.

o   Gram – 10.90 million tonnes.

·       Oilseeds  –  33.50 million tonnes. (record)



§  Soyabean  –  12.24 million tonnes

§  Rapeseed and Mustard – 8.70 million tonnes

§  Groundnut  –  9.35 million tonnes

·       Cotton  –  36.05 million bales (170 kg per bale) (record)

·       Jute  & Mesta - 9.92 million bales (180 kg per bale)

·       Sugarcane – 358.14 million tonnes


As per Third Advance Estimates for 2019-20, total Foodgrain production in the country is estimated at record 295.67 million tonnes which is higher by 10.46 million tonnes than the production of foodgrain of 285.21 million tonnes achieved during 2018-19. However, the production during 2019-20 is higher by 25.89 million tonnes than the previous five years’ (2014-15 to 2018-19) average production of foodgrain.

Total production of Rice during 2019-20 is estimated at record 117.94 million tonnes.   It is higher by 8.17 million tonnes than the five years’ average production of 109.77 million tonnes.


Production of Wheat during 2019-20 is estimated at record 107.18 million tonnes. It is higher by 3.58 million tonnes as compared to wheat production during 2018-19 and is higher by 11.02 million tonnes than the average wheat production of 96.16 million tonnes.


Production of Nutri / Coarse Cereals estimated at record 47.54 million tonnes, is higher by 4.48 million tonnes than the production of 43.06 million tonnes achieved during 2018-19. Further, it is also higher by 4.50 million tonnes than the average production.

Total Pulses production during 2019-20 is estimated at 23.01 million tonnes which is higher by 2.19 million tonnes than the Five years’ average production of 20.82 million tonnes.


Total Oilseeds production in the country during 2019-20 is estimated at record 33.50 million tonnes which is higher by 1.98 million tonnes than the production of 31.52 million tonnes during 2018-19. Further, the production of oilseeds during 2019-20 is higher by 4.10 million tonnes than the average oilseeds production.


Total production of Sugarcane in the country during 2019-20 is estimated at 358.14 million tonnes.


Production of Cotton is estimated at record 36.05 million bales (of 170 kg each) is higher by 8.01 million bales than the production of 28.04 million bales during 2018-19.  Production of Jute & Mesta is estimated at 9.92 million bales (of 180 kg each).   







Agriculture credit targets for 2020-21 was fixed at 15.00 lacs crore फ़सल

फसल या सस्य किसी समय-चक्र के अनुसार वनस्पतियों या वृक्षों पर मानवों पालतू पशुओं के उपभोग के लिए उगाकर काटी या तोड़ी जाने वाली पैदावार को कहते हैं।[1] मसलन गेंहू की फ़सल तब तैयार होती है जब उसके दाने पककर पीले से हो जाएँ और उस समय किसी खेत में उग रहे समस्त गेंहू के पौधों को काट लिया जाता है और उनके कणों को अलग कर दिया जाता है। आम की फ़सल में किसी बाग़ के पेड़ों पर आम पकने लगते हैं और, बिना पेड़ों को नुक्सान पहुँचाए, फलों को तोड़कर एकत्रित किया जाता है।

जब से कृषि का आविष्कार हुआ है बहुत से मानवों के जीवनक्रम में फ़सलों का बड़ा महत्व रहा है। उदाहरण के लिए उत्तर भारतपाकिस्तान  नेपाल में रबी की फ़सलऔर ख़रीफ़ की फ़सल दो बड़ी घटनाएँ हैं जो बड़ी हद तक इन क्षेत्रों के ग्रामीण जीवन को निर्धारित करती हैं। इसी तरह अन्य जगहों के स्थानीय मौसम, धरती, वनस्पति जल पर आधारित फ़सलें वहाँ के जीवन-क्रमों पर गहरा प्रभाव रखती हैं।

भारतीय फसलें तथा उनका वर्गीकरण

भारतीय फसलों का वर्गीकरण भिन्न-भिन्न आधारों पर किया जा सकता है। नीचे कुछ आधारों पर भारतीय फसलों का वर्गीकरण दिया गया है।

ऋतु आधारित

·       रीफ फसलें : धान, बाजरा, मक्का, कपास, मूँगफली, शकरकन्, उर्द, मूँग, मोठ लोबिया(चँवला), ज्वार, तिल, ग्वार, जूट, सनई, अरहर, ढैंचा, गन्ना, सोयाबीन,भिण्डी

·       रबी फसलें : गेहूँ, जौं, चना, सरसों, मटर, बरसीम, रिजका, मसूर, आलू, तम्बाकू, लाही, जंई

·       जायद फसलें : कद्दू, खरबूजा, तरबूज, लौकी, तोरई, मूँग, खीरा, मीर्च, टमाटर, सूरजमूखी

जीवनचक्र पर आधारित

·       एकवर्षीय फसलें : धान, गेहूँ, चना, ढैंचा, बाजरा, मूँग, कपास, मूँगफली, सरसों, आलू, शकरकन्, कद्दू, लौकी, सोयाबीन

·       द्विवर्षीय फसलें : चुक्कन्दर, प्याज

·       बहुवर्षीय फसलें (Perennials) : नेपियर घास, रिजका, फलवाली फसलें

उपयोगिता या आर्थिक आधार पर

·       अन् या धान् फसलें (Cereals) : धान, गेहूँ, जौं, चना, मक्का, ज्वार, बाजरा,

·       तिलहनी फसलें (Oilseeds) : सरसों, अरंडी, तिल, मूँगफली, सूरजमूखी, अलसी, कुसुम, तोरिया, सोयाबीन और राई

·       दलहनी फसलें (Pusles) : चना, उर्द, मूँग, मटर, मसूर, अरहर, मूँगफली, सोयाबीन

·       मसाले वाली फसलें  : अदरक, पुदीना, प्याज, लहसुन, मिर्च, धनिया, अजवाइन, जीरा, सौफ, हल्दी, कालीमिर्च, इलायची और तेजपात

·       रेशेदार फसलें (Fibres) : जूट, कपास, सनई, पटसन, ढैंचा

·       चारा फसलें (Fodders) : बरसीम, लूसर्न (रिजका), नैपियर घास, लोबिया, ज्वार

·       फलदार फसलें : आम, अमरूद, नींबू, लिचि, केला, पपीता, सेब, नाशपाती,

·       जड एवं कन् (Roots & Tubers) : आलू, शकरकन्, अदरक, गाजर, मूली, अरबी, रतालू, टेपियोका, शलजम

·       उद्दीपक (Stimulants) : तमबाकू, पोस्, चाय, कॉफी, धतूरा, भांग

·       शर्करा : चुकन्दरगन्ना

·       औषधीय फसलें (Medicinals) : पोदीना, मेंथा, अदरक, हल्दी और तुलसी

विशेष उपयोग आधारित

·       नकदी फसलें (Cash Crops) : गन्ना, आलू, तम्बाकू, कपास, मिर्च, चाय, काफी,

·       अन्तर्वती फसले (Catch Crops) : उर्द, मूँग, चीना, लाही, सांवा, आलू

·       मृदा रक्षक फसलें (Cover Crops) : मूँगफली, मूँग, उर्द, शकरकन्, बरसीम, लूसर्न (रिजका)

·       हरी खाद : मूँग, सनई, बरसीम, ढैचां, मोठ, मसूर, ग्वार, मक्का, लोबिया, बाजरा

भारत में कृषि सबसे बड़ी आजीविका प्रदाता है, साथ ही भारत के सकल घरेलू उत्पाद (जीडीपी) में कृषि का महत्वपूर्ण योगदान है। 2011 की जनगणना के अनुसार देश की आबादी का लगभग 55 प्रतिशत कृषि और इससे जुडे गतिविधियों में लगा है और देश के सकल मूल्य संवर्धनविकाश में इसकी हिस्सेदारी 17.4 प्रतिशत है। कृषि क्षेत्र को प्राथमिकता देते हुए भारत सरकार ने इसके सतत हेतु कई कदम उठाए हैं।

प्रमुख भारतीय फसलों और उनके उत्पादक राज्यों की सूची





उत्तर प्रदेश, पंजाब और हरियाणा


पश्चिम बंगाल, आंध्र प्रदेश, छत्तीसगढ़ और तमिलनाडु


मध्य प्रदेश और तमिलनाडु


महाराष्ट्र, उत्तर प्रदेश और राजस्थान


महाराष्ट्र, गुजरात और राजस्थान


नकदी फसलें


उत्तर प्रदेश और महाराष्ट्र


उत्तर प्रदेश और हिमाचल प्रदेश





केरल और तमिलनाडु

अलसी का बीज

मध्य प्रदेश और उत्तर प्रदेश


आंध्र प्रदेश, गुजरात और तमिलनाडु


राजस्थान और उत्तर प्रदेश


उत्तर प्रदेश और राजस्थान


महाराष्ट्र और कर्नाटक



रेशेदार फसलें


महाराष्ट्र और गुजरात


पश्चिम बंगाल और बिहार


कर्नाटक और केरल


मध्य प्रदेश और उत्तर प्रदेश




बागानी फसलें


कर्नाटक और केरल


केरल और कर्नाटक


असम और केरल


गुजरात, महाराष्ट्र और मध्य प्रदेश





केरल, कर्नाटक और तमिलनाडु


केरल, तमिलनाडु और आंध्र प्रदेश


केरल और उत्तर प्रदेश


  आंध्र प्रदेश और ओडिशा






Classes of seeds

  1. Definition of seed classes
  2. Difference between certified seed and truthful labeled seed


There are four generally recognized classes of seeds. They are

·       Breeder seed

·       Foundation seed

·       Registered seed

·       Certified seed

The basis of seed multiplication of all notified varieties/hybrids is the Nucleus seed.

Definition of seed classes

Nuclear seed : This is the hundred percent genetically pure seed with physical purity and produced by the original breeder/Institute /State Agriculture University (SAU) from basic nucleus seed stock. A pedigree certificate is issued by the producing breeder.


Breeder seed : The progeny of nucleus seed multiplied in large area as per indent of Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DOAC), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, under supervision of plant breeder / institute / SAUs and monitored by a committee consisting of the representatives of state seed certification agency, national / state seed corporations, ICAR nominee and concerned breeder. This is also hundred percent physical and genetic pure seed for production of foundation seed. A golden yellow colour certificate is issued for this category of seed by the producing breeder.


