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what is managerial grid?

The managerial grid model (1964) is a style leadership model developed by Robert R. Blake and Jane Mouton.
This model originally identified five different leadership styles based on the concern for people and the concern for production.
The optimal leadership style in this model is based on Theory Y.
The grid theory has continued to evolve and develop. The theory was updated with two additional leadership styles and with a new element, resilience.
In 1999, the grid managerial seminar began using a new text, The Power to Change.
The model is represented as a grid with concern for production as the x-axis and concern for people as the y-axis; each axis ranges from 1 (Low) to 9 (High). The resulting leadership styles are as follows:
  • The indifferent (previously called impoverished) style (1,1): evade and elude. In this style, managers have low concern for both people and production. Managers use this style to preserve job and job seniority, protecting themselves by avoiding getting into trouble. The main concern for the manager is not to be held responsible for any mistakes, which results in less innovation decisions.
  • The accommodating (previously, country club) style (1,9): yield and comply. This style has a high concern for people and a low concern for production. Managers using this style pay much attention to the security and comfort of the employees, in hopes that this will increase performance. The resulting atmosphere is usually friendly, but not necessarily very productive.
  • The dictatorial (previously, produce or perish) style (9,1): control and dominate. With a high concern for production, and a low concern for people, managers using this style find employee needs unimportant; they provide their employees with money and expect performance in return. Managers using this style also pressure their employees through rules and punishments to achieve the company goals. This dictatorial style is based on Theory X of Douglas McGregor, and is commonly applied by companies on the edge of real or perceived failure. This style is often used in cases of crisis management.
  • The status quo (previously, middle-of-the-road) style (5,5): balance and compromise. Managers using this style try to balance between company goals and workers' needs. By giving some concern to both people and production, managers who use this style hope to achieve suitable performance but doing so gives away a bit of each concern so that neither production nor people needs are met.
  • The sound (previously, team style) (9,9): contribute and commit. In this style, high concern is paid both to people and production. As suggested by the propositions of Theory Y, managers choosing to use this style encourage teamwork and commitment among employees. This method relies heavily on making employees feel themselves to be constructive parts of the company.
  • The opportunistic style: exploit and manipulate. Individuals using this style, which was added to the grid theory before 1999, do not have a fixed location on the grid. They adopt whichever behaviour offers the greatest personal benefit.
  • The paternalistic style: prescribe and guide. This style was added to the grid theory before 1999. In The Power to Change, it was redefined to alternate between the (1,9) and (9,1) locations on the grid. Managers using this style praise and support, but discourage challenges to their thinking.


