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The Indian economy has fully recovered to the pre-pandemic real GDP level of 2019-20, according to the provisional estimates of GDP released on May 31, 2022. Real GDP growth in FY 2021-22 stands at 8.7%, which is 1.5% higher than the real GDP in FY 2019-20. These figures are associated with stronger growth momentum, indicating increased economic demand. The investment rate in the fourth quarter increased to its highest level in the previous nine quarters. Moreover, capacity utilisation in the manufacturing sector rose in the fourth quarter, as against the third quarter, implying a build-up in demand, which is consistent with the growth objectives of the Indian economy.

Future capital spending of the government in the Indian economy is expected to be supported by factors such as tax buoyancy, streamlined tax system, thorough assessment and rationalisation of the tariff structure and digitisation of tax filing. In the medium term, an increase in capital spending on infrastructure and asset-building projects is set to increase growth multipliers. Furthermore, revival in monsoon and Kharif sowing helped the agriculture sector gain momentum. As of July 11, 2022, the South-West monsoon has covered the entire country, resulting in 7% higher rainfall than the normal level.

India has emerged as the fastest-growing major economy in the world, and is expected to be one of the top three economic powers globally over the next 10-15 years, backed by its robust democracy and strong partnerships.


  • India’s nominal GDP at current prices was estimated at Rs. 232.15 trillion (US$ 3.12 trillion) in FY22. With more than 100 unicorns valued at US$ 332.7 billion, India has the third-largest unicorn base in the world. The government is also focusing on renewable sources to generate energy, and is planning to achieve 40% of its energy from non-fossil sources by 2030.
  • According to the McKinsey Global Institute, India needs to boost its rate of employment growth and create 90 million non-farm jobs between 2023 and 2030 in order to increase productivity and economic growth. The net employment rate needs to grow by 1.5% per annum from 2023 to 2030 to achieve 8-8.5% GDP growth between this period. India's current account deficit (CAD), primarily driven by an increase in the trade deficit, stood at 1.2% of GDP in 2021-22.
  • Exports fared remarkably well during the pandemic and aided recovery when all other growth engines lost steam in terms of their contribution to GDP. Going forward, the contribution of merchandise exports may waver as several of India’s trade partners witness an economic slowdown. According to Mr. Piyush Goyal, Minister of Commerce and Industry, Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution and Textiles, Indian exports are expected to reach US$ 1 trillion by 2030.


India is primarily a domestic demand-driven economy, with consumption and investments contributing 70% to the country’s economic activity. With the economic scenario improving on recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic shock, several investments and developments have been made across various sectors of the economy. According to World Bank, India must continue to prioritise lowering inequality while also launching growth-oriented policies to boost the economy. In view of this, the country witnessed many developments in the recent past, some of which are mentioned below.

  • As of July 15, 2022, India’s foreign exchange reserves reached US$ 572.71 billion. As on October 14 it stood atUS $ 528.37 billion .
  • Private equity-venture capital (PE-VC) sector investments stood at US$ 34.1 billion, up 28% YoY, across 711 deals through January-June 2022.
  • India’s merchandise exports stood at US$ 676.2 billion in FY22. In June 2022, India’s merchandise exports stood at US$ 37.9 billion, recording the highest ever exports in June 2022.
  • PMI Services was at 58.9 in May 2022 compared to 57.9 in April 2022.
  • In September 2022, the gross Goods and Services Tax (GST) revenue collection stood at Rs. 1.47 trillion (US$ 18.1 billion).
  • According to the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), FDI equity inflow in India stood at US$ 588.53 billion between April 2000-March 2022.
  • In May 2022, the Index of Industrial Production (IIP) stood at 137.7 driven by mining, manufacturing and electricity sectors.
  • Consumer Price Index (CPI) inflation stood at 7.01% in June 2022 compared to 7.04% in May 2022. In September 2022 it was 7.41%
  • In July 2022 (until 21 July 2022), Foreign Portfolio Investment (FPI) outflows stood at Rs. 228,862 crore (US$ 28.65 billion)
  • Wheat procurement in Rabi 2021-22 and anticipated paddy purchase in Kharif 2021-22 would include 1208 lakh (120.8 million) metric tonnes of wheat and paddy from 163 lakh (16.7 million) farmers, as well as a direct payment of MSP value of Rs. 2.37 lakh crore (US$ 31.74 billion) to their accounts.


Over the years, the Indian government has introduced many initiatives to strengthen the nation's economy. The government has been effective in developing policies and programmes that are not only beneficial for citizens to improve their financial stability but also for the overall growth of the economy. Over the recent decade, India's rapid economic growth has led to a substantial increase in demand for exports. Moreover, many of the government's flagship programmes, including Make in India, Start-up India, Digital India, the Smart City Mission and the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation, are aimed at creating immense opportunities in India. In this regard, some of the initiatives taken by the government to improve the economic condition of the country are mentioned below:

