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A few questions are given here.  I am sure u will be able to answer them very correctly based on what you have studied from text books.    The list of questions is not exhaustive.  You may prepare many more questions with the help of your study group/friends.
C- Questions
  1. What does static variable mean?
  2. What is a pointer?
  3. What is a structure?
  4. What are the differences between structures and arrays?
  5. In header files whether functions are declared or defined? 
  6. What are the differences between malloc() and calloc()?
  7. What are macros? what are its advantages and disadvantages?
  8. Difference between pass by reference and pass by value?
  9. What is static identifier?
  10. Where are the auto variables stored?
  11. Where does global, static, local, register variables, free memory and C Program instructions get stored?
  12. Difference between arrays and linked list?
  13. What are enumerations?
  14. Describe about storage allocation and scope of global, extern, static, local and register variables?
  15. What are register variables? What are the advantage of using register variables?
  16. What is the use of typedef?
  17. Can we specify variable field width in a scanf() format string? If possible how?
  18. Out of fgets() and gets() which function is safe to use and why?
  19. Difference between strdup and strcpy?
  20. What is recursion?
  21. Differentiate between a for loop and a while loop? What are it uses?
  22. What are the different storage classes in C?
  23. Write down the equivalent pointer expression for referring the same element a[i][j][k][l]?
  24. What is difference between Structure and Unions?
  25. What the advantages of using Unions?
  26. What are the advantages of using pointers in a program?
  27. What is the difference between Strings and Arrays?
  28. In a header file whether functions are declared or defined?
  29. What is a far pointer? where we use it?
  30. How will you declare an array of three function pointers where each function receives two ints and returns a float?
  31. what is a NULL Pointer? Whether it is same as an uninitialized pointer?
  32. What is a NULL Macro? What is the difference between a NULL Pointer and a NULL Macro?
  33. What does the error 'Null Pointer Assignment' mean and what causes this error?
  34. What is near, far and huge pointers? How many bytes are occupied by them?
  35. How would you obtain segment and offset addresses from a far address of a memory location?
  36. Are the expressions arr and &arr same for an array of integers?
  37. Does mentioning the array name gives the base address in all the contexts?
  38. Explain one method to process an entire string as one unit?
  39. What is the similarity between a Structure, Union and enumeration?
  40. Can a Structure contain a Pointer to itself?
  41. How can we check whether the contents of two structure variables are same or not?
  42. How are Structure passing and returning implemented by the complier?
  43. How can we read/write Structures from/to data files?
  44. What is the difference between an enumeration and a set of pre-processor # defines?
  45. what do the 'c' and 'v' in argc and argv stand for?
  46. Are the variables argc and argv are local to main?
  47. What is the maximum combined length of command line arguments including the space between adjacent arguments?
  48. If we want that any wildcard characters in the command line arguments should be appropriately expanded, are we required to make any special provision? If yes, which?
  49. Does there exist any way to make the command line arguments available to other functions without passing them as arguments to the function?
  50. What are bit fields? What is the use of bit fields in a Structure declaration?
  51. To which numbering system can the binary number 1101100100111100 be easily converted to?
  52. Which bit wise operator is suitable for checking whether a particular bit is on or off?
  53. Which bit wise operator is suitable for turning off a particular bit in a number?
  54. Which bit wise operator is suitable for putting on a particular bit in a number?
  55. Which bit wise operator is suitable for checking whether a particular bit is on or off?
  56. which one is equivalent to multiplying by 2:Left shifting a number by 1 or Left shifting an unsigned int or char by 1?
  57. Write a program to compare two strings without using the strcmp() function.
  58. Write a program to concatenate two strings.
  59. Write a program to interchange 2 variables without using the third one.
  60. Write programs for String Reversal & Palindrome check
  61. Write a program to find the Factorial of a number
  62. Write a program to generate the Fibinocci Series
  63. Write a program which employs Recursion
  64. Write a program which uses Command Line Arguments
  65. Write a program which uses functions like strcmp(), strcpy()? etc
  66. What are the advantages of using typedef in a program?
  67. How would you dynamically allocate a one-dimensional and two-dimensional array of integers?
  68. How can you increase the size of a dynamically allocated array?
  69. How can you increase the size of a statically allocated array?
  70. When reallocating memory if any other pointers point into the same piece of memory do you have to readjust these other pointers or do they get readjusted automatically?
  71. Which function should be used to free the memory allocated by calloc()?
  72. How much maximum can you allocate in a single call to malloc()?
  73. Can you dynamically allocate arrays in expanded memory?
  74. What is object file? How can you access object file?
  75. Which header file should you include if you are to develop a function which can accept variable number of arguments?
  76. Can you write a function similar to printf()?
  77. How can a called function determine the number of arguments that have been passed to it?
  78. Can there be at least some solution to determine the number of arguments passed to a variable argument list function?
