ECONOMICS FOR BANK EXAMS AND INTERVIEWS
CONCEPTS IN DEVELOPMENT
Economic Growth: It is defined as long term increase in production potential of the economy. It is a quantitative concept.
Economic Development: It refers to the economic growth with structural changes in favour of non-agricultural activities. It is a qualitative concept.
Sustainable Development: It is that development which takes care of the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of the future generations. It also emphasizes on a clean environment.
Quality of Life: It simply indicates the better health, welfare freedom of choice and basic liberties in a society.
Indicators of Growth
Gross Domestic Product (GDP): It is the sum total of the market value of the final goods and services produced within the geographical boundary of a country during an accounting year.
Gross National Product (GNP): GNP = GDP + Net factor income from abroad.
Net factor income = X – M, [X = Income earned and received by nationals in foreign countries; M=Income earned by foreign nationals in a country.]
It better indicates the production potential of the nationals as against GDP. In
’s case, GNP is less than
GDP. In other words, net factor income
is negative in India . India
Net National Product (NNP): NNP = GNP – Depreciation
Depreciation is consumption of fixed capital in the process of production.
National Income: When NNP is calculated at factor cost, it is known as National Income. In other words, it can be represented as,
National Income = NNP at market prices – Indirect taxes + subsidies
Indicators of Development
Human Development Index: It was introduced in 1990 by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). It is defined as average of social components, namely, life expectancy at birth, education attainment and standard of living.
To define the human development level of a country, this index has been divided on a scale of 1.
High human development = HDI value is greater than 0.8.
Medium human development = HDI value is between 0.5 and 0.8.
Low human development = HDI value is below 0.5.
In the UN Human Development Report 2002
lies in the medium
development group. Its rank is 124 out
of 172 nations, with a HDI value of 0.577. India
Quality of Life Index: It is calculated on the basis of six parameters (as defined by noted economists, Dasgupta and Weale).
1. Per capita income in Purchasing Power Party (PPP) in dollars.
2. Life expectancy at birth.
3. Infant mortality rate.
4. Adult literacy rate.
5. Index of political rights.
6. Index of civil rights.
By one view of economists, it is considered as a more comprehensive indicator than HDI.
Explain the following terms.
· Insider Trading: It is a term used to explain the purchase and sale of shares of a company by accessing information concerning the company that is not publicly available and is of such a nature that it enables the person to make substantial profits in the share transaction. This is a punishable offence and SEBI has proposed stringent regulations to curb it.
· Laissez Faire: It is an economic doctrine which emphasis superiority of free markets over state regulation of individual markets and of the economy in general. Proponents of Laissez Faire argue that a private enterprise economy will achieve a more efficient allocation and use of scarce economic resources and greater economic growth than will a centrally planned economy where the government owns and directs the use of resources.
· Credit Rating Information Services of India Ltd., (CRISIL): It was set up in 1988 and has been promoted jointly by the ICICI and UTI to provide credit rating services to the corporate sector. Credit rating promotes investors’ interests by providing them information on assessed comparative risk of investment in the listed securities of different companies. It also helps companies to raise funds more easily and at relatively cheaper cost, if their credit rating is high.
· Non Performing Assets (NPAs): It is a credit facility which ceases to generate income for a bank. Generally it is one on which interest or principal to be received has remained “past due” for a period of 180 days. NPAs consist of assets under 3 categories. Standard, doubtful and loss. Assets classified as NPAs for a period upto 18 months belong to substandard while doubtful are those that remain NPAs for a period beyond 18 months and loss assets are those identified as such and have not been written off.
· Birth Rate: Birth rate is the number of live births per 1000 of the population in a place, state or country, in a year. The difference between this rate and the death rate is used to calculate the rate of growth of population of the country over a certain period of time. The birth rate tends to decline as the country attains higher levels of economic development.
· Repo or Repurchase Options: Repos were introduced in 1992 in
. They are
instruments of repurchase agreement between the RBI and the commercial banks
and this is used by banks for short-term liquidity management. By selling repos
RBI mops up temporary excess liquidity in the financial market. Their rates are
market – determined. India
· National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD): NABARD was set up in July 1982. It works as the apex body to look after the credit requirements of rural sector. It provides short-term credit to state cooperative banks (SCBs) medium-term credit to SCBs and RRBs and long-term credit SCB, LDBs, RRBs and commercial banks. It also promotes research in agriculture and rural development. It took over from RBI all the functions it performed in the field of rural credit and agricultural Refuiannce and Development Corporation (ARDC) was also merged with NABARD.