Immediate Payment Service - Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What is IMPS?
    Immediate Payment Service (IMPS) is an instant interbank electronic fund transfer service through mobile phones. It is also being extended through other channels such as ATM, Internet Banking, etc.
  2. What is MMID?
    Mobile Money Identification Number (MMID) is a seven digit number of which the first four digits are the unique identification number of the bank offering IMPS.
  3. Is IMPS facility through OnlineSBI available to all customers?
    The facility is available to all registered users of OnlineSBI having transaction rights on one or more accounts.
  4. How I can remit money using IMPS through OnlineSBI?
    a. Log on to ''
    b. Visit 'Profile' section and click on Manage Beneficiary.
    c. Select 'IMPS Beneficiary'
    d. Add details for the beneficiary
    e. Approve the beneficiary using OTP (one time password) received on your registered mobile number.
  5. What beneficiary details the customer requires to effect an IMPS remittance from Person to Person?
    Following beneficiary details are required :
    a. MMID of the beneficiary,
    b. Mobile number of the beneficiary
    c. Name of the beneficiary
  6. What beneficiary details the customer requires to effect an IMPS remittance from Person to Account?
    The beneficiary details required are:
    a. Name of the beneficiary
    b. Account Number of the beneficiary
    c. IFS Code of the beneficiary bank
    Please note that you have to add such beneficiary using Interbank Beneficiary option given in the Profile section.
  7. What are the restrictions for activation of a beneficiary added by a user?
    You can add and approve only one beneficiary in a calendar day, which will be activated by the internet banking system within 4 hours, if approved by you during the period from 6.00 AM to 8.00 PM (IST). Beneficiary approved after 8.00 PM will be activated on the next day after 8.00 AM (IST). You can commence funds transfer to the new beneficiary only after its activation. During the first 4 days after activation, you can transfer a total sum of Rs. 1,00,000/- to a new beneficiary if activated by the system.
  8. Is there any limit on the value of transactions in IMPS? Please give some examples.
    Ramu a user of internet banking with transaction rights, wishes to transfer money to Shyamu using IMPS
    DateActivityAmount Limitation
    Sep 1Ramu added and activated Shyamu as IMPS beneficiaryRs. 1,00,000 can be transferred to Shyamu on the day of activation of the beneficiary.
    Sep 2 - 4Shyamu in cooling periodA total sum of Rs.1,00,000 can be transferred to Shyamu during the period from Sep 1 to Sep 4.
    Sep 6Shyamu out of cooling periodEvery day of Rs. 2,00,000/- can be transferred to shaymu, provided the total amount transferred on any given day by Ramu through IMPS does not exceed Rs.2,00,000/-
  9. How can a user remit money using IMPS?
    a) Log on to ''.
    b) Visit Payment /Transfer section and click on IMPS fund transfer.
    c) Please select 'Person to Person' if the beneficiary has been added as IMPS Beneficiary or 'Person to Account' if the beneficiary has been added as Interbank Beneficiary.
    d) Input the amount a user wishes to remit.
    e) Approve the transaction using OTP (one time password) received on your registered mobile number.
  10. What happens in case the remitter enters wrong beneficiary details for remittance?
    If the beneficiary details required for making a remittance (such as MMID, mobile number) are wrong, there is a very high possibility of the transaction getting rejected. If you are remitting money using account number, please check the account number as amount will be credited on the basis of account number only.
  11. What are the timings for initiating and receiving IMPS remittances?
    IMPS Inward and Outward transactions are available 24X7. There are no holiday restrictions on IMPS outward and inward transactions. IMPS outward transactions are allowed to transfer collective of Rs.40,000.00 between 08:00 PM and 08:00 AM.
  12. If the transaction is not completed, will the customer get his / her money back? When?
    Yes. In case the IMPS transaction is not completed for any reason - technical or business, the reversal of the remitters funds will happen immediately. If such a transaction becomes a subject matter of reconciliation wherein the fate of transaction is not determined immediately, the reversal of funds will happen in seven days.
  13. What are the charges for the customer for sending and receiving remittances using IMPS?
    The charge for remitting money through IMPS using OnlineSBI is;
    Upto 1000NIL
    RS 1,001 -10,0002/- per Transaction + Service Tax
    RS 10,001 -1,00,0004/- per Transaction + Service Tax-
    RS 1,00,001 -2,00,00012/- per Transaction + Service Tax-
  14. Are there any subscription charges for the customers to avail this facility?
    Currently, there is no subscription charge for the OnlineSBI users.
  15. How long does it take for the remittance to be credited into the beneficiary account number?
    The funds should be credited into the beneficiary account immediately.
  16. Is it necessary to have sufficient account balance to initiate a remittance?
    Yes, the customer should have sufficient account balance to initiate a fund transfer.
  17. How does the remitter come to know that his account is debited and funds have been credited in the beneficiary's account
    The remitting bank sends a confirmation message to the remitting customer about the transaction initiated by him / her.
  18. How does a beneficiary come to know of funds being credited to his / her banks account?
    The beneficiary bank sends a confirmation message to the beneficiary customer informing him / her of the credit in the account.
  19. Can a customer receive remittance using the mobile number other than the one registered with the bank?
    The customer can receive funds using the registered mobile number only. In case he / she need to receive funds using the other mobile number, he / she will have to approach the bank and complete the process of changing the registered mobile number for mobile banking.
  20. When can the beneficiary use the funds received through IMPS?
    The beneficiary can use the funds immediately on receipt of credit in the account. The funds received through IMPS are good funds and can be used immediately upon credit.

Unified Payments Interface (UPI)

Unified Payments Interface (UPI) is a system that powers multiple bank accounts into a single mobile application (of any participating bank), merging several banking features, seamless fund routing & merchant payments into one hood. It also caters to the “Peer to Peer” collect request which can be scheduled and paid as per requirement and convenience.

