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IBPS CLERKS MAIN -- ENGLISH -- answer and score 20+

Test-III: English Language
   Directions (Q. 101-110): Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
   An increase in the frequency of global event risks and the resultant slowdown in demand has tripped growth in most emerging markets, including Asia. The International Monetary Fund estimates that world GDP growth will slow from 4.8 per cent in 2010-11 to 3.1 per cent this year. China continues to decelerate, while the Brexit vote has clouded growth prospects in the UK and Europe.
   In the midst of these headwinds, domestic cushions are expected to shield India’s growth. The economy expanded 7.6 per cent year-on-year in 2015-16 from 7.3 per cent the year before. Consumption spending (primarily urban demand) and public investment emerged as the main drivers, while private sector interests stayed sluggish amidst a challenging external sector. Exports fell for 16 straight months to March 2016, and offset the benefit from a narrower commodities’ import bill.
   Growth is likely to improve to 7.8 per cent in 2016-17 on the same dynamics. Private consumption is, in fact, likely to play a bigger role in boosting growth this year due to higher wages and rural spending. Public capital spending will be constrained by fiscal targets, while private sector participation remains weak. More importantly, there are two catalysts – an increase in public sector wages/pensions and a strong monsoon – that will provide timely tailwinds to domestic demand. While a return to consumption driven growth is not without risks, we do not expect price pressures to run amok as in the past.
   The Centre approved the Seventh Pay Commission proposals this month and raised public sector wages and pensions by 16 per cent and 23.6 per cent, respectively. An increase in allowances, including those for housing rents, was, however, deferred. As witnessed during the past pay commissions, demand for consumer durables and nondurables is likely to improve. Demand was notably stronger during the Sixth Pay Commission payouts in 2008-09 but this was due to the accompanying fiscal stimulus packages implemented to cushion the economy from the global financial crisis.
   Higher wages/pensions will be a catalyst for private discretionary spending this year, but the boost to spending will be lower than in the case of the Sixth Pay Commission. Incomes are under pressure from a weak manufacturing/industrial sector, sluggish external sector and excess capacity. On the fiscal front, the Budget had already made room for a partial implementation of the pay commission proposals. With indirect tax collections robust to date and increasing its weightage in the overall revenue mix, we do not see the risk of a large fiscal slippage. But state finances might deteriorate slightly, which will keep India’s cumulative (Central and State) fiscal deficit high at more than 6 per cent of GDP this year, above most of its peers with similar debt ratings.
   The southwest monsoon got off to a slow start in June but improved strongly in early July. This momentum needs to continue right through August, since monsoon foodgrain crop accounts for half the annual production. Rural wages are likely to get a welcome boost from strong rainfall. Incomes had suffered in the wake of two successive below-normal rains and modest increase in minimum support prices.
   Farm output fell 1.7 per cent YoY in the last two fiscal years. Minimum support prices for agricultural produce were raised by a slower 4 per cent in the past two years, down from 12 per cent in 2012-13. These factors depressed rural wage increase to 5 per cent last year compared with over 15 per cent three years back.
   Interestingly, the agricultural sector has become more resilient to the weather. The share of horticulture (fruits, vegetables, spices) has increased to over a third of total farm output.
   More importantly, horticulture exceeded foodgrain production for three successive years. In spite of sub-normal rains in ten out of the past fifteen years, horticulture output experienced only one year of decline. Even as real time strength of rain might not be crucial for horticulture and other irrigated areas, timely replenishment of reservoir levels and availability of ground water would depend on this year’s rainfall. These are running below last year’s averages but are making gradual progress.
101. Which of the following is/are the likely impact of the implementation of the Seventh Pay Commission proposals? Answer in the context of the passage.
1) More than 70 per cent of corporate India employees will regret working in private sector because of their lower salary in comparison to public sector employees.
2) The demand for consumer durables and non-durables is likely to enhance.
3) The government will squeeze more money from employees in the form of tax.