· Small Industries Development Bank of
(SIDBI): SIDBI was et up in April 1990 as a wholly owned
subsidiary of IDBI. It functions as the principal financial institution for the
promotion, financing and development of industry in the small sector and to
coordinate the functions of institutions engaged in promoting the small units. India
· Hot Money: Hot money refers to large amounts of short term funds held internationally by banks, financial institutions and wealthy individuals, which quickly move out of or into a country, in anticipation of interest rate charges or exchange rate fluctuations. This is, therefore, a very volatile source of funds and its flight from a country in terms of crisis may trigger a collapse of the economy.
· Agricultural Export Zone (AEZs): The concept AEZs was introduced by the Exim Policy 2001 to give primacy to promotion of agricultural exports and a reorganization of our export efforts on the basis of specific products and specific geographical areas. The scheme is already in operation and the exim policy 2002-07 intends to set up 20 more AEZs.
· Scheduled Bank: A bank registered in the second schedule of the RBI Act, 1934 is called a scheduled bank and to be included in the schedule it must fulfill the following criteria:
(i) Paid up capital and reserves must be at least RS. 5 lakh
(ii) Its conduct must not be to the detriment of its depositors.
These scheduled banks are required to maintain cash reserves with RBI and they enjoy certain privileges such as borrowing facilities from the RBI.
· Infant Mortality Rate (IMR): It is the number of deaths of infants, upto one year of age, per thousand live births. IMR is high in les developed countries due to lack of healthcare facilities and proper nutrition to the infants and as development takes place, IMR is reduced in the country.
· Net Asset Value (NAV): NAV is the net value of the mutual fund’s portfolio, expressed on a per share basis.
NAV per share = Total net Assets
Total Number of Shares outstanding
‘Total Net Assets’ is calculated by periodically valuing investments are market prices and other assets are added, while liabilities are deducted. Open-end funds set their sale and repurchase prices on the basis of their NAVs.
· Hard Currency: A currency that is in strong demand, but in short supply on the foreign exchange market. Hard currency status is usually associated with an economically strong country which is running a large surplus on its balance of repayments. Demand for the currency is high to finance purchases of its exports, but the supply of the currency is relatively limited because the amount of it being made available through the purchase of imports is much lower.
· Per Capita Income: It is the per head income of the country and can be obtained by dividing the gross national product (GNP) or national income of the country by its population. It can be measured either at current prices of at constant (base year) prices. Per capita income as a measure of people’s standard of living is flawed as it does not indicate the distribution of income and the non monetary elements of lifestyle.
· Working Capital: The funds deployed by a company in the form of cash, investories, accounts receivable and other current assets. The term “working capital” generally means “Net Working Capital” i.e. the excess of current assets over current liabilities. These current liabilities are repayable within a year. Hence working capital is that portion of current assets which is financed by long-term funds such as loans, share capital and retained earnings.
· Equity Shares: Equity shares represent ownership interest is a company and the claim of equity share holders on earnings and on assets in the event of liquidation, follow all others. Only equity shareholders are generally entitled to vote at the Annual General Meetings (AGM) which depend upon the number of shares which they hold. They take the maximum risks and also have the possibility of highest gains. They are entitled to any net profits made by their company after all expenses have been paid and they receive it in the form of dividend.
· Microcredit: It is the credit extended to small and needy borrowers who are outside the domain of commercial banks. The scope of microcredit is immune, considering the number of such individuals who may undertake productive activities. It has emerged as a viable alternative credit channel to the poor as their access to conventional collateral and high transaction costs. Self help Group (SHG) Bank Lineage Programme propagated by NABARD, for last 10 years, has been recognized as the largest and fastest growing micro-finance programme in the world.
· Depression: It is an economic condition that is characterized by a severe contraction in economic activity, which is manifested in numerous business shut down, widespread unemployment and declining investment in plant and equipment on account of falling sales.