  79. How do you declare the following:
    • An array of three pointers to chars
    • An array of three char pointers
    • A pointer to array of three chars
    • A pointer to function which receives an int pointer and returns a float pointer
    • A pointer to a function which receives nothing and returns nothing
  80. What do the functions atoi(), itoa() and gcvt() do?
  81. Does there exist any other function which can be used to convert an integer or a float to a string?
  82. How would you use qsort() function to sort an array of structures?
  83. How would you use qsort() function to sort the name stored in an array of pointers to string?
  84. How would you use bsearch() function to search a name stored in array of pointers to string?
  85. How would you use the functions sin(), pow(), sqrt()?
  86. How would you use the functions memcpy(), memset(), memmove()?
  87. How would you use the functions fseek(), freed(), fwrite() and ftell()?
  88. How would you obtain the current time and difference between two times?
  89. How would you use the functions randomize() and random()?
  90. How would you implement a substr() function that extracts a sub string from a given string?
  91. What is the difference between the functions rand(), random(), srand() and randomize()?
  92. What is the difference between the functions memmove() and memcpy()?
  93. How do you print a string on the printer?
  94. Can you use the function fprintf() to display the output on the screen?

C++- Questions                                       
  1. What is a class?
  2. What is an object?
  3. What is the difference between an object and a class?
  4. What is the difference between class and structure?
  5. What is public, protected, private?
  6. What are virtual functions?
  7. What is friend function?
  8. What is a scope resolution operator?
  9. What do you mean by inheritance?
  10. What is abstraction?
  11. What is polymorphism? Explain with an example.
  12. What is encapsulation?
  13. What do you mean by binding of data and functions?
  14. What is function overloading and operator overloading?
  15. What is virtual class and friend class?
  16. What do you mean by inline function?
  17. What do you mean by public, private, protected and friendly?
  18. When is an object created and what is its lifetime?
  19. What do you mean by multiple inheritance and multilevel inheritance? Differentiate between them.
  20. Difference between realloc() and free?
  21. What is a template?
  22. What are the main differences between procedure oriented languages and object oriented languages?
  23. What is R T T I ?
  24. What are generic functions and generic classes?
  25. What is namespace?
  26. What is the difference between pass by reference and pass by value?
  27. Why do we use virtual functions?
  28. What do you mean by pure virtual functions?
  29. What are virtual classes?
  30. Does c++ support multilevel and multiple inheritance?
  31. What are the advantages of inheritance?
  32. When is a memory allocated to a class?
  33. What is the difference between declaration and definition?
  34. What is virtual constructors/destructors?
  35. In c++ there is only virtual destructors, no constructors. Why?
  36. What is late bound function call and early bound function call? Differentiate.
  37. How is exception handling carried out in c++?
  38. When will a constructor executed?
  39. What is Dynamic Polymorphism?
  40. Write a macro for swapping integers.


  1. What is a data structure?
  2. What does abstract data type means?
  3. Evaluate the following prefix expression  " ++ 26 + - 1324" (Similar types can be asked)
  4. Convert the following infix expression to post fix notation  ((a+2)*(b+4)) -1  (Similar types can be asked)
  5. How is it possible to insert different type of elements in stack?
  6. Stack can be described as a pointer. Explain.
  7. Write a Binary Search program
  8. Write programs for Bubble Sort, Quick sort
  9. Explain about the types of linked lists
  10. How would you sort a linked list?
  11. Write the programs for Linked List (Insertion and Deletion) operations
  12. What data structure would you mostly likely see in a non recursive implementation of a recursive algorithm?
  13. What do you mean by Base case, Recursive case, Binding Time, Run-Time Stack and Tail Recursion?
  14. Explain quick sort and merge sort algorithms and derive the time-constraint relation for these.
  15. Explain binary searching, Fibinocci search.
  16. What is the maximum total number of nodes in a tree that has N levels? Note that the root is level (zero)
  17. How many different binary trees and binary search trees can be made from three nodes that contain the key values 1, 2 & 3?
  18. A list is ordered from smaller to largest when a sort is called. Which sort would take the longest time to execute?
  19. A list is ordered from smaller to largest when a sort is called. Which sort would take the shortest time to execute?
  20. When will you  sort an array of pointers to list elements, rather than sorting the elements themselves?
  21. The element being searched for is not found in an array of 100 elements. What is the average number of comparisons needed in a sequential search to determine that the element is not there, if the elements are completely unordered?
  22. What is the average number of comparisons needed in a sequential search to determine the position of an element in an array of 100 elements, if the elements are ordered from largest to smallest?
  23. Which sort show the best average behavior?
  24. What is the average number of comparisons in a sequential search?
  25. Which data structure is needed to convert infix notations to post fix notations?
  26. What do you mean by:
    • Syntax Error
    • Logical Error
    • Runtime Error
How can you correct these errors?
  1. In which data structure, elements can be added or removed at either end, but not in the middle?
  2. How will inorder, preorder and postorder traversals print the elements of a tree?
  3. Parenthesis are never needed in prefix or postfix expressions. Why?
  4. Which one is faster? A binary search of an orderd set of elements in an array or a sequential search of the elements.

1.      What is the difference between an Abstract class and Interface?
2.     What is user defined exception?
3.      What do you know about the garbage collector?
4.     What is the difference between java and c++?
5.      In an htm form I have a button which makes us to open another page in 15 seconds. How will you do that?
6.     What is the difference between process and threads?
7.      What is update method called?
8.     Have you ever used HashTable and Directory?
9.     What are statements in Java?
10.   What is a JAR file?
11.    What is JNI?
12.   What is the base class for all swing components?
13.   What is JFC?
14.   What is the difference between AWT and Swing?
15.   Considering notepad/IE or any other thing as process, What will happen if you start notepad or IE 3 times ? Where three processes are started or three threads are started?