4) Only 1) and 2)   5) All 1), 2) and 3)
102. Why are incomes under pressure? Answer in the context of the passage.
A) Because of weak manufacturing/industrial sector   B) Because of dearth of job opportunity
C) Because of sluggish external sector
1) Only (A) and (C)   2) Only (B)   3) Only (B) and (C)   4) All (A), (B) and (C)   5) Only (B)
103. Which of the following correctly depicts the global economic scenario?
A) As per IMF estimates, the World GDP growth is expected to remain 3.1 per cent this year.
B) Indian economy is not going to be affected at all as it is cushioned by domestic consumption.
C) China is still showing negative economic growth and the Brexit vote has overshadowed growth prospects in Europe and the United Kingdom.
1) Only (A) and (B)   2) Only (B) and (C)   3) Only (A) and (C)   4) All (A), (B) and (C)   5) Only (A)
104. Which of the following statements is not true in the context of the given passage?
1) A slowdown in demand has caused a negative growth in most emerging markets.
2) India’s growth is likely to improve to 7.8 per cent in 2016-17.
3) The Centre has approved a rise in pension by 16 per cent.
4) In comparison to the Sixth Pay Commission, the boost to spending in the Seventh Pay Commission will be lower.   5) None of the above
105. What has been the impact of two successive deficient monsoons as mentioned in the passage?
A) The income of rural wagers has reduced.
B) The government has been forced to announce a modest increase in minimum support prices (MSPs)
C) The government is under pressure to launch some schemes to help poor people.
1) Only (A) and (B)   2) Only (B) and (C)   3) Only (A) and (C)   4) All (A), (B) and (C)   5) Only (A)
   Directions (Q. 106-108): Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
106. Clouded
1) cleared   2) helped   3) soared   4) realized   5) blurred
107. Sluggish
a) energetic   2) lively   3) spirited   4) fast   5) dull
108. Tailwinds
1) obstacles   2) support   3) attack   4) loss   5) hit
   Directions (Q. 109-110): Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
109. Slippage
1) decline   2) wane   3) downturn   4) improvement   5) problem
110. Resilient
1) stiff   2) pliant   3) flexible   4) supple   5) volatile
   Directions (Q. 111-115): Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical or idiomatic error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number of that part is the answer. If there is ‘No error’, the answer is 5). (Ignore errors of punctuation, if any.)
111. 1) Canara Bank has been conferred / 2) with the awards for being the Best Bank / 3) under priority sector lender and Best Retail Growth / 4) performance amongst public sector banks. / 5) No error
112. 1) The collegiums, which met last week / 2) to make the recommendation, informed the Law Ministry / 3) that its own inquiry found noting substantially adverse / 4) against the district judge concerned to stop the elevation. / 5) No error
113. 1) When 94-year-old Gangubai was elected unopposed as Sarpanch / 2) of Bhambuwadi village, she seemed bored with the felicitation / 3) and the praises gram Panchayat members / 4) showered over her. / 5) No error.
114. 1) The National Crime Records Bureau’s 2015 data shows a wide range of profiles / 2) making up the cyber criminal, / 3) the most prolific in them / 4) being business rivals, followed by neighbours, friends and relatives. / 5) No error
115. 1) The SC directed all States and Union Territories to upload FIRs / 2) on their websites within 24 hours of registration at police stations / 3) and gave him time till November 15 / 4) to put the mechanism in place. / 5) No error.
   Directions (Q. 116-125): Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
   The trade unions have gone on yet another nationwide strike. Their demand is that the government should roll back its efforts to reform the economy. In their view, economic reform is anti-labour and anti-poor, and should therefore be abandoned.
   This is not the first time we have heard this argument nor is this the first strike to be called to press the issue. And this is not the first government to face the unions’ ire. They have been against every government that spoke of reform. Actually they didn’t have to do very much since no government was serious about reform, not even after 1991, which we now recognize to be the turning point.