Foundation seed : The progeny of breeder seed produced by recognized seed producing agencies in public and private sector, under supervision of seed certification agencies in such a way that its quality is maintained according to prescribed field ad seed standards. A white colour certificate is issued for foundation seed by seed certification agencies.


Registered seed : Registered seed shall be the progeny of foundation seed that is so handled as to maintain its genetic identity and purity according to standard specified for the particular crop being certified. A purple colour certificate is issued for this category of seed.


Certified seed : The progeny of foundation seed produced by registered seed growers under supervision of seed certification agencies to maintain the seed quality as per minimum seed certification standards. A blue colour certificate is issued by seed certification agency for this category of seed.

The foundation and certified seeds can be multiplied at stage 1 and II, but the reproduction can not exceed three generations after breeder seed.

Difference between certified seed and truthful labeled seed

Certified seed

Truthful labelled seed

Certification is voluntary. Quality guaranteed by certification agency.

Truthful labelling is compulsory for notified kind of varieties. Quality guaranteed by producing agency

Applicable to notified kinds only

Applicable to both notified and released varieties

It should satisfy both minimum field and seed standards

Tested for physical purity and germination

Seed certification officer, seed inspectors can take samples for inspection

Seed inspectors alone can take samples for checking the seed quality.


Varieties Developed Rajasthan Research Institute Durgapura


Systematic research work for development of new varieties of various crops has contributed substantially to maximize agricultural production in the state. Augmentation in yield has been achieved not only by the breeding of basically higher yielding varieties, but also by the development of varieties that helps to stabilize production through resistance to diseases, pests and drought. Varieties are also bred for meeting specific agronomic requirements with wide adaptability. This research institute has developed and released more than 125 varieties of different crops. Following is a brief varietal development scenario at this institute -
Wheat: Varieties developed-29
The triple dwarf variety 'Lal Bahadur' developed at Durgapura center became the trendsetter towards the development of high yielding non-lodging nutrient responsive varieties. The variety Raj 1482 is very much in demand for its quality characteristics, Raj 3077 in addition to high yield, is well adopted for timely sown, late sown and light to moderate saline/alkaline conditions, Raj 3765 & Raj 3777 have tolerance to high temperature and rusts and are suitable for normal to very late sowing conditions, Raj 4037, Raj 4083 and Raj 4079 are highly heat tolerant varieties for warmer areas, Raj Molya Rodhak-1 is a significant development to overcome the problem of Cereal Cyst Nematode (CCN). Development of Raj 4120 is an out- standing contribution of this institute having resistance to Ug 99 (Stem rust), which is an emerging threat for wheat cultivation in India. Recently August, 2012, Raj 4229 (IR-TS) and Raj 4238 (IR-LS) were identified having good yield potential and rust resistant

Barley: Varieties developed- 28
It is to the credit of this institute that the first dwarf mutant variety RDB-1 in the country was released from here and provided the genetic background for the development of dwarf varieties, a very important feature for barley crop. Other land marks have been the salinity tolerant BL-2 and CCN resistant 'Rajkiran' along with recently developed high yielding varieties RD 2035, RD 2552 having wide adaptability and suitability for saline conditions, RD 2503 and RD 2668 (Two rowed type) for malting purpose. Varieties RD 2624 and RD 2660 developed for rainfed conditions are fabulous contributions of this institute. Recently, an excellent contribution of the institute is the development of country's first dual purpose barley variety RD 2715 having good potential to produce grain as well as green fodder. Recently August, 2012, RD 2786 (IR-TS) and RD 2794 (Salinity tolerance) were identified having good yield potential and rust resistant

Chickpea: Varieties developed- 14
The glorious achievement has been the first rainfed high yielding variety RSG 888 at National level and RSG-973 (Abha) at State level. The variety CSJD-884 (Akash) is very much liked due to its double pod characteristic. Besides these, RSG-991 is the value added variety having green seeds and RSGK-6 a kabuli chickpea variety.

Mustard: Variety developed - 1
A very significant achievement has been the development of the Orobanche resistant variety 'Durgamani'.
Field Pea: Variety developed - 1
RPG-3 variety was released for grain purpose has high yield potential along with high protein content and resistance to powdery mildew.
Pearl Millet: Varieties developed - 10
Bajra is one of the important kharif cereals grown extensively in arid and semi-arid regions of the state. The area under the crop sometimes exceeds 50 lac ha during the monsoon season. To cater the need of the farmers high yielding composite namely Raj 171 and hybrids viz., RHB 90, RHB 121, RHB-127, RHB 173 and RHB 177 have been developed, which are resistant to downy mildew and have bristles on ear heads for protection from bird damage, suitable for cultivation in arid and semi-arid regions of the state. The hybrid RHB 154 has been developed for low rainfall (below 400 mm) areas of the Country (A1 Zone).
Groundnut: Varieties developed - 5
This center has developed high yielding varieties RG 425 - a semi spreading drought tolerant and collar rot resistant; RG 382 - a large seeded spreading type and RG 141 - a Spanish bunch type with moderate resistance to leaf spot, rust, collar rot and bud necrosis.
Clusterbean: Varieties developed- 12
High yielding, photo-insensitive varieties, with high gum content have been developed. The significant work has been done for the development of high yielding, early and medium maturing varieties like RGC- 936, RGC-1002, RGC-1003, RGC-1017, RGC-1033, RGC-1038, RGC-1055, RGC-1066 (unbranched), etc. These varieties are suitable for semi-arid conditions of the state.
Cowpea: Varieties developed - 6
High yielding, early maturing varieties have been developed with fawn coloured grain (RC 19) as well as white grain (RC 101). Besides this, RCV-7 has been developed for vegetable purpose.
Mungbean: Varieties developed - 7
High yielding early maturing varieties like RMG 62, RMG 268, RMG 344, RMG 492, etc. with moderate tolerance to drought and web blight have been developed.
Muskmelon: Varieties developed - 5
Durgapura Madhu, known for its sweetness and fragrance has been a very popular variety with high public demand. Other varieties developed with high total soluble sugar and moderate resistance to root rot, powdery mildew and virus, are RM 50, MHY 3, MHY5, etc.
Watermelon: Varieties developed - 3
The variety 'Durgapura Kesar' (RW 187-2) with saffron coloured flesh has been a unique development from this institute. The other achievements are varieties with dark red flesh having high sweetness like 'Durgapura Lal' (RW 177-3).
Onion: Varieties developed - 3
Onion is one of the most important commercial vegetable crops grown in Rajasthan. It occupies about 25 -30% area of the total vegetable crops in the state. It is predominantly a rabi season crop but in kharif season it accounts for about 10 -15% of the total production. The onion varieties RO-1 (copper red bulb, 2004) and RO-59 (red bulb, 2005) are the first released varieties of Rajasthan developed by this institute. Recently, RO-252 (red bulb, 2011) variety has also been developed and released for cultivation in Rajasthan. Both RO 59 and RO 252 were also found suitable for kharif season.




पशुपालन कृषि विज्ञान की वह शाखा है जिसके अंतर्गत पालतू पशुओं के विभिन्न पक्षों जैसे भोजन, आश्रय, स्वास्थ्य, प्रजनन आदि का अध्ययन किया जाता है। पशुपालन का पठन-पाठन विश्व के विभिन्न विश्वविद्यालयों में एक महत्वपूर्ण विषय के रूप में किया जा रहा है।

भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था में कृषि एवं पशुपालन का विशेष महत्व है। सकल घरेलू कृषि उत्पाद में पशुपालन का 28-30 प्रतिशत का योगदान सराहनीय है जिसमें दुग्ध एक ऐसा उत्पाद है जिसका योगदान सर्वाधिक है।

Table 1: Livestock Population - Major Species Category

Population (In million) 2012


(In million) 2019

% growth





























Horses & Ponies
















Total Livestock




Some of the key outcomes of the 20th Livestock Census is summarised below:

v The total Livestock population is 535.78 million in the country showing an increase of 4.6% over Livestock Census-2012

v Total Bovine population (Cattle, Buffalo, Mithun and Yak) is 302.79 Million in 2019 which shows an increase of 1.0% over the previous census.

v The total number of cattle in the country is 192.49 million in 2019 showing an increase of 0.8 % over previous Census.

v The Female Cattle (Cows population) is 145.12 million, increased by 18.0% over the previous census (2012).

v The Exotic/Crossbred and Indigenous/Non-descript Cattle population in the country is 50.42 million and 142.11 million respectively.

v The Indigenous/Non-descript female cattle population has increased by 10% in 2019 as compared to previous census.

v In 20th Livestock Census, 35.94%-Cattle, 27.80%-Goat, 20.45%-Buffaloes, 13.87%-Sheep, 1.69%-Pigs.

v Mithun, Yaks, Horses, Ponies, Mules, Donkeys and Camels taken together contribute 0.23% of the total livestock.

v As compare to previous census the percentage share of sheep and goat population has increased whereas the percentage share of cattle, buffalo and pig has marginally declined.


The total milch animals (in-milk and dry) in cows and buffaloes is 125.34 Million, an increase of 6.0 % over the previous census.

The total sheep in the country is 74.26 Million in 2019, increased by 14.1% over previous Census.

India continues to be the largest producer of milk in the world. Milk production in the country was 187.7 million tonnes in

 2018-19 and registered a growth rate of 6.5 per cent over the previous year  from  176.35 million tonnes during the last financial year.

These schemes are - Rashtriya Gokul Mission, National Programme for Dairy Development (NPDD), National Dairy Plan Phase I, Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme, Dairy Processing Infrastructure Development Fund (DIDF) and Supporting State Co-operative Dairy Federation.

Per capita milk has reached a level of 394 grams per day during 2018-19.

Breeds of Cows in Rajasthan:

·       Gir - This breed is otherwise known as Bhadawari, Desan, Gujarati, Kathiawari, Sorthi, and Surati.

·       Sahiwal;. .. Tharparkar ,. Kankrej. Kankrej is found in Rajasthan's southwestern districts of Barmer, Sirohi & Jalore. ...

·       Rathi Breed. .. Mostly found in Loonkaransar Tehsil of Bikaner and Ganganagar & Hanumangarh district of.