16.   How does thread synchronization occur in a monitor?
17.   Is there any tag in htm to upload and download files?
18.   Why do you canvas?
19.   How can you know about drivers and database information ?
20.  What is serialization?
21.   Can you load the server object dynamically? If so what are the 3 major steps involved in it?
22.  What is the layout for toolbar?
23.  What is the difference between Grid and Gridbaglayout?
24.  How will you add panel to a frame?
25.  Where are the card layouts used?
26.  What is the corresponding layout for card in swing?
27.  What is light weight component?
28.  Can you run the product development on all operating systems?
29.  What are the benefits if Swing over AWT?
30.  How can two threads be made to communicate with each other?
31.   What are the files generated after using IDL to java compiler?
32.  What is the protocol used by server and client?
33.   What is the functionability stubs and skeletons?
34.  What is the mapping mechanism used by java to identify IDL language?
35.   What is serializable interface?
36.  What is the use of interface?
37.   Why is java not fully objective oriented?
38.  Why does java not support multiple inheritance?
39.  What is the root class for all java classes?
40.  What is polymorphism?
41.   Suppose if we have a variable 'I' in run method, if I can create one or more thread each thread will occupy a separate copy or same variable will be shared?
42.  What are virtual functions?
43.  Write down how will you create a Binary tree?
44.  What are the traverses in binary tree?
45.  Write a program for recursive traverse?
46.  What are session variable in servlets?
47.  What is client server computing?
48.  What is constructor and virtual function? Can we call a virtual function in a constructor?
49.  Why do we use oops concepts? What is its advantage?
50.  What is middleware? What is the functionality of web server?
51.   Why is java not 100% pure oops?
52.  When will you use an interface and abstract class?
53.   What is the exact difference in between Unicast and Multicast object? Where will it be used?
54.  What is the main functionality of the remote reference layer?
55.   How do you download stubs from Remote place?
56.  I want to store more than 10 objects in a remote server? Which methodology will follow?
57.   What is the main functionality of Prepared Statement?
58.  What is meant by Static query and Dynamic query?
59.  What are Normalization Rules? Define Normalization?
60.  What is meant by Servelet? What are the parameters of service method?
61.   What is meant by Session? Explain something about HTTP Session Class?
62.  In a container there are 5 components. I want to display all the component names, how will you do that?
63.  Why there are some null interface in JAVA? What does it mean? Give some null interface in JAVA?
64.  Tell some latest versions in JAVA related areas?
65.  What is meant by class loader? How many types are there? When will we use them?
66.  What is meant by flickering?
67.  What is meant by distributed application? Why are we using that in our application?
68.  What is the functionality of the stub?
69.  Explain about version control?
70.  Explain 2-tier and 3-tier architecture?
71.   What is the role of Web Server?
72.  How can we do validation of the fields in a project?
73.   What is meant by cookies? Explain the main features?
74.  Why java is considered as platform independent?
75.   What are the advantages of java over C++?
76.  How java can be connected to a database?
77.   What is thread?
78.  What is difference between Process and Thread?
79.  Does java support multiple inheritance? if not, what is the solution?
80.  What are abstract classes?
81.   What is an interface?
82.  What is the difference abstract class and interface?
83.  What are adapter classes?
84.  what is meant wrapper classes?
85.  What are JVM.JRE, J2EE, JNI?
86.  What are swing components?
87.  What do you mean by light weight and heavy weight components?
88.  What is meant by function overloading and function overriding?
89.  Does java support function overloading, pointers, structures, unions or linked lists?
90.  What do you mean by multithreading?
91.   What are byte codes?
92.  What are streams?
93.  What is user defined exception?
94.  In an htm page form I have one button which makes us to open a new page in 15 seconds. How will you do that?     
95.  In what way thread is useful?
96.  What are oops concepts?

  1. What is RMI?
  2. Explain about RMI Architecture?
  3. What are Servelets?
  4. What is the use of servlets?
  5. Explain RMI Architecture?
  6. How will you pass values from htm page to the servlet?
  7. How do you load an image in a Servelet?
  8. What is purpose of applet programming?
  9. How will you communicate between two applets?
  10. What IS the difference between Servelets and Applets?
  11. How do you communicate in between Applets and Servlets?
  12. What is the difference between applet and application?
  13. What is the difference between CGI and Servlet?
  14. In the servlets, we are having a web page that is invoking servlets ,username and password? which is checks in database? Suppose the second page also if we want to verify the same information whether it will connect to the database or it will be used previous information?
  15. What are the difference between RMI and Servelets?
  16. How will you call an Applet using Java Script Function?
  17. How can you push data from an Applet to a Servlet?
  18. What are 4 drivers available in JDBC? At what situation are four of the drivers used?
  19. If you are truncated using JDBC , how can you that how much data is truncated?
  20. How will you perform truncation using JDBC?
  21. What is the latest version of JDBC? What are the new features added in that?
  22. What is the difference between RMI registry and OS Agent?
  23. To a server method, the client wants to send a value 20, with this value exceeds to 20 a message should be sent to the client . What will you do for achieving this?