      All we have seen from governments for twenty-five years is muted expression of intent, but even this has been too much for the unions. They have happily mistaken feeble noises emanating from the government for sincerity of purpose, and called nation-wide general strikes over and over again.
   The current strike has followed a well-rehearsed routine. Banks were shut down, public enterprises were closed, and Kerala ground to a halt. Not much else has happened, but chest-thumping trade unionists will claim that the country was locked down by angry citizens who want a return to the past.
   Actually, most people cannot understand what is achieved by this disruption. They have seen this happen before and they know it will happen again.
   All they can do is to stoically endure the inconvenience. The less charitable think that the under-worked and overpaid workers of the organized sector are simply arranging a long paid weekend for themselves.
   Even if we discount this as unwarranted cynicism, the fact is that at the ground level all this sound and fury will produce nothing. It produced nothing in the past because reforms were in any case not being pushed by any government. It will produce nothing now because this government is not going to listen to them.
   This is a great pity because we need a trade union movement that will be heard, a movement which raises issues that matter to working people and comes up with an outcome that will alleviate their hardship.
   What we have is a union movement that goes from one ritualistic expression of protest to another and touts this as a great achievement even though there is no palpable outcome. By pursuing this sterile strategy the labour movement has pushed itself into a corner.
   It is no longer in a position to make a dent on policies that matter to working people. The working people have lost their voice in macro policy. Like any other social movement, trade unionism is about winning friends and influencing people. Our unions have achieved the exact opposite.
   To understand why unions have come to this pass we must move from what they say to what they mean. They say reform should be rolled back but what they mean is that nothing should change. Opposition to change is the agenda, that is what trade union struggle has been about for a very long time.
   Let us move back in time and look at some of the issues they have fought bitterly. Throughout the 1980s the bank unions fought tooth and nail against computerization. Banks that had bought the hardware could not even open the crates for fear of union reprisal. As we now know, the battle was lost.
   All they achieved was to slow down the entry of computers, but at great cost to the banking industry and to the economy. In characteristic style the left unions that dominate the banks have glossed over their folly after a quarter century with the remark that small mistakes were made in the past.
   Let us now move to an issue that is currently red hot. Bank unions are once again in the lead and the opposition is to the amalgamation of associate banks with the State Bank of India. Unions have come up with all kinds of reasons to show that the merger is wrong and bad. It is claimed to be anti-poor, against the interests of stake holders, and entirely dysfunctional.
   The truth is that the merger might affect the career prospects of bank staff, especially in associate banks. The opposition is to change. Career prospects do, of course, matter but so do mergers and acquisitions. The wonder is not that the merger has happened but that it has taken so long. The unions have lost the battle yet again.
116. What argument(s) has/have been placed by the bank unions for opposing the merger of associate banks with the SBI?
A) That the merger will affect the career prospects of bank staff, especially of those from associate banks
B) That it is against the interest of stake holders, entirely dysfunctional, and anti-poor
C) That the employees of associate bank will be forcibly transferred
1) Only (A)   2) Only (B)   3) Only (C)   4) Only (A) and (B)   5) All (A), (B) and (C)
117. Why are nation-wide general strikes called over and over again?
1) Because unions have nothing to do but to protest and call strikes
2) Because they often misinterpret government’s real intent
3) Because the members of the union force the union leaders to show their presence before the government.
4) Because strike is the only way out left for the unions to get their demands fulfilled
5) None of the above
118. Why is the author apprehensive about any positive result in favour of unions?
1) Because the past history of unions shows that they have never been serious about their demands
2) Because this government, unlike the previous one, is anti-employee
3) Because this government is not going to listen to them
4) Because the demands of the unions are not based on any logic
5) Other than those given as options
119. Which of the following statements with regard to computerization in banks in 1980s and the role of bank unions is/are correct in the given context?
A) the bank unions vehemently opposed the computerization in banks.
B) They succeeded only in delaying the computerization in the banks.
C) They lost the battle and achieved cipher.