Murrah  Singhwa Khas is one among the 70 villages, which has been declared as ideal Murrah villages by Haryana government for owning cluster of top quality buffaloes. Known worldwide for its high yield, the Murrah buffalo produces up to 32kg of milk a day, almost double than that of an ordinary buffalo.

2. Jaffrabadi. It is the heaviest Indian breed of buffalo. ...

·       3.Surti. They are also known as Deccani, Gujarati, Talabda, Charator and Nadiadi. ...

·       4.Nili Ravi5.. ...Bhadawari. ..6..Nagpuri. 7....Mehsana.



रेशम के कीड़े पाल कर उनसे रेशम बनाने के उद्योग को सेरीकल्चर (Sericulture) कहा जाता है। इस उद्योग में शहतूत की खेती, रेशम के कीड़ों का शहतूत के पेड़ों पर पालन तथा उनसे रेशम उत्पादन शामिल हैं।

सेरीकल्चर (Sericulture) एक कृषि आधारित कुटीर उद्योग है जिसे अल्प लागत लगाकर आरम्भ किया जा सकता है। ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों के लिए यह एक अति उत्तम कुटीर उद्योग है। सेरीकल्चर (Sericulture) की एक विशेषता यह भी है कि यह पर्यावरण के अनुकूल उद्योग है। कृषि तथा अन्य घरेलू कामों को करते हुए भी सेरीकल्चर (Sericulture) को अपना कर अतिरिक्त आमदनी प्राप्त की जा सकती है। भारत में इस उद्योग का विस्तार भारत के बेरोजगारों को रोजगार का अवसर भी प्रदान करता है।

सेरीकल्चर (Sericulture) के क्षेत्र में भारत का स्थान विश्व में दूसरे नंबर पर आता है। पहला स्थान चीन का है। भारत में हर प्रकार के रेशम का उत्पादन किया जाता है। भारत मूंगा सिल्क का उत्पादन करने वाला एकमात्र देश है।

सेरीकल्चर (Sericulture) कृषि क्षेत्र का एक नकदी फसल (cash crop) है और एक माह के भीतर ही आमदनी देने लगता है।

Fisheries Sector

 Fisheries remain an important source of food, nutrition, employment and income in India.  The sector provides livelihood to about 16 million fishers and fish farmers at the primary level and almost twice the number along the value chain. Recognising the importance of the sector, an independent Department of Fisheries has been created in 2019 to provide sustained and focused attention towards the development of fisheries sector. The sector has been showing a steady growth in the total GVA and accounts for 6.58 per cent of GDP from agriculture, forestry and fishing. Fisheries alone has contribution of 1.1% in GDP of the country .The fish production in India has registered an average annual growth rate of more than 7 per cent in the recent years

भारत में मिट्टी के प्रकार Types of soil in India


मृदा अथवा मिट्टी Soil

मृदा अथवा मिट्टी पृथ्वी की सबसे उपरी परत होती है| मिट्टी का निर्माण टूटी चट्टानो के छोटे महीन कणों, खनिज, जैविक पदार्थो, बॅक्टीरिया आदि के मिश्रण से होता है| मिट्टी के कई परतें होती हैं, सबसे उपरी परत में छोटे मिट्टी के कण, गले हुए पौधे और जीवों के अवशेष होते हैं यह परत फसलों की पैदावार के लिए महत्त्‍वपूर्ण होती है। दूसरी परत महीन कणों जैसे चिकनी मिट्टी की होती है और नीचे की विखंडित चट्टानो और मिट्टी का मिश्रण होती है तथा आख़िरी परत में अ-विखंडित सख्‍त चट्टानें होती हैं। देश के सभी भागों में मिट्टी की गहराई आसमान रूप से पाई जाती है यह कुछ सेमी. से लेकर 30 मी. तक गहरी हो सकती है|

हर मिट्टी की अपनी विशेषता होती है| अपनी विशिष्ट  भौतिक, रासायनिक और जैविक विशेषताओं के माध्‍यम से विभिन्‍न प्रकार की फसलों को लाभ प्रदान करती है जलोढ मिट्टी उपजाऊ मिट्टी है जो पोटेशियम से भरपूर है और यह कृषि विशेष कर धान, गन्‍ना और केले की फसल के लिए बहुत उपयुक्‍त है। लाल मिट्टी में लौह मात्रा अधिक होती है और यह  चना, मूंगफली और अरण्‍डी के बीज की फसल के लिए उपयुक्‍त है। काली मिट्टी में कैल्शियम, पौटेशियम और मैग्निशियम प्रचुर मात्रा में पाया जाता है लेकिन इसमें नाइट्रोजन की मात्रा कम होती है। कपास, तम्‍बाकू, मिर्च तिलहन, ज्‍वार, रागी और मक्‍के जैसी फसलें इसमें अच्‍छी उगती हैं। रेतीली मिट्टी में पोषक तत्त्‍व कम होते हैं लेकिन यह अधिक वर्षा क्षेत्रों में नारियल, काजू और कैजुरिना के पेड़ों के विकास में उपयोगी है।

भारत में मिट्टी के प्रकार

भारतीय कृषि अनुसंधान संस्थान (Indian Council of Agricultural Research-I.C.A.R.) ने भारतीय मिट्टी को 8 भागों में बांटा है-

1.     लाल मिट्टी Red Soil

2.     काली मिट्टी Black Soil

3.     लैटेराइट मिट्टी Laterite Soil

4.     क्षारयुक्त मिट्टी Saline and Alkaline Soil

5.     हल्की काली एवं दलदली मिट्टी Peaty and Other Organic soil

6.     रेतीली मिट्टी Arid and Desert Soil

7.     कांप मिट्टी Alluvial Soil

8.     वनों वाली मिट्टी Forest Soil


1.लाल मिट्टी Red Soil यह मिट्टी अपक्षय के प्रभाव से चट्टानों के टूट-फुट से बनती है| आयरन ऑक्साइड की अधिकता के कारण इस मिट्टी का रंग लाल दिखता है| यह मिट्टी प्रमुख रूप से मध्य-प्रदेश, दक्षिणी उत्तर प्रदेश, छोटा नागपुर के पठार, आंध्र प्रदेश के दण्डकारण्य क्षेत्र, पश्चिम बंगाल और मेघालय में पाई जाती है| पठार तथा पहाड़ियों पर इन मिट्टियों की उर्वराशक्ति कम होती है और ये कंकरीली तथा रूखडी होती हैं, किंतु नीचे स्थानों में अथवा नदियों की घाटियों में ये दोरस हो जाती हैं और अधिक उपजाऊ हो जाती  है और इनमें निक्षालन (leaching) भी अधिक हुआ है। तटीय मैदानों और काली मिट्टी के क्षेत्र को छोड़कर, प्रायद्वीपीय पठार के अधिकांश भाग में लाल मिट्टी पाई जाती है।इस मिट्टी में मोटे अनाज पैदा होते है जैसे गेंहू, धान, अलसी आदि| इस मिट्टी का संघटन इस प्रकार है-

§  अघुलनशील तत्व- 90.47%

§  लोहा- - 3.61%

§  एल्यूमिनीयम - 2.92%

§  जीवांश - 1.01%

§  मैग्निशिया - 0.70%

§  चूना - 0.56%

§  कार्बन डाई ऑक्साइड - 0.30%

§  पोटाश - 0.24%

2.काली मिट्टी Black Soil

यह मिट्टी ज्वालामुखी से निकलने वाले लावा से बनती है| भारत में यह लगभग 5 लाख वर्ग-किमी. में फैली है| महाराष्ट्र में इस मिट्टी का सबसे अधिक विस्तार है| इसे 'दक्कन ट्रॅप' से बनी मिट्टी भी कहते हैं| इस मिट्टी में चुना, पोटॅश, मैग्निशियम, एल्यूमिना और लोहा पर्याप्त मात्रा में पाया जाता है|  इसका विस्तार लावा क्षेत्र तक सीमित नहीं है, बल्कि नदियों ने इसे ले जाकर अपनी घाटियों में भी जमा किया है। यह बहुत ही उपजाऊ है और कपास की उपज के लिए प्रसिद्ध है इसलिए इसे कपासवाली काली मिट्टी कहते हैं। इस मिट्टी में नमी को रोक रखने की प्रचुर शक्ति है, इसलिए वर्षा कम होने पर भी सिंचाई की आवश्यकता नहीं होती। इसका काला रंग शायद अत्यंत महीन लौह अंशों की उपस्थिति के कारण है। इस मिट्टी का रासायनिक संघटन इस प्रकार है-

§  फेरिक ऑक्साइड - 11.24%

§  एल्यूमिना - 9.39%

§  जल तथा जीवांश - 5.83%

§  चूना - 1.81%

§  मैग्निशिया - 1.79%

इसकी मिट्टी की मुख्य फसल कपास है| इस मिट्टी में गन्ना, केला, ज्वार, तंबाकू, रेंड़ी, मूँगफली और सोयाबीन की भी अच्छी पैदावार होती है|

3.लैटेराइट मिट्टी Laterite Soil

यह मिट्टी रासायनिक क्रियाओं तथा चट्टानो के टूट-फूट द्वारा शुष्क मौसम में बनती है| इस मिट्टी में भी आइरन ऑक्साइड की अधिकता पाई जाती हैयह देखने में लाल मिट्टी की तरह लगती है, किंतु उससे कम उपजाऊ होती है। ऊँचे स्थलों में यह प्राय: पतली और कंकड़मिश्रित होती है और कृषि के योग्य नहीं रहती, किंतु मैदानी भागों में यह खेती के काम में लाई जाती है।  यह मिट्टी तमिलनाडु के पहाड़ी भागों, केरल, महाराष्ट्र, पश्चिम बंगाल तथा उड़ीसा के कुछ भागों में,  दक्षिण भारत के पठार, राजमहल तथा छोटानागपुर के पठार, असम इत्यादि में सीमित क्षेत्रों में पाई जाती है। दक्षिण भारत में मैदानी भागों में इसपर धान की खेती होती है और ऊँचे भागों में चाय, कहवा, रबर तथा सिनकोना उपजाए जाते हैं। इस प्रकार की मिट्टी अधिक ऊष्मा और वर्षा के क्षेत्रों में बनती है। इसलिए इसमें ह्यूमस की कमी होती है और निक्षालन अधिक हुआ करता है।इस मिट्टी का रासायनिक संघटन इस प्रकार है-