  24. How do you invoke a Servelet? What is the difference between doPost method and doGet method?
  25. What is difference between the HTTP Servelet and Generic Servelet? Explain about their methods and parameters?
  26. Can we use threads in Servelets?
  27. Write a program on RMI and JDBC using Stored Procedure?
  28. How do you swing an applet?
  29. How will you pass parameters in RMI? Why do you serialize?
  30. In RMI ,server object is first loaded into memory and then the stub reference is sent to the client. true or false?
  31. Suppose server object not loaded into the memory and the client request for it. What will happen?
  32. What is the web server used for running the servelets?
  33. What is Servlet API used for connecting database?
  34. What is bean? Where can it be used?
  35. What is the difference between java class and bean?
  36. Can we sent objects using Sockets?
  37. What is the RMI and Socket?
  38. What is CORBA?
  39. Can you modify an object in corba?
  40. What is RMI and what are the services in RMI?
  41. What are the difference between RMI and CORBA?
  42. How will you initialize an Applet?
  43. What is the order of method invocation in an Applet?
  44. What is ODBC and JDBC? How do you connect the Database?
  45. What do you mean by Socket Programming?
  46. What is difference between Generic Servlet and HTTP Servelet?
  47. What you mean by COM and DCOM?
  48. What is e-commerce?
  49. What is the advantage of servlets?
  50. What are the advantages/disadvantages of e-commerce?

Please go through the following to have a broad view  of the questions that may be asked.  You are advised to go through your text books to revise the subject – computer languages like C. C++, Java, etc.   Also revise your ideas regarding software programming/applications.   Keep in touch with the developments in your industry by going through the newspapers.  You must be ready to answers questions relating to the Projects you have done.  Revise the contents of your projects. 
ASCII: American (National) Standard Code for Information Interchange a standard character-to-number encoding widely used in the computer industry.
Binary: A numbering system with only two values: 0 (zero) and 1 (one)
BIOS: Basic Input-Output System. Part of the computer’s operating system that is built into the machine, rather than read from a dish drive at startup.
Bit: A unit of measurement that represents one figure or character of data. A bit is the smallest unit of storage in a computer. Since computers actually read 0s and 1s, each is measured as a bit. The letter A consists of 8 bits which amounts to one byte. Bits are often used to measure the capability of a microprocessor to process data, such as 16-bit or 32 bit.
Blog: A blog is basically a journal that is available on the wed. The activity of updating a blog is “blogging” and someone who keeps a blog is a “blogger”. Blogs are typically updated daily using software that allows people with little or no technical background to update and maintain the blog. Postings on a blog are almost always arranged in chronological order with the most recent editions featured most prominently. Blogosphere or Blogsphere – the current state of all information available on blogs and/or the sub-culture of those who create and use blogs.
Booting: Starting up a computer via the power switch, which loads the system software into memory. Restarting the computer via keystroke combination is called rebooting or a warm boot.
Broadband System: A broadband system is capable of transmitting many different signals at the same time without interfering with one another. For local area networks, a broadband system is one that handles multiple channels of local area network signals distributed over Cable Television (CATV) hardware.
Bowser: a program that enables you to access information on the Internet through the World Wide Web.
Bps: Bits per Second is the unit used for measuring line speed, the number of information units transmitted per second.
Bug: A mistake, or unexpected occurrence, in a piece of software or in a piece of hardware.
Byte: The amount of memory needed to store one character such as a letter or a number equals to 8 bits of digital information. It’s the standard measurement unit of a file size.
Cache: An area of RAM reserved for data recently read from disk, which allows the processor to quickly retrieve it if it’s needed again.
Caching: A process in which frequently accessed data is kept on hand, rather than constantly being from the place where it is stored.
CD-ROM: Compact Disk, Read Only Memory. A type of storage device that looks just like an audio CD and stores as much data as a large hard disk (600MB), making it a popular means of distributing fonts, photos, electronic encyclopedias, games, and multimedia offerings. As the name indicates, however, you can’t save of change files on a CD-ROM, only read them.
Clipboard: An area used to temporarily store cut or copied information. The clipboard can store text, graphics, objects, and other data. The clipboard contents are erased when new information is placed on the clipboard or when the computer is shut down.
Configuration: 1. the components that make up a computer system (which model and what peripherals). 2. The physical arrangement of those components (what’s placed and where). 3. The software settings that enable two computer components to talk to each other (as in configuring communications software to work with a modem).
Cookies: A file sent to a web browser by a web serer that is used to record one’s activities. The common meaning of “Cookie” on the internet refers to a piece of information sent by a Web Server.
CPU: Central Processing Unit: the brains of the computer. The CPU interprets and executes the actual computing tasks.
Crash: A problem (often caused by a bug) that causes a program, or the entire operating system, to unexpectedly stop working.
Cursor: The representation of the mouse on the screen. It may take many different shapes, e.g. arrow pointer and hand.
Cyberspace: A term used to refer the electronic universe of information available through the internet.
CDMA: (Code Division Multiple Access) – A protocol for wireless data and voice communication, CDMA is widely used in cell phone networks, but also in man\y other data communications systems. CDMA uses a technique called “Spread Spectrum” whereby the data being transmitted is spread across multiple radio frequencies, making more efficient use of available radio spectrum. There are a number of additional protocols built on top of CDMA, such as 1xRTT (also called CMDA2000).
CGI: (Common Gateway Interface): A set of rules that describe how a Web Server communicates with another piece of software on the same machine, and how the other piece of software talks to the Web Server. Any piece of software can be a CGI program if it handles input and output according to the CGI standard.
Database: A file crated by a database manager that contains a collection of information organized into records, each of which contains labeled categories (called fields).