With the above context in mind, NPCI conducted a pilot launch with 21 member banks. The pilot launch was on 11th April 2016 by Dr. Raghuram G Rajan, Governor, RBI at Mumbai. Banks have started to upload their UPI enabled Apps on Google Play store from 25th August, 2016 onwards. 
How is it unique?
  • Immediate money transfer through mobile device round the clock 24*7 and 365 days.
  • Single mobile application for accessing different bank accounts
  • Single Click 2 Factor Authentication – Aligned with the Regulatory guidelines, yet provides for a very strong feature of seamless single click payment.
  • Virtual address of the customer for Pull & Push provides for incremental security with the customer not required to enter the details such as Card no, Account number; IFSC etc.
  • Bill Sharing with friends.
  • Best answer to Cash on Delivery hassle, running to an ATM or rendering exact amount.
  • Merchant Payment with Single Application or In-App Payments.
  • Scheduling PUSH and PULL Payments for various purposes.
  • Utility Bill Payments, Over the Counter Payments, Barcode (Scan and Pay) based payments.
  • Donations, Collections, Disbursements Scalable.
  • Raising Complaint from Mobile App directly.
  1. Participants in UPI
    • Payer PSP
    • Payee PSP
    • Remitter Bank
    • Beneficiary Bank
    • NPCI
    • Bank Account holders
    • Merchants
  2. UPI - Benefits to the Ecosystem participantsBenefits for banks:
    1. Single click Two Factor authentication
    2. Universal Application for transaction
    3. Leveraging existing infrastructure
    4. Safer, Secured and Innovative
    5. Payment basis Single/ Unique Identifier
    6. Enable seamless merchant transactions
    Benefits for end Customers:
    1. Round the clock availability
    2. Single Application  for accessing different bank accounts
    3. Use of Virtual ID is more secure, no credential sharing
    4. Single click authentication
    5. Raise Complaint from Mobile App directly
    Benefits for Merchants:
    • Seamless fund collection from customers - single identifiers
    • No risk of storing customer’s virtual address like in Cards
    • Tap customers not having credit/debit cards
    • Suitable for e-Com & m-Com transaction
    • Resolves the COD collection problem
    • Single click 2FA facility to the customer - seamless Pull
    • In-App Payments (IAP)

  3. Registration in UPI enabled application
  4. Steps for Registration:
    • User downloads the UPI application from the App Store / Banks website
    • User creates his/ her profile by entering details like name, virtual id (payment address), password etc.
    • User goes to “Add/Link/Manage Bank Account” option and links the bank and account number with the virtual id
    Generating M – PIN:
    • User selects the bank account from which he/she wants to initiate the transaction
    • User clicks one of the option -
    a. Mobile Banking Registration/Generate MPIN

    b. Change M-PIN

    In the case of 3(a) -

    1. User receives OTP from the Issuer bank on his/her registered mobile number
    2. User now enters last 6 digits of Debit card number and expiry date
    3. User enters OTP and enters his preferred numeric MPIN (MPIN that he would like to set) and clicks on Submit
    4. After clicking submit, customer gets notification (successful or decline) 
    In case of 2(b) –

    1. User enters his old MPIN and preferred new MPIN (MPIN that he would like to set) and clicks on Submit
    2. After clicking submit, customer gets notification (successful or failure)
    Performing a UPI Transaction:

    A. PUSH – sending money using virtual address

    1. User logs in to UPI application
    2. After successful login, user selects the option of Send Money / Payment
    3. User enters beneficiary’s / Payee virtual id, amount and selects account to be debited 
    4. User gets confirmation screen to review the payment details and clicks on Confirm
    5. User now enters MPIN 
    6. User gets successful or failure message
    PULL – Requesting money:

    1. User logs in to his bank’s UPI application
    2. After successful login, user selects the option of collect money (request for payment)
    3. User enters remitters / payers virtual id, amount and account to be credited 
    4. User gets confirmation screen to review the payment details and clicks on confirm
    5. The payer will get the notification on his mobile for request money 
    6. Payer now clicks on the notification and opens his banks UPI app where he reviews payment request
    7. Payer then decides to click on accept or decline 
    8. In case of accept payment, payer will enter MPIN to authorize the transaction 
    9. Transaction complete, payer gets successful or decline transaction notification 
    10. Payee / requester gets notification and SMS from bank for credit of his bank account

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