§  लोहा- 18.7%

§  सिलिका - 32.62%

§  एल्यूमिना - 25.2%

§  फास्फ़ोरस - 0.7%

§  चूना - 0.42%

4.क्षारयुक्त मिट्टी Saline and Alkaline Soil

शुष्क और अर्धशुष्क क्षेत्रों, दलदली द अधिक सिंचाई वाले क्षेत्रों में यह मिट्टी पाई जाती है| इन्हे थूर(Thur), ऊसर, कल्लहड़, राकड़, रे और चोपन के नामों से भी जाना जाता है| शुष्क भागों में अधिक सिंचाई के कारण एवं अधिक वर्षा वाले क्षेत्रों में जल-प्रवाह दोषपूर्ण होने एवं जलरेखा उपर-नीचे होने के कारण इस मिट्टी का जन्म होता है| इस प्रकार की मिट्टी में भूमि की निचली परतों से क्षार या लवण वाष्पीकरण द्वारा उपरी परतों तक आ जाते हैं| इस मिट्टी में सोडियम, कैल्सियम और मैग्निशियम की मात्रा अधिक पायी जाने से प्रायः यह मिट्टी अनुत्पादक हो जाती है|

5.हल्की काली एवं दलदली मिट्टी Peaty and Other Organic soil

इस मिट्टी में ज़्यादातर जैविक तत्व अधिक मात्रा में पाए जाते हैं| यह सामान्यतः आद्रप्रदेशों में मिलती है| दलदली मिट्टी उड़ीसा के तटीय भागों, सुंदरवन के डेल्टाई क्षेत्रों, बिहार के मध्यवर्ती क्षेत्रों, उत्तराखंड के अल्मोड़ा और तमिलनाडु के दक्षिण-पूर्वी एवं केरल के तटों पर पाई जाती है|

प्राकृतिक आपदाओं से किसानों को होने वाले नुकसान की भरपाई के लिए सरकार ने प्रधानमंत्री फसल बीमा योजनाकी घोषणा की है। किसानों को कम प्रीमियम देना पड़ेगा। बीमा कंपनियां खरीफ फसलों के लिए जो प्रीमियम रेट तय करेंगी, किसानों को उसमें सिर्फ 2% देना होगा। रबी फसलों के प्रीमियम रेट का सिर्फ डेढ़ फीसदी किसान देंगे। बागबानी फसलों के मामले में किसानों को 5% प्रीमियम देना होगा। बाकी प्रीमियम केंद्र और राज्य की सरकारें बराबर-बराबर देंगी। कम से कम 25% क्लेम राशि सीधे किसान के बैंक खाते में आएगी। स्कीम जून से शुरू होने वाले खरीफ से लागू होगी।

6.रेतीली मिट्टी Arid and Desert Soil

यह मिट्टी शुष्क और अर्धशुष्क प्रदेशों जैसे - पश्चिमी राजस्थान और आरवाली पर्वत के क्षेत्रों, उत्तरी गुजरात, दक्षिणी हरियाणा और पश्चिमी उत्तर प्रदेश में पाई जाती है। सिंचाई के सहारे गेंहू, गन्ना, कपास, ज्वार, बाजरा  उगाये जाते हैं। जहाँ सिंचाई की सुविधा नहीं है वहाँ यह भूमि बंजर पाई जाती है।

7.कांप मिट्टी Alluvial Soil

उत्तर के विस्तृत मैदान तथा प्रायद्वीपीय भारत के तटीय मैदानों में मिलती है। यह अत्यंत ऊपजाऊ है इसे जलोढ़ या कछारीय मिट्टी भी कहा जाता है यह भारत के लगभग 40% भाग में पाई जाती है| यह मिट्टी सतलज, गंगा,यमुना, घाघरा,गंडक, ब्रह्मपुत्र और इनकी सहायक नदियों द्वारा लाई जाती है| इस मिट्टी में कंकड़ नही पाए जाते हैं| इस मिट्टी में नाइट्रोजन, फास्फोरस और वनस्पति अंशों की कमी पाई जाती है| खादर में ये तत्व भांभर की तुलना में अधिक मात्रामें वर्तमान हैं, इसलिए खादर अधिक उपजाऊ है। भांभर में कम वर्षा के क्षेत्रों में, कहीं कहीं खारी मिट्टी ऊसर अथवा बंजर होती है।भांभर और तराई क्षेत्रों में पुरातन जलोढ़, डेल्टाई भागों नवीनतम जलोढ़, मध्य घाटी में नवीन जलोढ़ मिट्टी पाई जाती है| पुरातन जलोढ़ मिट्टी के क्षेत्र को भांभर और नवीन जलोढ़ मिट्टी के क्षेत्र  को खादर  कहा जाता है|

पूर्वी तटीय मैदानों में यह मिट्टी कृष्णा, गोदावरी, कावेरी और महानदी के डेल्टा में प्रमुख रूप से पाई जाती है| इस मिट्टी की प्रमुख फसलें खरीफ और रबी जैसे-दालें, कपास, तिलहन, गन्ना और गंगा-ब्रह्मपुत्र घाटी में जूट प्रमुख से उगाया जाता है|

List of Indian state animals

This is a list of the state animals of all the states and union territories of India.[1]

State                             Common name           Scientific name                           

Andhra Pradesh             Blackbuck                     Antilope cervicapra                     

Arunachal Pradesh         Gayal                            Bos frontalis

Assam                           One-horned rhino        Rhinoceros unicornis                      

Bihar                              Gaur                             Bos gaurus  

Chhattisgarh                  Wild Buffalo                 B. bubalis arnee                            

Goa                               Gaur                             Bos gaurus  

Gujarat                          Asiatic Lion                   Panthera leo persica                          

Haryana                         Blackbuck                     Antilope cervicapra                     

Himachal Pradesh          Snow Leopard               Uncia uncia or Panthera uncia              

Jammu and Kashmir       Kashmir stag                 Cervus elaphus hanglu                          

Jharkhand                      Indian Elephant            Elephas maximus indicus           

Karnataka                      Indian Elephant            Elephas maximus indicus           

Kerala                            Indian Elephant            Elephas maximus indicus           

Lakshadweep                 Butterfly Fish                Chaetodon decussatus                    

Meghalaya                     Clouded Leopard          Neofelis nebulosa                      

Madhya Pradesh            Barasingha                   Rucervus duvaucelii                     

Maharashtra                  Indian Giant Squirrel     Ratufa indica                                    

Manipur                        Sangai                          Cervus eldi eldi                                    

Mizoram                        serow                           capricornis  

Nagaland                       Gaur                             Bos gaurus  

Odisha                           Sambar                         Rusa unicolor                                    

Puducherry                    Squirrel                        Sciuridae    

Punjab                           Blackbuck                     Antilope cervicapra                     

Rajasthan                       Camel                          Camelus     

Sikkim                           Red Panda                    Ailurus fulgens                                    

Tamil Nadu                    Nilgiri Tahr                   Nilgiritragus hylocrius                       

Telangana                      Deer                             Cervidae     

Tripura                           Phayre's Langur            Trachypithecus phayrei                         

Uttarakhand                   Musk deer                    Moschidae  

Uttar Pradesh                 Swamp Deer                 Rucervus duvaucelii                     

West Bengal                  Fishing cat                    Prionailurus viverrinus                      

List of Scientific Names of Common Animals

The binomial nomenclatures of common animals are listed as follows:

Common Name   

Scientific Names  


 Canis lupus


 Musca domestica


 Panthera tigris


 Panther pardus


 Panthera leo


 Ursidae carnivora


 Corvus splendens


 Hymenopetrous formicidae




 Bison bonasus


 Felis catus


 Acinonyx jubatus


 Crocodilia niloticus


 Proboscidea elepahantidae


 Delphinidae delphis


 Capra hircus


 Anura ranidae


 Leoparidae cuniculas


 Giraffa horridus


 Cannis vulpes


 Artiodactyl cervidae


 Elaphidae naja


 Alurpoda melanoleuca


 Equs asinus


 Equus ferus caballus

List of Scientific Names of Common Plants

The binomial nomenclatures of common plants are listed as follows:

Common Name  

 Scientific Names 


 Helianthus annuus 


 Magnifera indica


 Azadicta indica




 Ocimum tenuiflorum 

 Apache Plume

 Fallugia paradoxa

 Aplle Blossom Grass


 Wild rye 

 Elymus sp.

Wild Oats

 Avena fatua

 Red Maple

 Acer rubrum


 Oryza sativa


 Triticum spp.

 Finger millet 

 Eleusine coracana


 Hordeum vulgare


 Coriandrum sativum 

 Cashew nut 

 Anacardium occidentale

 Curry leaf

 Murraya koenigii

 Dragon fruit

 Hylocereus undutus




 Citrus sinensis


 Carica papaya

 Pine apple

 Ananas comosus


 Cinnamomum zeylanicum


Agricultural Policy of India

 Agricultural policy of a country is mostly designed by the Government for raising agricultural production and productivity and also for raising the level of income and standard of living of farmers within a definite time frame. This policy is formulated for all round and comprehensive development of the agricultural sector.

In India, the main objectives of agricultural policy are to remove the major problems of agricultural sector related to improper and inefficient uses of natural resources, predominance of low-value agriculture, poor cost-benefit ratio of the sectoral activities and insignificant progress of co­operative farming and other self-help institutions.

Main Objectives:

The following are some of the important objectives of India’s agricultural policy:

(i) Raising the Productivity of Inputs:

One of the important objectives of India’s agricultural policy is to improve the productivity of inputs so purchased viz., HYV seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation projects etc.

(ii) Raising Value-Added per Hectare:

Another important objective of country’s agricultural policy is to increase per hectare value-added rather than raising physical output by raising the productivity of agriculture in general and productivity of small and marginal holdings in particular.

(iii) Protecting the Interest of Poor Farmers:

One of the important objectives of agricultural policy is to protect the interest of poor and marginal farmers by abolishing intermediaries through land reforms expanding institutional credit support to poor farmers etc.

(iv) Modernizing Agricultural Sector:

Modernizing agricultural sector is another important objective of agricultural policy of the country. Here the policy support includes introduction of modern technology in agricultural operations and application of improved agricultural inputs like HYV seeds, fertilizers etc.