Dial-up Line: A communication connection from your computer to a host computer over standard phone lines. Unlike a dedicated line, you must dial the host computer in order to establish a connection. Dial-up line is popular form of net connection for the home user.
DNS: Domain Name system: A general purpose distributed, replicated, data query service. Its principal use is the lookup o host IP addresses based on host names. The host names are also known as domain names. Some important domains are: .com (commercial), .edu (educational), .net (network operations), .gov (U.S. government), and .mil (U.S. Military). Most countries also have a domain. For example, .us (United States), .uk (United Kingdom), .au(Australia) .in (India)
DHTML: (Dynamic Hyper Text Markup Language) – DHTML refers to web pages that use a combination of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS to create features such as letting the used drag around on the web page, some simple kinds of animation, and many more.
DSL: (Digital Subscriber Line) a method for moving data over regular phone lines. A DSL circuit is much faster than a regular phone connection, and the wires coming into the subscriber’s premises are the same (copper) wires used for regular phone service. DSL is now a popular alternative to leased Lines and ISDN, being faster than ISDN and less costly than traditional Leased lines.
E-mail: (Electronic Mail) Messages, usually text, sent from one person to another via computer. E-mail can also be sent automatically to a large number of addresses.
Ethernet: A very common method of networking computers n a LAN. There is more than one type of Ethernet. By 2001 the standard type was “100-BaseT” which can handle up to about 100,000,000 bits per second and can be used with almost any kind of computer.
Encryption: A way of coding information in a file or e-mail message so that if it is intercepted by a third party as it travels over a network it cannot be read.
FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions: A document that covers a topic of general concern to many users. FAQ’s are a good way for new users to get information on various aspects of the internet.
Fire Wall: A combination of hardware and software that separates a Network into two or more parts for security purposes
FTP: File Transfer Protocol: The internet standard high-level protocol for transferring files from one computer to another across the network.
GIF: (Graphic Interchange Format): A common format for image files, especially suitable for images containing large areas of the same color. GIF format files of simple images are often smaller than the same file would be if stored in JPEG format, but GIF format does not store photographic images as well as JPEG.
GB: Gigabyte – a unit of data storage size which represents 10^9 (one billion) characters of information. Gigabit 10^9 bits of information (usually used to express a data transfer rate; as in 1 Gigabit/second = 1 Gbps).
Gigabyte: 1,024 megabytes, or 1,048,576 kilobytes of digital data.
Graphical User Interface (GUI): The graphical visual representation of the working environment that presents the elements of your computer as objects on a desktop.
Hacker: Slang term for a technically sophisticated computer user who enjoys exploring computer systems and programs, sometimes to the point of obsession.
Home Page; The document that is displayed when your first open a web client program. Also commonly used to refer to the first document you come to in a collection of documents on a web site.
HTML: HyperText Markup Language – A system for tagging various parts of a web document that tells the web client programs how to display the document’s text, links graphics and attached media.
HTTP: (HyperText Transfer Protocol) – The protocol for moving hypertext files across the internet requires a HTTP client program on one end, and an HTTP server program on the other end. HTTP is the most important protocol used in the World Wide Web (WWW)
Intranet: A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on the public internet, but that is only for internal use. Compare with extranet.
IMAP: (Internet Message Access Protocol) – IMAP is gradually replacing POP as the main protocol used by email clients in communicating with email servers.
ISDN: (Integrated Service Digital Network) – Basically a way to move more data over existing regular phone lines. ISDN is available across USA and in most markets it is priced very comparably to standard analog phone circuits. It can provide speeds of roughly 128,000 bits per second over regular phone lines. In practice most people will be limited to 56,000 or 64,000 bits per second. Unlike DSL, ISDN can be used to connect to many different locations, one at a time, just like a regular telephone call, as long the other location also has ISDN.
IBM: International Business Machines Corporation.
Icon: A graphical symbol usually representing a file, folder, disk or tool.
Information Technology: Includes matters concerned with the furtherance of computer science and technology, design, development, installation and implementation of information systems and applications.
IP: Internet Protocol is the standard that allows dissimilar hosts to connect to each other through the internet.
IP Address: Every computer connected to the internet is assigned a unique number known as an Internet Protocol (IP) address. Since these numbers are usually assigned in country based blocks, an IP address can often be used to identify the country from which a computer is connecting to the internet.
IRC: Internal Relay Chat: A program that allows you to carry on “live” conversations with people all over the world by typing messages back and froth across the internet.
ISO: International Organization for Standardization. ISO was founded in 1946. It is an international federation of national standards organizations from over 100 countries.
ISP: Internet Service Provider – a company that provides access to the internet. A service provider can offer simple dial-up access, SLIP/PPP access, or a dedicated line.
JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group is a graphic file format that ha a sophisticated technique for compressing full-colour bit mapped graphics such as photographs.
KB: KiloByte – A unit of data storage size which represents 10^3 (one thousand) characters of information.
Kb: Kilobit - 10^3 bits of information (usually used to express a data transfer rate; as in 1Kilobit/second = 1kbps = 1kb)
Kilobyte (Kb) – 1,024 bytes of digital data

LAN: Local Area Network – a network of directly connected machines (located in close proximity), providing high speed communication over physical medium such as fiber optics, coaxial cable, or twisted pair wiring.