1) Only (A) and (B)   2) Only (B) and (C)   3) Only (A) and (C)   4) All (A), (B) and (C)   5) Only (A)
120. According to the author, what is a union all about?
1) A union is all about winning friends and influencing people.
2) A union is formed to oppose the government decisions.
3) A union is all about putting its demand in favour of its members.
4) A union is to show its presence before the employer.   5) None of the above
121. What is the meaning of the idiom ‘sound and fury’ as used in the passage?
1) Loud and angry words that attract a lot of attention but do nothing useful
2) Gathering of people with no objective
3) An effort to intimidate the boss by making horrible sounds and fearful facial expressions
4) Hurling bombs and firing bullets to create a sense of fear among people
5) Other than those given as options
   Directions (Q. 122-123): Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
122. Stoically
1) intensely   2) excitedly   3) dearly   4) lustfully   5) without emotion
123. Discount
1) trust   2) brush aside   3) create   4) praise    5) respect
   Directions (Q. 124-125): Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
124. Reprisal
1) requital   2) vengeance   3) sympathy   4) average   5) retribution
125. Touts
1) conceals   2) acclaims   3) boosts   4) promotes   5) praises
   Directions (Q. 126-130): Rearrange the following six sentences (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) and (F) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and the answer the questions given below.
A) Donald Trump, Nigel Farage and Norbert Hofer each touted a “country first” approach to remarkable success in political campaigns.
B) When Brexit happened, elites around the world bemoaned a sense of nationalism which seemed to grip the world’s richest countries.
C) But a look under the hood reveals that nationalism is simply a basic human reaction to the threat of competition.
D) Rapid advances in technology are automating jobs, many of them rather mundane, making entire categories of occupation go the way of the typewriter.
E) Except that this time the threat is not from low cost labour in India’s service industries or Asia’s factories.
F) They feared that globalism was losing its appeal to inward-looking leaders.
126. Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after rearrangement?
1) A   2) E   3) F   4) B   5) C
127. Which of the following should be the SECOND sentence after rearrangement?
1) E   2) F   3) D   4) C   5) A
128. Which of the following should be the THIRD sentence after rearrangement?
1) F   2) C   3) B   4) D   5) A
129. Which of the following should be the FOURTH sentence after rearrangement?
1) C   2) D   3) E   4) F   5) B
130. Which of the following should be the LAST (SIXTH) sentence after rearrangement?
1) F   2) B   3) D   4) A   5) E
   Directions (Q. 131-140): In the following passage, there are blanks each of which has been numbered. For each blank five words have been suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.
   There is no denying that the National Democratic Alliance government has speeded up implementation of projects, acted on prices and on the whole taken (131) the reforms process set in motion by the preceding governments. More notably, Modi has not only (132) some of the previous government’s schemes such as Aadhaar and the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, as well as direct transfer of benefits and subsidies, but (133) his wonted powers of (134) to bear on them, ensuring that what had, with the (135) of MNREGS, (136) remained merely good ideas were (137) into actions that benefit the poor. Incidentally, some of these projects had been criticized by Modi in the (138) – up to the May 2014 general elections. The fact that not only were these schemes not scrapped, but (139) with vigour, signals a growing maturity in our polity. Reforms are a continuous process, which need some course (140) every few years, particularly with changes in economic environment social circumstances.
131. 1) aback   2) to   3) forward   4) past   5) onward
132. 1) embraced   2) released   3) let go   4) seized   5) locked
133. 1) carried   2) imported   3) transferred   4) dropped   5) brought
134. 1) exemption   2) execution   3) classification   4) injecting   5) competition
135. 1) omission   2) expulsion   3) nomination   4) exception   5) allowance
136. 1) hardly   2) merely   3) liberally   4) largely   5) barley
137. 1) altered   2) transformed   3) transferred   4) preserved   5) stagnated
138. 1) run   2) turn   3) make   4) sum   5) break
139. 1) retreated   2) ran   3) searched   4) persisted   5) pursued

140. 1) mistakes   2) formulation   3) correction   4) completion   5) design

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