(v) Checking Environmental Degradation:

Agricultural policy of India has set another objective to check environmental degradation of natural base of Indian agriculture.

(vi) Agricultural Research and Training:

Another important objective of Indian agricultural policy is to promote agricultural research and training facilities and to percolate the fruits of such research among the farmers by establishing a close linkage between research institutions and farmers.

(vii) Removing Bureaucratic Obstacles:

The policy has set another objective to remove bureaucratic obstacles on the farmers Co-operative societies and self help institutions so that they can work independently.

National Agricultural Policy Document, 2000:

On 28th July, 2000, the NDA Government made public a National Agriculture Policy envisaging over 4 per cent annual growth through efficient use of resources and technology and increased private investment while emphasizing on price protection to farmers in the WTO regime.

The policy aimed at catapulting agricultural growth to over 4 per cent per annum by 2005. This growth is to be achieved through a combination of measures including structural, institutional, agronomic, environmental, economical and tax reforms.

The policy formulation has been necessitated due to the relatively poor growth of agriculture experienced during the 1990s. The Policy Document observed, “Capital inadequacy, lack of infrastructural support and demand side constraints such as controls on movement, storage and sale of agricultural products etc. have continued to affect the economic activity of agricultural sector. Consequently, growth has also tended to slacken during the 1990s”.

As the agricultural sector ensures the food security and nutrition to this huge size of population of India and also supplies huge quantity of raw materials for expanding industrial base along with creating surplus for exports thus a fast and equitable reward system for the farming community along with attaining faster growth rate of the sector should be the important components of agricultural reforms.

Thus, the National Agricultural Policy (2000) has taken the following important objectives:

1. Attaining a growth rate above 4.0 per cent per annum in the agricultural sector;

2. Attaining a growth which is based on efficient use of resources and also makes provision for conservation of our soil, water and bio-diversity;

3. Attainment of growth with equity, i.e., attaining a growth whose impact would be widespread across regions and different classes of farmers;

A4. Attaining a growth that is demand-driven and cater to the need of domestic markets and ensuring maximization of benefit from exports of agricultural products in the face of challenges from economic liberalization and globalization;

5. Attaining a growth that is sustainable technologically, environmentally and economically.

Sustainability in Agriculture:

The new policy seeks to introduce economically viable, technically sound, environmentally non-degrading and non-hazardous and socially acceptable use of natural resources of the country for promoting the concept of sustainable agriculture.

In order to fulfill this strategy, the following measures are suggested in the new policy:

1. To use unutilized barren wastelands for agriculture and afforestation.

2. To contain biotic pressures on land and to control indiscriminate division of agricultural lands for non-agricultural uses.

3. To enhance cropping intensity through multi-cropping and inter-cropping.

4. To emphasize rational use of ground and surface water so that over-exploitation of ground water resources can be checked. To adopt better technologies such as drip and sprinkler irrigation system so as to arrange more economic and efficient use of water.

5. To adopt vigorously a long-term perspective plan for sustainable rain-fed agriculture by adopting watershed approach and water harvesting method for development of two-thirds of cropped area of the country which is dependent on rainfall.

6. Involvement of farmers and landless labourers will be sought in the development of pastures/ forestry programmes on huge public wasteland by providing adequate financial incentives and entitlement of trees and pastures.

Food and Nutritional Security:

In order to meet the growing pressure of population growth and to provide food and nutritional security to such a large population, special efforts will be made for raising the productivity and production of crops and thereby to meet the requirement of raw materials of expanding agro-based industries. Special stress will be made for the development of new crop varieties, especially food crops, with higher nutritional value.

The policy has paid due emphasis for the development of rain-fed irrigation, horticulture, floriculture, roots and tubers plantation crops, aromatic and medicinal plants, bee-keeping and sericulture for augmenting food supply and boosting exports along with generation of employment in rural areas.

High priority has also been given on the development of animal husbandry, dairy, poultry and aquaculture so as to diversify agriculture, increasing animal protein availability in food basket and also for generating exportable surpluses.

The policy also encouraged the cultivation of fodder crops and fodder trees so as to meet the growing need for feed and fodder requirements. The policy has encouraged the involvement of co-operatives and the private sector for the promotion and development of animal husbandry, dairy and poultry farming.

Development and Transfer of Technology:

The policy suggested that the Government should encourage application of biotechnology, remote sensing technologies, energy saving technologies, pre- and post-harvest technologies, and technology for environmental protection. Moreover, the Government will make a fresh attempt to move towards a regime financial sustainability of extension services in a pleased manner. The Government will also undertake special measures for empowering women and also to build their capabilities for improving their access to inputs, technology process and other farming resources.

Incentives and Investment in Agriculture:

The policy suggested that the Government should make adequate efforts for improving the terms of trade for agriculture along with associated manufacturing sector. Accordingly, attempts will be made to review and rationalize the structure of taxes on food grains, other commercial crops and also excise duty on farm machinery and implements. The Government has committed to keep agriculture outside purview of taxes and decided to continue the present regime of agricultural subsidies.

The, new policy statement accepted the problem of fall in public sector investment in agricultural sector and decided to step up public investment for narrowing regional imbalances and also for accelerating development of supportive infrastructure.

In addition to this, private sector investment in agriculture will be encouraged in some sophisticated areas like agricultural research, post-harvest management, marketing and human resource development. Moreover, attempts would be made for setting up agro-processing units in collaboration between the producer co-operatives and the corporate sector.

Policy on Institutional Structure:

The policy gave due emphasis for reforming the Institutional structure where the approach on rural development and land reforms will give stress on the following issues:

1. Consolidation of holdings throughout the country following the pattern of north western states.

2. Steps for redistribution of ceiling surplus lands and waste-lands among the landless farmers and unemployed persons.

3. Adopting tenancy reforms for recognizing the rights of tenants and sharecroppers.

4. Promotion and development of lease markets for raising the size of holdings by making legal provisions so as to give private land on lease for cultivation and agro-business purposes.

5. Recognizing the rights of women on land.

6. Making provision for updating and improvement of land records through computerization and also by issuing land pass books to all the farmers.

The policy has made arrangement for promotion through contract farming and land leasing arrangements for allowing accelerated technology transfer, capital inflow and assured marketing arrangements for some crops, especially of oilseeds, cotton and horticultural crops.

Risk Management:

The National Agricultural Policy (2000) gave due importance for the promotion of National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (NAIS) so as to cover all crops and all farmers over the country by giving package insurance policy ensuring protection from all risks in pre- and post-harvest operations, including marketing fluctuations in agricultural prices.

Privatization of agriculture and price protection to farmers in the post-quantitative restriction (QR) regime would be part of the Government’s strategy to synergies agricultural growth. The focus of the new policy is on efficient use of resources and technology, adequate availability of credit to farmers and protecting them from seasonal and price fluctuations. Over the next two decades, the policy aims to attain a growth rate in excess of four per cent per annum in the agricultural sector.

The policy document observed that private sector participation would be promoted through contract farming and land leasing arrangement, to allow accelerated technology transfer, capital inflow, assured markets for crop production, especially of oilseeds, cotton and horticultural crops. Moreover, private sector investment in agriculture would be encouraged, particularly in areas like agricultural research, human resource development, post harvest management and marketing.

In view of dismantling of quantitative restrictions (QRs) on imports as per WTO agreement on agriculture, the policy has recommended formulation of commodity wise strategies and arrangements to protect farmers from adverse impact of undue price fluctuations in the world market and promote exports.

The policy also observed that the Government would enlarge coverage of future markets to minimize the wide fluctuations in commodity prices as also for hedging their risks. The policy hoped to achieve sustainable development of agriculture, create gainful employment and raise standards of living.

The policy has also envisaged evolving a “National Livestock Breeding Strategy” to meet the requirement of milk, meat, egg and livestock products and to enhance the role of draught animals as a source of energy for farming operations and transport.

The policy document mentioned that plant varieties would be protected through a legislation to encourage research and breeding of new varieties, particularly in the private sector, in line with India’s obligations under the “Trade-related Intellectual Property Rights” (TRIPs) agreement.

The farmers would, however, be allowed to save, use, exchange, share and sell their ‘farm saved seeds’, except branded seeds of protected varieties for commercial purpose. The policy document observed that the development of animal husbandry, poultry, dairy and aquaculture would receive high priority to diversify agriculture, increasing availability of animal protein in the food basket and for generating exportable surpluses.

A high priority would be accorded to evolve new location specific and economically viable improved varieties of agriculture and horticulture crops, livestock species and aquaculture as also conservation and judicious use of germplasm and other bio-diversity resources. Moreover, the domestic agriculture market would be liberalized.

The policy further mentioned that the restrictions on the movement of agricultural commodities throughout the country would be progressively dismantled. The structure of taxes on food grains and other commercial crops would be reviewed and rationalized.

The excise duty on materials such as farm machinery and implements and fertilizers used as inputs in agricultural tax collection system. Appropriate measures would be adopted to ensure that agriculturists, by and large, remained outside the regulatory and tax collection system.

The policy also observed that in order to protect the interest of farmers in the context of quantitative restrictions, continuous monitoring of international prices would be undertaken and appropriate tariff protection would also be provided.

The policy document further mentioned that rural electrification would be given high priority as a prime mover for agricultural development. The use of new and renewable sources of energy for irrigation and other agricultural purposes would be encouraged.

Finally, the policy document observed that the progressive institutionalization of rural and farm credit would be continued for providing timely and adequate credit to farmers. Moreover, endeavor would also be made to provide a package insurance policy for the farmers, right from sowing of crops to post-harvest operations, including market fluctuations in the prices of agricultural produce.

Appraisal of the New Agricultural Policy:

The New Agricultural Policy (2000) has been considered as a balanced one considering the present requirement. The new policy has adopted a co­ordinated approach for bringing Green Revolution, White Revolution (related to milk and dairy products) and Blue Revolution (related to aqua/fish culture). Therefore, the policy has been termed as a policy of promising Rainbow Revolution.

Considering the growing requirement of food for attaining food self-sufficiency and to attain food security for the millions of people of the country the policy has faced a great challenge. To fulfill this requirement attainment of 4 per cent growth rate in agricultural output is a must. But the New Policy has not spelt out any such target in quantitative terms.