· Commodity Futures: A standardized contract guaranteeing delivery of a certain quantity of a commodity (such as wheat, sugar, soybeans etc.) on a specified future date, at a price agrees to, at the time of transaction. These contracts are standardized in terms of quantity, quality and delivery months for different commodities. Contracts on certain commodities are already traded in
· London Inter Bank Offer Rate (LIBOR): LIBOR is an average of interest rates at which leading international banks are prepared to offer term Eurodollar deposits to each other. These rates reflect market conditions for international funds and are widely used by the banks as a basis for determining the interest rates charged on dollar and foreign currency loans to business customers.
· Treasury Bill: A short-term debt instrument of the Government of India. This security bears no default risk and has a high degree of liquidity and low interest rate risk in view to its short term. The instrument is negotiable and is issued at a discount from the face value. At the maturity, the investor receives the face value and hence the increment constitutes the interest earned.
· Over the country Exchange of
(OTCEI): OTCEI is a floorless national securities exchange
with a screen-based system of trading. This modern market characterized by
fully computerized operations, was promoted by UTI, ICICI and SBI Capital
Markets Ltd., among others, in order to overcome problems such as the lack of
transparency, delays in settlements and prohibitive cost of a public issue
through conventional route. It began operations in 1992 and its network
consists of inter-linked counters located all over the country. India
· Debt Trap: It is a financial crisis in which an individual or country raises further loans in order to fulfill its obligations of interest payment and repayment of principal during a time period. So the country or individuals is caught in a vicious circle of debt where it raises more debt in order to retire its earlier debts and finds it difficult to get out of this trap.
· American Depository Receipts (ADRs): ADRs are instruments traded at US exchange representing a fixed number of shares of a foreign company that is traded in the foreign country. By trading in ADRs, US investors manage to avoid some of the problems of dealing in foreign securities markets. The ADR route enables companies to raise funds in the
financial markets. US
· Venture Capital: It is any share capital or loans subscribed to a firm financial specialists (for example, the venture capital arms of commercial banks and insurance companies), thus enabling the form to undertake investment in processes and products which because of their novelty are rate as especially high-risk projects, and as such would not normally attract conventional finance.
· EEFC Account: This refers to the Exchange Earners’ Foreign Currency Account, a scheme introduced in 1992 for exporters and residents receiving foreign exchange. A certain percentage of the earnings may be maintained in this account in order to limit exchange rate risk in case of future imports or for other specified purposes.
· Regional Rural Banks (RRBs): The banks sponsored by public sector banks to cater exclusively to rural areas. The target segments of RRBs loans are small and marginal farmers, agricultural labourers, agricultural cooperative societies, artisans and small entrepreneurs among others. The sponsoring bank, besides subscribing to the share capital, provides managerial and financial assistance to its RRB. There are 196 RRBs in
, established from 1975. India
· Export Promotion Capital Goods Scheme (EPCG Scheme): It has been started to permit the exporters to import capital goods on concessional import duties. Under exim polity 1997-2002 exporters of goods and services could import capital goods by paying only 10% import duty but they had to export goods worth four times to CIF value with 5 years. This has not only been retained but made more flexible in the exim policy 2002-07.
· ECGC: It is an acronym for Export credit Guarantee Corporation of India Ltd., which has been playing a crucial role by providing credit insurance cover for exports from the country. There is great potential for project exports from
with our exporters winning bids against intense international competition. In
order to enable ECGC to provide adequate underwriting support to such projects,
the Government has decided, in 2003-04 Budget, to increase its share capital to
Rs. 80 crore. India
· Discount and Finance House of India Ltd., (DFHI): An institution promoted by RBI, public sector banks and financial institutions to meet the long-felt and need of activating the secondary market as well as developing their primary market for money market instruments. (SBI has a major 32% stake in DFHI). It was set up on the recommendation of Vaghul Committee. From April 1992, it began dealing in dated securities and accredited as a primary dealer in the February 1996.
· Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA): APEDA is a body engaged in the export promotion and development of markets for fruits, vegetables and their products rice, wheat floricultures, processed fruits and juices and several other miscellaneous agricultural products. It is a promotional agency and does not undertake direct exports of any products on its own account.