Linux: a widely used Open Source Unix-like operating system. Linux was first released by its inventor Linux Torvalds in 1991. There are versions of Linux for almost every available type of computer hardware from desktop machines to IBM mainframes. The inner workings of Linux are open and valuable for anyone to examine and change as long as they make their changes available to the public. This has resulted in thousands of people working on various aspects of Linux and adaptation of Linux for a huge variety of purposes, from servers to TV-recording boxes.
Login: The account named used to access a computer system
Megabit (MB) – Megabit - 10^6 bits of information (usually used to express a data transfer rate; as in 1 Megabit/second = 1 Mbps). MegaByte – A unit of data storage size which represents 10^6 (one million) characters of information.
Megahertz (MHz) – a million cycles (occurrences, alternations, pulses) per second. Used to describe the speed at which a computer’s processor (Or CPU) operates. A 25 – MHz processor can handle 25 million operations per second.
Memory: In general, another word for dynamic RAM, the chips were the computers store system software, programs, and data you are currently using. Other kinds of computer memory you may encounter are parameter RAM (PRAM), Video RAM (VRAM) and static RAM (SRAM).
MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface: A technology that enables a computer to record and play musical performance.
MIME: Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extensions: A format originally developed for attaching sounds, images and other media files to electronic mail, but now also used with World Wide Web applications.
Mirror Site: An FTP site that is created after the contents of an original FTP archive server are copied to it. Usually, mirror sites use larger and faster systems than the original, so it’s easier to obtain material from the mirror. Mirror sites are usually updated daily, so everything on the original is also at the mirrors.
Modem: a device which converts digital signals into analog signals (and back) for transmission over telephone lines (modulator and demodulator)
Motherboard: The heart, soul and brains of a computer. This plastic board resembles a miniature city, but its buildings are actually chips for things like the processing, Ram and ROM and the tiny roads connecting them are circuit traces. Also called the logic board.
MPEG: Moving Pictures Expert Group: MPEG is an international standard for video compression and desktop movie presentation. You need a special viewing application to run the MPEG movies on your computer. MPEG II is a newer standard for broadcasting quality video.
Multimedia: any presentation or software program that combines several media, such as graphics, sound, video, animation, and/or text.
Network: In general a group of computers set up to communicate with one another, Your network can be a small system that’s physically connected by cables ( a LAN), or you can connect separate networks together to form larger networks (called WANs). The internet, for example, is made up of thousands of individual networks.
Netiquette: The etiquette on the internet.
Netizen: Derived from the term citizen, referring to a citizen of the internet, pr someone who uses networked resources. The term connotes civic responsibility and participation.
PDF: Portable document Format – A PDF file is an electronic facsimile of a printed document.
Peer-to-peer: A network setup that allows every computer to both offer and access network resources, such as shared files, without requiring a centralized file server. Macintosh computers utilize this type of network setup.
Open Content: copyrighted information (such as this Glossary) that is made available by the copyright owner to the general public under license terms that allow reuse of the material, often with the requirement (as this Glossary) that the re-user grant the public the same rights to the modified version that the re-user received from the copyright owner. Information that is in the Public Domain might also be considered a form of Open content.
Open Source Software: Open Source Software is software for which the underlying programming code is available to the users so that they may red it, make changes to it, and build new versions of the software incorporating their changes. There are many types of Open Source Software, mainly differing in the licensing term under which (altered) copies of the source code may (or must be) redistributed.
Ping: Packet Internet Groper – a utility used to determine whether a particular computer is currently connected to the internet. It works by sending a packet to the specified IP address and waiting for a reply. To check it a server is running.
POP: (Point of Presence, also Post Office Protocol) – Two commonly used meanings: A Point of Presence usually means a location where a network can be connected to, often with dial up phone lines. A second meaning, Post Office Protocol refers to the way e-mail software such as Eudora gets mail from a mail server.
Portal: Usually used as a marketing term to describe a Web site that is or is intended to be the first place people wee when using the Web. Typically a “Portal site” has a catalog of web sites, a search engine, or both. A portal site may also offer email and other service to entice people to use that site as their main “point of entry” (hence “portal”) to the Web.
Proxy Server: A Proxy Server sits in between a client and the “real” Server that a client is trying to use, client’s are sometimes configured to use a Proxy Server, usually a HTTP server. The clients makes all of it’s requests from the Proxy Server, which then makes requests from the “real” server and passes the result back to the client. Sometimes the Proxy Server will store the results and give a stored result instead of making anew one (to reduce use of a Network). Proxy servers are commonly established on Local Area Networks.
Pixel: Picture element – digital images are composed o toughing pixels, each having a specific colour or tone. The eye merges differently coloured pixels into continuous tones.
Ports: One of several rendezvous points where TCP/IP connections can be made on computer. Ports are numbered, with several locations reserved for specific types of network activity, such as telnet on port 23, HTTP traffic on port 80 and USENET news (NNTP) on port 119.
Public-domain: software that has no copyright or fee, which means you can copy, use, and even alter and sell it.
RAM: Random Access Memory – RAM is the most common type of computer memory and it’s where the computer stores system software, programs, and data you are currently using. It’s formally called dynamic RAM (DRAM) because it’s volatile, that is, the contents are lost when you turn off the computer (or crash). It’s pronounced ram and measured in megabytes.
ROM: Read Only Memory – a special type of memory used to store programs that start a computer and do diagnostics. Data stored in ROM can only be read and cannot be removed even when your computer is turned off. Most personal computers have only a few thousand bytes of Rom contrast to RAM (random access or main memory) which is the amount of memory available for use by programs of your computer.