Secondly, the New Policy has also failed to identify those backward states which are still lagging in utilizing their agricultural potential. Therefore, a balanced approach should be undertaken to remedy these loopholes.

Thirdly, the New Policy argued in favour of encouraging private investment in agriculture which would help the big farmers, but the large numbers of small farmers are not going to be supported by such private investment which needs to be promoted by public investment.

Fourthly, the New Policy argued in favour of private sector participation through contract farming by land leasing arrangements. But introduction of such a step in a labour-surplus economy is highly questionable.

Lastly, there is a lack of co-ordination between the Central and State Governments in implementing various promotional steps for the development of agricultural sector. Thus, the centre and the states should co-ordinate in implementing various provisions of new policy and should develop a monitoring mechanism to evaluate the implementation of the policy in a most rational manner.

For the Tenth Plan period (2002-07), the credit flow into agriculture and allied activities from all banking agencies is projected at Rs. 7,36,370 crore, which is more than three times the credit flow during the Ninth Plan.

Thus, under the general impression that Indian agriculture operates amidst a number of restraints and controls and those farmers do not receive the benefits of free trade as compared to other sectors of the economy, the new National Agricultural Policy, 2000 thus has taken note of this impression and proposed freeing of agriculture sector from various restrictions.

The Central Government has taken a lead in repealing some of restrictive legislations. However, as agriculture is a state subject, most of the restrictions are actually imposed by states such as Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and Maharashtra. Thus; the State Governments should take effective steps for freeing agriculture.

In this connection, the Economic Survey, India, 2000-2001 observed, “For the Indian farmer, it is essential that he looks to the whole country as a sign of unrestricted market. After further opening up of the trade regime under WTO from April 2001, it is all the more necessary that farmers look not only to the domestic market, but also seize opportunities in the global market for improved value added realization and diversification. Export of processed agro-products would be the key to improved export realization which is possible only if the domestic policies allow unrestricted movement, storage and liberal trade regime. Thus, for agriculture related products, inputs and services, all restrictions including SSI reservation would have to be removed.”

Policy paper on doubling farmers income

Why Double Farmers' Income?

Past strategy for development of the agriculture sector in India has focused primarily on raising agricultural output and improving food security. The net result has been a 45 per cent increase in per person food production, which has made India not only food self-sufficient at aggregate level, but also a net food exporting country.

The strategy did not explicitly recognise the need to raise farmers' income and did not mention any direct measure to promote farmers welfare. The net result has been that farmers income remained low, which is evident from the incidence of poverty among farm households.

Low level of absolute income as well as large and deteriorating disparity between income of a farmer and non-agricultural worker constitute an important reason for the emergence of agrarian distress in the country during 1990s, which turned quite serious in some years. The country also witnessed a sharp increase in the number of farmers suicides during 1995 to 2004 - losses from farming, shocks in farm income and low farm income are identified as the important factors for this. The low and highly fluctuating farm income is causing detrimental effect on the interest in farming and farm investments, and is also forcing more and more cultivators, particularly younger age group, to leave farming. This can cause serious adverse effect on the future of agriculture in the country.

It is apparent that income earned by a farmer from agriculture is crucial to address agrarian distress (Chand 2016) and promote farmers welfare. In this background, the goal set to double farmers' income by 2022-23 is central to promote farmers welfare, reduce agrarian distress and bring parity between income of farmers and those working in non-agricultural professions.

The concept and timeframe

Clarity on the following points is important to assess the possibility of doubling the income of the farmers. The substantive points are:

1.    what is the period and targeted year for doubling the farm income;

2.    what is to be doubled, is it output, value added or income earned by farmers from agricultural activities;

3.    whether nominal income is to be doubled or real income is to be doubled; and

4.    whether the targeted income includes only income derived from agricultural activities or would it also include income of farmers from other sources.

It is obvious that the targeted year to double the current income of the farmers or income for the agricultural year 2015-16 is by agricultural year 2022-23, which is seven years away from the base year 2015-16. And, if anything is to be doubled by the year 2022-23, it will require an annual growth rate of 10.4 per cent.

Again, it is important to clarify what is sought to be doubled. Is it the income of farmers, or the output or the income of the sector or the value added or GDP of agriculture sector? If technology, input prices, wages and labour use could result in per unit cost savings then famers' income would rise at a much higher rate than the output. In nominal terms, the output became 2.65 times while farmers' income tripled in the seven years period. Therefore, doubling of farmers' income should not be viewed as same as doubling of farm output.

It is obvious that if inflation in agricultural prices is high, farmers income in nominal terms will double in a much shorter period. In a situation where non-agricultural prices do not rise, or, rise at a very small rate, the growth in farmers' income at real prices tends to be almost the same as in nominal prices. The government's intention seems to be to double the income of farmers from farming in real terms.

It is pertinent to mention that the latest data on number of cultivators is available only up to the year 2011-12. Therefore, while calculating per cultivator income, it is assumed that farm workers would continue their withdrawal from agriculture at the rate observed during 2004-05 to 2011-12. Presently, per cultivator income has been estimated as Rs 1,20,193 at current market prices.

Sources of Growth in Farmers' Income

Doubling real income of farmers till 2022-23 over the base year of 2015-16, requires annual growth of 10.41 per cent in farmers income. This implies that the on-going and previously achieved rate of growth in farm income has to be sharply accelerated. Therefore, strong measures will be needed to harness all possible sources of growth in farmers' income within as well as outside agriculture sector.

The major sources of growth operating within agriculture sector are:

1.    improvement in productivity

2.    resource use efficiency or saving in cost of production

3.    increase in cropping intensity

4.    diversification towards high value crops

The sources outside agriculture include:

1.    shifting cultivators from farm to non-farm occupations, and

2.    improvement in terms of trade for farmers or real prices received by farmers.

Strategy for Improving Farmers' Income

The sources of growth in output and income can be put in four categories.

1.    Development initiatives including infrastructure

2.    Technology

3.    Policies and

4.    Institutional mechanisms

Roadmap and Action Plan

The quantitative framework for doubling farmers income has identified seven sources of growth. These are:

1.    Increase in productivity of crops

2.    Increase in production of livestock

3.    Improvement in efficiency of input use (cost saving)

4.    Increase in crop intensity

5.    Diversification towards high value crops

6.    Improved price realization by farmers

7.    Shift of cultivators to non-farm jobs


The low level of farmers income and year to year fluctuations in it are a major source of agrarian distress. This distress is spreading and getting severe over time impacting almost half of the population of the country that is dependent on farming for livelihood. Persistent low level of farmers income can also cause serious adverse effect on the future of agriculture in the country. To secure future of agriculture and to improve livelihood of half of India's population, adequate attention needs to be given to improve the welfare of farmers and raise agricultural income. Achieving this goal will reduce persistent disparity between farm and non-farm income, alleviate agrarian distress, promote inclusive growth and infuse dynamism in the agriculture sector. Respectable income in farm sector will also attract youth towards farming profession and ease the pressure on non-farm jobs, Which are not growing as per the expectations.

Doubling farmers income by 2022 is quite challenging but it is needed and is attainable. Three pronged strategy focused on (i) development initiatives, (ii) technology and (iii) policy reforms in agriculture is needed to double farmers income.

·       The rates of increase in sources underlying growth in output need to be accelerated by 33 per cent to meet the goal.

·       The country need to increase use of quality seed, fertiliser and power supply to agriculture by 12.8, 4.4 and 7.6 per cent every year.

·       Area under irrigation has to be expanded by 1.78 million hectare and area under double cropping should be increased by 1.85 million hectare every year.

·       Besides, area under fruits and vegetables is required to increase by 5 per cent each year.

·       In the case of livestock, improvement in herd quality, better feed, increase in artificial insemination, reduction in calving interval and lowering age at first calving are the potential sources of growth.

Research institutes should come with technological breakthroughs for shifting production frontiers and raising efficiency in use of inputs. Evidence is growing about scope of agronomic practices like precision farming to raise production and income of farmers substantially. Similarly, modern machinery such as laser land leveller, precision seeder and planter, and practices like SRI (system of rice intensification), direct seeded rice, zero tillage, raised bed plantation and ridge plantation allow technically highly efficient farming. However, these technologies developed by the public sector have very poor marketability. They require strong extension for the adoption by farmers. R&D institutions should also include in their packages grassroots level innovations and traditional practices which are resilient, Sustainable and income enhancing.

ICAR and SAUs should develop models of farming system for different types of socioeconomic and bio physical settings combining all their technologies in a package with focus on farm income. This would involve combining technology and best practices covering production, protection and post-harvest value addition for each sub systems with other sub systems like crop sequences, crop mix, livestock, horticulture, forestry. Such shift requires interdisciplinary approach to develop on knowledge of all disciplines.

About one third of the increase in farmers' income is easily attainable through better price realization, efficient post-harvest management, competitive value chains and adoption of allied activities. This requires comprehensive reforms in market, land lease and raising of trees on private land. Agriculture has suffered due to absence of modern capital and modern knowledge. There is a need to liberalise agriculture to attract responsible private investments in production and market. Similarly, FPOs and FPCs can play big role in promoting small farm business. Ensuring MSP alone for farm produce through competitive market or government intervention will result in sizeable increase in farmers' income in many states.

Most of the development initiatives and policies for agriculture are implemented by the States. States invest much more than the outlay by the Centre on many development activities, like irrigation. Progress of various reforms related to market and land lease are also State subjects. Therefore, it is essential to mobilise States and UTs to own and achieve the goal of doubling farmers' income. If concerted and well-coordinated efforts are made by the Centre and all the States and UTs, the Country can achieve the goal of doubling farmers' income by the year 2022.