Overseas Banking Units (OBUs): The exim policy 2002-07 permitted registered Indian Banks to set up OBUs in the SEZs. Through these OBUs exporters in SEZs will have access to finances at international costs. This is because OBUs would be exempted from CRR, SLR and priority sector lending requirements which would permit them to operate at par with their overseas branches. These units have been permitted to accept funds from NRIs and individuals and so they can raise foreign currency funds from international markets at global interest rate. These banks should have a minimum capital of $10 million, to set up OBUs. Recently SBI opened the first OBU in Mumbai.
ECONOMICS -- TERMS
Hyperinflation: Exceptionally high inflation rates. While there are no had and fast guidelines, an annual inflation rate of 20% or more is likely to create hyperinflation.
Money Laundering: The attempt to conceal or disguise the ownership or source of the proceeds of criminal activity and to integrate them into the legitimate financial systems in such a way that they cannot be distinguished from assets acquired by legitimate means. Typically this involves the conversion of cash-based proceeds into account-based forms of money.
A Pigouvian tax: It is a tax levied on an agent causing an environmental externality (environmental damage) as an incentive to avert or mitigate such damage.
Portfolio investment: It is the category of international investment that covers investment in equity and debt securities, excluding any such instruments that are classified as direct investment or reserve assets.
Poverty Reduction And Growth Facility: An IMF facility known until November 1999 as the enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF). The PRGF is available to those countries that are facing protracted balance of payments problems and are eligible to borrow on concessional terms under the International Development Association
Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs): The rates of currency conversion that equalize the purchasing power of different currencies by eliminating the differences in price levels between countries. In their simplest form, PPPs are simply price relatives which show the ration of the prices fin national currencies of the same good or service in different countries.
Inflation Gap: An inflationary gap, also termed an expansionary gap associated with a business cycle expansion, especially the latter stages of an expansion. This is one of two alternative output gaps that can occur when short-run production differs from full employment. The other is a recessionary gap.
Quantitative Restrictions: Specific limits on the quantity or value of goods that can be import4ed (or exported) during a specific time period.
Insider Trading: The buying and selling of corporate stock or other financial instruments based on knowledge that is not widely available to the general public. Insider trading is most often undertaken by corporate executives or directors using information that they have acquired by working “inside” the company. Insider trading is illegal because it gives an unfair advantage to those on the inside.
Refinancing: It refers to the extension of a new loan to enable the repayment of all or part of the amounts outstanding on earlier borrowing, possible including amounts not yet due.
Re-exports; Are foreign goods exported in the same state as previously imported, from the free circulation area, premises for inward processing of industrial free zones, directly to the rest of the world and from premises for customs warehousing or commercial free zones, to the rest of the world.
Reverse investment: Refers to the acquisition by a direct investment enterprises of a financial claim on its direct investor. Because direct investment is recorded on a directional basis, capital invested by the direct investor as an offset to capital invested in the direct investment enterprises by a direct investor and its related enterprises, except in instances when the equity participations are at least 10 percent in both directions.
Revolving credit: Refers to credit with a clause for automatic renewal under certain conditions.
Risk-weighted assets: Refer to a concept developed by the BCBS for the capital adequacy ratio. Assets are weighed by factors representing their riskness and potential for default.
A real-time gross settlement system (RTGS): It is a settlement system in which processing and settlement take place on an order-by-order basis (without netting ) in real time (continuously).
Rules of origin: Laws, regulations and administrative procedures which determine a product’s country of origin. A decision by a customs authority on origin can determine whether a shipment falls within a quota limitations, qualifies for a tariff preference or is affected by an anti-dumping duty. These rules can vary from country to country.
A forward exchange rate: It is the exchange rate in contract for receipt of and payment for foreign currency at a specified date usually for 30 days, 90 days or 180 days in the future, at a stipulated current or ‘spot’ price.
Abnormal Returns: Used in the context of stock returns; abnormal returns means the return to a portfolio in excess of the return to a market portfolio. Abnormal returns can be negative.
Philips Curve: The Philips curve is a relation between inflation and unemployment follows from William Philips’ 1958 work on the relation between unemployment and the rate of change of money wage rates in the
. United Kingdom
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