Router: A special purpose computer that attaches to tow or more networks and routes packets from one network to the other. A router uses network layer addresses (such as IP Addresses) o determine it packets should be sent from one network to another. Routers send packets to other routers until they arrive at their final destination.
RSS: (Rich Site Summary or RDF Site Summary or Real Simple Syndication) – RSS is an acronym for Rich Site Summary, an XML format for distributing news headlines on the Web, also known as syndication. A commonly used protocol for syndication and sharing of content originally developed to facilitate the syndication of news articles, now widely used to share the contents of blogs. RSS is an XML-based summary of a Web site, usually used for syndication and other kinds of content-sharing. There are RSS “feeds” which are sources of RSS information about web sites, and RSS ”readers” which read RSS feeds and display their content to users. RSS is being overtaken by a newer, more complex protocol called Atom.
RTF: Rich Text Format –A file format for text files that includes formatting instructions. Also called interchange format.
Scanner: A device that converts images (such as photograph) into digital form so that they can be stored and manipulated on computers.
Screen Saver: Moving picture or pattern that is displayed on the screen when no activity takes place for a specified period of time.
Search Engines: A type of software that creates indexes of databases or internet sites based on the titles of files, key words, or the full text of files.
SEO: (Search Engine Optimization) - Practice of designing web pages so that they rank as high as possible in search results from search engines. There is “good” SEO and “bad” SEO. Good SEO involves making the web page clearly describe its subject, making sure it contains truly useful information, including accurate information in Meta tags, and arranging for other web sites to make links to the page. Bad SEO involves attempting to deceive people into believing the page is more relevant than it truly is by doing things like adding inaccurate Meta tags to the page.
Server: A computer that shares its resources, such as printers and files, with other computers on the network. An example of this is a Web, or HTTP server, which serves Web pages to other computers.
Shareware: Software that you can try before you buy. It’s distributed through on-line services. You’re allowed to try it out and give copies to others, but if you want to keep using it, you must pay the registration fee.
SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol – Internet standard protocol for transferring electronic mail messages from one computer to another. SMTP specifies how tow mail systems interact and the format of control messages they exchange to transfer mail.
 SPAM; Refers to the practice of blindly posting commercial messages or advertisements to a large number of unrelated and unintended newsgroups.
Spam (or Spamming) – Unsolicited ’Junk’ email sent to large numbers of people to promote products or services. An inappropriate attempt to use a mailing list other networked communications facility by sending the same message to a large number of people who didn’t ask for it. (Spam® is a registered trademark of Homel Corporation, for its processed meat product.)
Spyware: A term generally referring to software that is secretly installed on a users’ computer and that monitors use of the computer in some way without the users’ knowledge or consent. Most spyware tries to get the used to view advertising and /or particular web pages. Some spywares also send information about the user to another machine over the internet. Spyware is usually installed without a users’ knowledge as part of the installation of other software, especially software such as music sharing software obtained via download.
SSL: (Secure socket Layer) - a protocol designed by Netscape Communications to enable encrypted, authenticated communications across the internet.
Spreadsheet: A number-related document whereby calculations and formulas are applied to the data organized in rows and columns of cells.

Syntax Error: Occurs when a user (or programmer) has put words in an order that a program does not understand.
TCP: Transmission Control Protocol: This is a transport layer protocol that establishes a reliable, full duplex, data delivery service used by many TCP/IP application programs. The TCP software uses the IP protocol to transmit information across the Internet.
TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A set of protocols, resulting from ARPA efforts, used by the internet to support services such as remote login (TELNET), file transfer (FTP) and mail (SMTP)
TIFF: Tag Image file Format – A graphic file format, TIFF files are also bit maps, but they can be any size, resolution, or colour depth. It is the most versatile, reliable and widely supported bit-mapped format and is the standard format for saving scanned images. However, the format does have several variations which mean that occasionally an application may have trouble opening a TIFF file created by another program.
Terabytes: 1000 gigabytes.
TLD: (Top Level Domain) – the last (right-hand) part of a complete Domain Name. for example in the domain name” is the Top Level domain. There are a large number of TLD’s. for example .biz. .com, .edu, .gov, .info, .int, .mil, .net, .org. and a collection of two-letter TLD’s corresponding to the standard two-letter country codes, for example, .us, .ca., .jp,  etc.
UNIX: an operating system developed by Bell Laboratories that supports multi-user and multitasking operations.
UPS: Uninterruptible Power Supply – A unit that switches to battery power whenever the power cuts out.
URL: Uniform Resource Locator, a string of characters that represents the location or address of a resource on the internet and how that resource should be accessed. World Wide Web pages are assigned a unique URL. Each hyper link on a web page contains the URL of the page to be linked to is the URL for this page.
User ID: The string of characters that identifies you, the name by which you are known to the network and also known as username.
Virus: a program that replicates itself from one file or disk to another without your consent. They are spread through floppy disks, networks and on-line services and can go undetected (unless you have an antiviral utility) until something goes wrong. Some viruses deliberately destroy data, and even those designed to be benign can cause crashes slowdowns and file corruption.
VRAM: Video RAM –a type of memory dedicated to handling the image displayed on a monitor. VRAM is build into many Macs and it also comes on display cards.