Historical perspective of MSP

The Price Support Policy of the Government is directed at providing insurance to agricultural producers against any sharp fall in farm prices. The minimum guaranteed prices are fixed to set a floor below which market prices cannot fall. Till the mid 1970s, Government announced two types of administered prices :

·       Minimum Support Prices (MSP)

·       Procurement Prices

The MSPs served as the floor prices and were fixed by the Government in the nature of a long-term guarantee for investment decisions of producers, with the assurance that prices of their commodities would not be allowed to fall below the level fixed by the Government, even in the case of a bumper crop. Procurement prices were the prices of kharif and rabi cereals at which the grain was to be domestically procured by public agencies (like the FCI) for release through PDS. It was announced soon after harvest began. Normally procurement price was lower than the open market price and higher than the MSP. This policy of two official prices being announced continued with some variation upto 1973-74, in the case of paddy. In the case of wheat it was discontinued in 1969 and then revived in 1974-75 for one year only. Since there were too many demands for stepping up the MSP, in 1975-76, the present system was evolved in which only one set of prices was announced for paddy (and other kharif crops) and wheat being procured for buffer stock operations.

Determination of MSP

In formulating the recommendations in respect of the level of minimum support prices and other non-price measures, the Commission takes into account, apart from a comprehensive view of the entire structure of the economy of a particular commodity or group of commodities, the following factors:-

·       Cost of production

·       Changes in input prices

·       Input-output price parity

·       Trends in market prices

·       Demand and supply

·       Inter-crop price parity

·       Effect on industrial cost structure

·       Effect on cost of living

·       Effect on general price level

·       International price situation

·       Parity between prices paid and prices received by the farmers.

·       Effect on issue prices and implications for subsidy

The Commission makes use of both micro-level data and aggregates at the level of district, state and the country. The information/data used by the Commission, inter-alia include the following :-

·       Cost of cultivation per hectare and structure of costs in various regions of the country and changes there in;

·       Cost of production per quintal in various regions of the country and changes therein;

·       Prices of various inputs and changes therein;

·       Market prices of products and changes therein;

·       Prices of commodities sold by the farmers and of those purchased by them and changes therein;

·       Supply related information - area, yield and production, imports, exports and domestic availability and stocks with the Government/public agencies or industry;

·       Demand related information - total and per capita consumption, trends and capacity of the processing industry;

·       Prices in the international market and changes therein, demand and supply situation in the world market;

·       Prices of the derivatives of the farm products such as sugar, jaggery, jute goods, edible/non-edible oils and cotton yarn and changes therein;

·       Cost of processing of agricultural products and changes therein;

·       Cost of marketing - storage, transportation, processing, marketing services, taxes/fees and margins retained by market functionaries; and

·       Macro-economic variables such as general level of prices, consumer price indices and those reflecting monetary and fiscal factors.

Government has announced its historic decision to fix MSP at a level of at least 150 per cent of the cost of production for kharif crops 2018-19.

Pricing policy for sugarcane

The pricing of sugarcane is governed by the statutory provisions of the Sugarcane (Control) Order, 1966 issued under the Essential Commodities Act (ECA), 1955. Prior to 2009-10 sugar season, the Central Government was fixing the Statutory Minimum Price (SMP) of sugarcane and farmers were entitled to share profits of a sugar mill on 50:50 basis. As this sharing of profits remained virtually unimplemented, the Sugarcane (Control) Order, 1966 was amended in October, 2009 and the concept of SMP was replaced by the Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) of sugarcane. A new clause ‘reasonable margins for growers of sugarcane on account of risk and profits’ was inserted as an additional factor for working out FRP and this was made effective from the 2009-10 sugar season. Accordingly, the CACP is required to pay due regard to the statutory factors listed in the Control Order, which are

·       the cost of production of sugarcane;

·       the return to the grower from alternative crops and the general trend of prices of agricultural commodities;

·       the availability of sugar to the consumers at a fair price;

·       the price of sugar;

·       the recovery rate of sugar from sugarcane;

·       the realization made from sale of by-products viz. molasses, bagasse and press mud or their imputed value (inserted in December, 2008) and;

·       reasonable margins for growers of sugarcane on account of risk and profits (inserted in October, 2009).

States also announce a price called the State Advisory Price (SAP), which is usually higher than the SMP.

Crops covered

Government announces minimum support prices (MSPs) for 22 mandated crops and fair and remunerative price (FRP) for sugarcane. The mandated crops are 14 crops of the kharif season, 6 rabi crops and two other commercial crops. In addition, the MSPs of toria and de-husked coconut are fixed on the basis of the MSPs of rapeseed/mustard and copra, respectively. The list of crops are as follows.

·       Cereals (7) - paddy, wheat, barley, jowar, bajra, maize and ragi

·       Pulses (5) - gram, arhar/tur, moong, urad and lentil

·       Oilseeds (8) - groundnut, rapeseed/mustard, toria, soyabean, sunflower seed, sesamum, safflower seed and nigerseed

·       Raw cotton

·       Raw jute

·       Copra

·       De-husked coconut

·       Sugarcane (Fair and remunerative price)

·       Virginia flu cured (VFC) tobacco

·       Minimum Support Prices (MSPs) for Rabi Marketing Season (RMS) 2020-21







Cost* of production RMS 2020-21


MSP for RMS 2019-20


MSP   for RMS 2020-21


Absolute increase in MSP



over cost ( in per­cent)




























































Rapeseed & Mustard



























MSP for all Kharif crops for marketing season 2020-21:


Sl. No


Projected Cost* KMS 2020-21

MSP for Kharif 2020-21

Increase in MSP (Absolute)


Return over Cost (in %)


Paddy (Common)







Paddy (Grade A)^







Jowar (Hybrid)







Jowar (Maldandi)^




























Tur (Arhar)




























Sunflower Seed







Soybean (yellow)





















Cotton (Medium Staple)







Cotton (Long Staple)^







^Cost data are not separately compiled for Paddy (Grade A), Jowar (Maldandi) and Cotton (Long staple)


The increase in MSP for Kharif Crops for marketing season 2020-21 is in line with the Union Budget 2018-19 announcement of fixing the MSPs at a level of at least 1.5 times of the All-India weighted average Cost of Production (CoP), aiming at reasonably fair remuneration for the fanners. The expected returns to farmers over their cost of production are estimated to be highest in case of Bajra (83%) followed by urad (64%), tur (58%) and maize (53%). For rest of the crops, return to farmers over their cost of production is estimated to be at least 50%.

Government’s strategy is one of promoting sustainable agriculture with diversified cropping pattern matching with the country's agro-climatic conditions, towards higher productivity without jeopardizing nation's bio-diversity. Support is in the form of MSP as well as procurement. Besides, with the intention of giving enough policy thrust to income security of the farmers. Government's production-centric approach has been replaced by income-centric approach.

Concerted efforts were made over the last few years to realign the MSPs in favour of oilseeds, pulses and coarse cereals to encourage farmers shift to larger area under these crops and adopt best technologies and farm practices, to correct demand - supply imbalance. The added focus on nutri-rich nutri-cereals is to incentivize its production in the areas where rice-wheat cannot be grown without long term adverse implications for groundwater table.

In continuation with the above-mentioned measures, Government is taking holistic approach towards supporting the farmers and facilitate farming related activities in the lockdown situation due to Covid 19. Efforts are being made to facilitate marketing of agricultural produce by the farmers. Advisories have been issued by the Union Government to State Governments / UT to facilitate Direct Marketing, enabling direct purchase from the fanners / FPOs / Cooperatives etc. by Bulk Buyers /Big Retailers / Processors by limiting regulation under State APMC Act.


Besides, the Umbrella Scheme "Pradhan MantriAnnadataAaySanraksHanAbhiyan” (PM-AASHA) announced by the government in 2018 will aid in providing remunerative return to farmers for their produce. The Umbrella Scheme consists of three sub-schemes i.e. Price Support Scheme (PSS), Price Deficiency Payment Scheme (PDPS) and Private Procurement & Stockist Scheme (PPSS) on a pilot basis.

In addition, under the Pradhan MantriKisanSammanNidhi (PM-KISAN) Scheme during the lockdown period from 24.3.2020 till date, about 8.89 crore farmer families have been benefitted and an amount of Rs. 17,793 crore has been released so far.

In order to provide food security during the prevailing situation due to COVID-19 pandemic, the Government has decided to distribute pulses to the eligible households under Pradhan MantriGaribKalyanYojana (PM-GKY). About 1,07,077.85 MT pulses have so far been issue/d to the States/U




·       * Refers to comprehensive cost which includes all paid out costs such as those incurred on account of hired

Meaning of Agricultural Economics:

Agricultural Economics, as its title implies is that branch of economics which deals with all aspects of problems related to agriculture. According to Snodgrass and Wallace, “Agricultural economics is an applied phase of the social science of economics in which attention is given to all aspects of problems related to agriculture.”

The agricultural economics examines how a farmer chooses various enterprises e.g., production of crops or rising of cattle and how he chooses various activities in the same enterprise. E.g., which crop to grow and which crop to drop; how the costs are to be minimized; what combination of inputs for an activity are to be selected; but amount of each crop is to be produced but type of commercial relation the farmer have to have with people from whom they purchase their input or to whom they sail their product

Agricultural marketing can be defined as the performance of all business activities included in the flow of products from the beginning of agricultural production until they are in the hands of consumers—“from the farm to the fork.”

Agriculture Marketing System

Understanding agriculture marketing systemKey players involved in agriculture marketing system Interest of these key players?

How to reconcile the conflicting interests? “Perform stakeholder analysis”

Production sub-system:         - farmers Distribution sub-system: -traders, wholesalers, retailers, transporters, processors (middlemen) Consumption sub-system:     - consumers Regulatory sub-system: - Govt. organizations

It is an approach for understanding a system by identifying the key actors or stakeholders in the system, and assessing their respective interests in, or influence on, that system.

Stakeholder analysis is useful for assisting in decision-making situations where various stakeholders have competing interests and stakeholder needs must be appropriately balanced Stakeholder analysis may be used at a variety of levels and purposes:

Institution or business - to examine the health of an organization and plan changes Project or program – to design, steer and monitor a project

Particular decision – to predict the consequences of a decision, and plan to deal w Stakeholders are those who have rights or interests in a system.

Stakeholders are any group or individual who can affect, or is affected by the achievement of the organisation’s purpose.

It includes interested parties as well as affected parties.

Stakeholders can be individuals, communities, social groups, or organisations.