VoIP: Voice over IP – that is voice delivered using the Internet Protocol is a term used in IP telephony for a set of facilities for managing the delivery of voice information using the Internet Protocol (IP). In general this means sending voice information in digital form is discrete packets rather than in the traditional circuit-committed protocols of the public switched telephone network (PSTN). A major advantage of VoIP and Internet telephony is that it avoids the tolls charged by ordinary telephone service.
 Web: Short for “World Wide Web”.
Web Page; A document designed for viewing in a web browser typically written in HTML. A web site is made of one or more web pages.
WI-FI: (Wireless Fidelity) – A popular term for a form of wireless data communication, a wireless networking technology for PCs and PDAs that allows multiple devices to share a single high-speed Internet connection over a distance of about 300 feet. It can also be used to network a group of PCs without wires.
Worm: A worm is a virus that does not infect other programs. It makes copies of itself and infects additional computers (typically by making use of network connections) but does not attach itself to additional programs; however a worm might alter, install, or destroy files and programs.
Web Browser: Also known as a Web client program, this software allows you to access and view HTML documents. Netscape, Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox is some examples of Web browsers.
Web Page: a document created with HTML that is part of a group of hypertext documents or resources available on the World Wide Web.
Wide Area Network(WAN) – network spanning multiple geographic distances, usually connected by telephone lines, microwave or satellite links.
WWW: World Wide Web. The World Wide Web is a collection of information servers linked together through a language called hypertext. This allows you to select a hypertext link on one page which may take you to a different server halfway around the world. You do this through a World Wide Web browser, such as Netscape or Internet Explorer.


  1. What are the basic functions of an operating system?
  2. Explain briefly about, processor, assembler, compiler, loader, linker and the functions executed by them.
  3. What are the difference phases of software development? Explain briefly?
  4. Differentiate between RAM and ROM?
  5. What is DRAM? In which form does it store data?
  6. What is cache memory?
  7. What is hard disk and what is its purpose?
  8. Differentiate between Complier and Interpreter?
  9. What are the different tasks of Lexical analysis?
  10. What are the different functions of Syntax phase, Sheduler?
  11. What are the main difference between Micro-Controller and Micro- Processor?
  12. Describe different job scheduling in operating systems.
  13. What is a Real-Time System ?
  14. What is the difference between Hard and Soft real-time systems ?
  15. What is a mission critical system ?
  16. What is the important aspect of a real-time system ?
  17.  If two processes which shares same system memory and system clock in a distributed system, What is it called?
  18. What is the state of the processor, when a process is waiting for some event to occur?
  19. What do you mean by deadlock?
  20. Explain the difference between microkernel and macro kernel.
  21. Give an example of microkernel.
  22. When would you choose bottom up methodology?
  23. When would you choose top down methodology?
  24. Write a small dc shell script to find number of FF in the design.
  25. Why paging is used ?
  26. Which is the best page replacement algorithm and Why? How much time is spent usually in each phases and why?
  27. Difference between Primary storage and secondary storage?
  28. What is multi tasking, multi programming, multi threading?
  29. Difference between multi threading and multi tasking?
  30. What is software life cycle?


  1. Which type of architecture  8085 has?
  2. How many memory locations can be addressed by a microprocessor with 14 address lines?
  3. 8085 is how many bit microprocessor?
  4. Why is data bus bi-directional?
  5. What is the function of accumulator?
  6. What is flag, bus?
  7. What are tri-state devices and why they are essential in a bus oriented system?
  8. Why are program counter and stack pointer 16-bit registers?
  9. What does it mean by embedded system?
  10. What are the different addressing modes in 8085?
  11. What is the difference between MOV and MVI?
  12. What are the functions of RIM, SIM, IN?
  13. What is the immediate addressing mode?
  14. What are the different flags in 8085?
  15. What happens during DMA transfer?
  16. What do you mean by wait state? What is its need?
  17. What is PSW?
  18. What is ALE? Explain the functions of ALE in 8085.
  19. What is a program counter? What is its use?
  20. What is an interrupt?

  1. What is meant by D-FF?
  2. What is the basic difference between Latches and Flip flops?
  3. What is a multiplexer?
  4. How can you convert an SR Flip-flop to a JK Flip-flop?
  5. How can you convert an JK Flip-flop to a D Flip-flop?
  6. What is Race-around problem? How can you rectify it?
  7. Which semiconductor device is used as a voltage regulator and why?
  8. What do you mean by an ideal voltage source?
  9. What do you mean by zener breakdown and avalanche breakdown?
  10. What are the different types of filters?
  11. What is the need of filtering ideal response of filters and actual response of filters?
  12. What is sampling theorem?
  13. What is impulse response?
  14. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of FIR filters compared to IIR counterparts.
  15. What is CMRR? Explain briefly.
  16. What do you mean by half-duplex and full-duplex communication? Explain briefly.
  17. Which range of signals are used for terrestrial transmission?
  18. What is the need for modulation?
  19. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
  20. Why we use vestigial side band (VSB-C3F) transmission for picture?
  21. When transmitting digital signals is it necessary to transmit some harmonics in addition to fundamental frequency?
  22. For asynchronous transmission, is it necessary to supply some synchronizing pulses additionally or to supply or to supply start and stop bit?
  23. BPFSK is more efficient than BFSK in presence of noise. Why?
  24. What is meant by pre-emphasis and de-emphasis?
  25. What do you mean by 3 dB cutoff frequency? Why is it 3 dB, not 1 dB?

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