For example, stakeholders in agriculture marketing policy might include farmers, traders, agri-business firms, processors, support service providers, consumers, and Government agencies Develop purpose of analysis and initial understanding of the system in them

Identify key stakeholders

Investigate stakeholders’ interests, characteristics and circumstances

Identify patterns and contexts of interaction between stakeholders

Assess stakeholders’ power and potential roles

Assess options and use the findings to make progress

Location - rural/urban dwellers

Ownership - landowners/landless, managers, staff, trade unions

Function - producers/consumers, traders/suppliers/competitors, regulators, policy makers, activists, opinion-formers

Scale – small-scale/large-scale, local/international communities

Time - past, present, future generations

Four R in Stakeholder Analysis Role of each stakeholder in the system

Rights, Responsibility, Revenue (Benefit) and Relationship

Different degrees of power to control decisions

Different degrees of ‘potential’ to contribute, or ‘importance’, to achieving a particular objective in the system

Stakeholder power can be understood as the extent to which stakeholders are able to persuade or coerce others into making decisions, and following certain courses of action.

Power may derive from the nature of a stakeholder's organization, or their

Recent Initiatives

Direct purchase from farmers by trading or processing companies (avoiding mandis)

Market Information system

Backward integration of firms

Promoting Farmers Interest Groups

Conducive policy environment by govt.

Partnership between input, output and credit delivery systems

Agriculture exports

position in relation to other stakeholders.


Now Farmers’ Produce will also be sold on internet

1. What is the National Agriculture Market (NAM) ?

NAM is envisaged as a pan-India electronic trading portal which seeks to network the existing APMC and other market yards to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities. NAM is a “virtual” market but it has a physical market (mandi) at the back end.

2. What is the difference between NAM and the existing mandi system?

NAM is not a parallel marketing structure but rather a device to create a national network of physical mandis which can be accessed online. It seeks to leverage the physical infrastructure of the mandis through an online trading portal, enabling buyers situated even outside the State to participate in trading at the local level.

3. Why is NAM necessary?

It is necessary to create NAM to facilitate the emergence of a common national market for agricultural commodities. Current APMC regulated market yards limit the scope of trading in agricultural commodities at the first point of sale (i.e. when farmers offer produce after the harvest) in the local mandi, typically at the level of Taluka / Tahsil or at best the district. Even one State is not a unified agricultural market and there are transaction costs on moving produce from one market area to another within the same State. Multiple licences are necessary to trade in different market areas in the same State. All this has led to a highly fragmented and high-cost agricultural economy, which prevents economies of scale and seamless movement of agri goods across district and State borders. NAM seeks to address and reverse this process of fragmentation of markets, ultimately lowering intermediation costs, wastage and prices for the final consumer. It builds on the strength of the local mandi and allows it to offer its produce at the national level.

4. How will NAM operate?

The NAM electronic trading platform has been created with an investment by the Government of India (through the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare). It offers a “plug-in” to any market yard existing in a State (whether regulated or private). The special software developed for NAM is available to each mandi which agrees to join the national network free of cost with necessary customization to conform to the regulations of each State Mandi Act.

5. Are there any conditions for joining NAM?

States interested to integrate their mandis with NAM are required to carry out following reforms in their APMC Act.

a) Specific provision for electronic trading .

b) Single trading licenses valid for trading in all mandis of the State.

c) Single point levy of transaction fee.

6. Will the APMC mandis lose out business due to NAM?

No. NAM basically increases the choice of the farmer when he brings his produce to the mandi for sale. Local traders can bid for the produce, as also traders on the electronic platform sitting in other States. The farmer may chose to accept either the local offer or the online offer. In either case the transaction will be on the books of the local mandi and they will continue to earn the transaction fee. In fact, the volume of business will significantly increase as there will be greater competition for specific produce, resulting in higher transaction fees for the mandi.

7. Who will bear the costs of NAM?

The national level platform has been developed by the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare, which will also bear the maintenance costs. As stated above, the integration costs for local mandis and customization of software, training etc. will also be paid for by the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare as a one-time grant at the time of accepting the mandi in the national network. Thereafter, the running costs of the software at the local level, staff costs for quality check etc. will be met from the transaction fee to be generated through the sale of produce. The intention is to avoid any upfront investment by the mandi when it integrates into NAM, and also enable it to support the running cost through additional generation of revenue.

8. Who will actually operate the NAM platform?

Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare, Govt. of India has appointed Small Farmers’ Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) as the Lead Implementing Agency of NAM. SFAC will operate and maintain the NAM platform with the help of a Strategic partner selected for the purpose.

9. What are the likely benefits of NAM?

NAM is envisaged as a win-win solution for all stakeholders. For the farmers, NAM promises more options for sale at his nearest mandi. For the local trader in the mandi, NAM offers the opportunity to access a larger national market for secondary trading. Bulk buyers, processors, exporters etc. benefit from being able to participate directly in trading at the local mandi level through the NAM platform, thereby reducing their intermediation costs. The gradual integration of all the major mandis in the States into NAM will ensure common procedures for issue of licenses, levy of fee and movement of produce. In the near future we can expect significant benefits through higher returns to farmers, lower transaction costs to buyers and stable prices and availability to consumers. The NAM will also facilitate the emergence of integrated value chains in major agricultural commodities across the country and help to promote scientific storage and movement of agri commodities.


Govt launches e-RaKAM portal for selling agri produce

New Delhi, Aug 1 () The government today launched a portal, e-RaKAM, to provide a platform to sell agricultural produce.

The portal is a joint initiative by state-run-auctioneer MSTC and Central Warehousing Corporation arm CRWC.

Launching the portal with Steel Minister Chaudhary Birender Singh, Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution Minister Ram Vilas Paswan said the effort should be to auction 20 lakh tonnes of pulses in the first phase through the platform.

"I personally feel that we should start with auctioning of pulses as we have them in abundance. Twenty lakh tonnes of pulses were lying idle at warehouse and it still has no buyers. E-RaKAM will help us and farmers hugely," Paswan said.

He said initial hurdles will be there as most of the farmers are illiterate and are in bad condition, Paswan said, as per a joint statement issued by MSTC and CRWC. It added that now various crops whose price increases due to rainfall or bad weather conditions, will be managed and get the market.

He said even transport will face initial hurdles that will be sorted out over time.

Steel Minister Singh said, Our aim is to strengthen the agriculture-oriented Indian economy and farmers, who play a vital role in national development. I congratulate all for the launch of e-RaKAM.

E-RaKAM is a first-of-its-kind initiative that leverages technology to connect farmers of the smallest villages to the biggest markets of the world through internet and e-RaKAM centres.

E-RaKAM is developed by MSTC Limited and supported by marketing & logistics partner CRWC Limited.

E-RaKAM is a digital initiative bringing together the farmers, FPOs, PSUs, civil supplies and buyers on a single platform to ease the selling and buying process of agricultural products.

Under this initiative, e-RaKAM centres are being developed in a phased manner throughout the country to facilitate farmers for online sale of their produce.

The statement said farmers would be paid through e-Payment directly into their bank accounts.

Budget Highlights Related to Agriculture

Sixteen Action Points for Agriculture, Irrigation and Rural Development

1. Rs. 2.83 lakh crore to be allocated for the following 16 Action Points:

Rs. 1.60 lakh crore for Agriculture, Irrigation & allied activities.

Rs. 1.23 lakh crore for Rural development & Panchayati Raj.

2. Agriculture credit:

Rs. 15 lakh crore target set for the year 2020-21.

PM-KISAN beneficiaries to be covered under the KCC scheme.

NABARD Re-finance Scheme to be further expanded.

3. Comprehensive measures for 100 water-stressed districts proposed.

4. Blue Economy:

Rs. 1 lakh crore fisheries’ exports to be achieved by 2024-25.

200 lakh tonnes fish production targeted by 2022-23.

3477 Sagar Mitras and 500 Fish Farmer Producer

Organisations to involve youth in fisheries extension.

Growing of algae, sea-weed and cage culture to be promoted.

Framework for development, management and conservation of marine fishery resources.

5. Kisan Rail to be setup by Indian Railways through PPP:

To build a seamless national cold supply chain for perishables (milk, meat, fish, etc.

Express and Freight trains to have refrigerated coaches.

6. Krishi Udaan to be launched by the Ministry of Civil Aviation:

Both international and national routes to be covered.

North-East and tribal districts to realize Improved value of agri-products.


7. One-Product One-District for better marketing and export in the Horticulture sector.

8. Balanced use of all kinds of fertilizers - traditional organic and innovative fertilizers.

9. Measures for organic, natural, and integrated farming:

Jaivik Kheti Portal – online national organic products market to be strengthened.

Zero-Budget Natural Farming (mentioned in July 2019 Budget) to be included.

Integrated Farming Systems in rain-fed areas to be expanded.

Multi-tier cropping, bee-keeping, solar pumps, solar energy production in non-cropping season to be added.

10. PM-KUSUM to be expanded:

20 lakh farmers to be provided for setting up stand-alone solar pumps.

Another 15 lakh farmers to be helped to solarise their grid-connected pump sets.

Scheme to enable farmers to set up solar power generation capacity on their fallow/barren lands and to sell it to the grid.

11. Village Storage Scheme:

To be run by the SHGs to provide farmers a good holding capacity and reduce their logistics cost.

Women, SHGs to regain their position as Dhaanya Lakshmi.

12. NABARD to map and geo-tag agri-warehouses, cold storages,reefer van facilities, etc.

13. Warehousing in line with Warehouse Development and Regulatory Authority (WDRA) norms:

Viability Gap Funding for setting up such efficient warehouses at the block/taluk level.

Food Corporation of India (FCI) and Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC) to undertake such warehouse building.

14.Financing on Negotiable Warehousing Receipts (e-NWR) to be integrated with e-NAM.


15. State governments who undertake implementation of model laws (issued by the Central government) to be encouraged.

16. Livestock:

Doubling of milk processing capacity to 108 million MT from 53.5 million MT by 2025.

Artificial insemination to be increased to 70% from the present 30%.

MNREGS to be dovetailed to develop fodder farms.

Foot and Mouth Disease, Brucellosis in cattle and Peste Des Petits ruminants (PPR) in sheep and goat to be eliminated by 2025.

17. Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana – 0.5 crore households mobilized with 58 lakh SHGs for poverty alleviation.

ज़ीरो बज़ट नेचुरल फार्मिंग

§  ज़ीरो बजट नेचुरल फार्मिंग मूल रूप से महाराष्ट्र के एक किसान सुभाष पालेकर द्वारा विकसित रसायन मुक्त कृषि