  • In July 2022, the Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi, approved the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between India and Maldives. This MoU will provide a platform to tap the benefits of IT for court digitisation, and can be a potential growth area for IT companies and start-ups in both the countries.
  • India and Namibia entered into an MoU on wildlife conservation and sustainable biodiversity utilisation on July 20, 2022, for establishing the cheetah’s habitat in the historical forest range in India.
  • In July 2022, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) approved international trade settlements in Indian rupees (INR) in order to promote the growth of global trade with emphasis on exports from India and to support the increasing interest of the global trading community.
  • Mr. Rajnath Singh, Minister of Defence, launched 75 newly-developed artificial intelligence (AI) products and technologies during the first-ever “AI in Defence” (AIDef) symposium and exhibition, organised by the Ministry of Defence in New Delhi on July 11, 2022.
  • In June 2022:
    • Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi laid the foundation stone of 1,406 projects worth more than Rs. 80,000 crore (US$ 10.01 billion) at the ground-breaking ceremony of the UP Investors Summit in Lucknow.
    • The projects encompass diverse sectors such as Agriculture and Allied industries, IT and Electronics, MSME, Manufacturing, Renewable Energy, Pharma, Tourism, Defence & Aerospace and Handloom & Textiles.
  • The Indian Institute of Spices Research (IISR) under the Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) inked an MoU with Lysterra, LLC, a Russia-based company, for the commercialisation of biocapsule, an encapsulation technology for bio-fertilisation on June 30, 2022.
  • As of April 2022, India signed 13 Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) with its trading partners, including major trade agreements such as the India-UAE Comprehensive Partnership Agreement (CEPA) and the India-Australia Economic Cooperation and Trade Agreement (IndAus ECTA).
  • The Union Budget of 2022-23 was presented on February 1, 2022, by the Minister for Finance & Corporate Affairs, Ms. Nirmala Sitharaman. The budget had four priorities PM GatiShakti, Inclusive Development, Productivity Enhancement and Investment, and Financing of Investments. In the Union Budget 2022-23, effective capital expenditure is expected to increase by 27% at Rs. 10.68 lakh crore (US$ 142.93 billion) to boost the economy. This will be 4.1% of the total Gross Domestic Production (GDP).
  • Under PM GatiShakti Master Plan, the National Highway Network will develop 25,000 km of new highways network, which will be worth Rs. 20,000 crore (US$ 2.67 billion). In 2022-23. Increased government expenditure is expected to attract private investments, with a production-linked incentive scheme providing excellent opportunities. Consistently proactive, graded, and measured policy support is anticipated to boost the Indian economy.
  • In February 2022, Minister for Finance and Corporate Affairs Ms. Nirmala Sitharaman said that productivity linked incentive (PLI) schemes would be extended to 14 sectors to achieve the mission of AtmaNirbhar Bharat and create 60 lakh jobs with an additional production capacity of Rs. 30 lakh crore (US$ 401.49 billion) in the next five years.
  • In the Union Budget of 2022-23, the government announced funding for the production linked incentive (PLI) scheme for domestic solar cells and module manufacturing of Rs. 24,000 crore (US$ 3.21 billion).
  • In the Union Budget of 2022-23, the government announced a production linked incentive (PLI) scheme for Bulk Drugs which was an investment of Rs. 2500 crore (US$ 334.60 million).
  • In the Union Budget of 2022, Minister for Finance & Corporate Affairs Ms. Nirmala Sitharaman announced that a scheme for design-led manufacturing in 5G would be launched as part of the PLI scheme.
  • In September 2021, Union Cabinet approved major reforms in the telecom sector, which are expected to boost employment, growth, competition, and consumer interests. Key reforms include rationalization of adjusted gross revenue, rationalization of bank guarantees (BGs), and encouragement of spectrum sharing.
  • In the Union Budget of 2022-23, the government has allocated Rs. 44,720 crore (US$ 5.98 billion) to Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) for capital investments in the 4G spectrum.
  • Minister for Finance & Corporate Affairs Ms. Nirmala Sitharaman allocated Rs. 650 crore (US$ 86.69 million) for the Deep Ocean mission that seeks to explore vast marine living and non-living resources. Department of Space (DoS) has got Rs. 13,700 crore (US$ 1.83 billion) in 2022-23 for several key space missions like Gaganyaan, Chandrayaan-3, and Aditya L-1 (sun).
  • In May 2021, the government approved the production linked incentive (PLI) scheme for manufacturing advanced chemistry cell (ACC) batteries at an estimated outlay of Rs. 18,100 crore (US$ 2.44 billion); this move is expected to attract domestic and foreign investments worth Rs. 45,000 crore (US$ 6.07 billion).
  • Minister for Finance & Corporate Affairs Ms Nirmala Sitharaman announced in the Union Budget of 2022-23 that the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) would issue Digital Rupee using blockchain and other technologies.
  • In the Union Budget of 2022-23, Railway got an investment of Rs. 2.38 lakh crore (US$ 31.88 billion) and over 400 new high-speed trains were announced. The concept of "One Station, One Product" was also introduced.
  • To boost competitiveness, Budget 2022-23 has announced reforming the 16-year-old Special Economic Zone (SEZ) act.
  • In June 2021, the RBI (Reserve Bank of India) announced that the investment limit for FPI (foreign portfolio investors) in the State Development Loans (SDLs) and government securities (G-secs) would persist unaffected 2% and 6%, respectively, in FY22.
  • In November 2020, the Government of India announced Rs. 2.65 lakh crore (US$ 36 billion) stimulus package to generate job opportunities and provide liquidity support to various sectors such as tourism, aviation, construction, and housing. Also, India's cabinet approved the production-linked incentives (PLI) scheme to provide ~Rs. 2 trillion (US$ 27 billion) over five years to create jobs and boost production in the country.
  • Numerous foreign companies are setting up their facilities in India on account of various Government initiatives like Make in India and Digital India. Prime Minister of India Mr. Narendra Modi launched the Make in India initiative with an aim to boost the country's manufacturing sector and increase the purchasing power of an average Indian consumer, which would further drive demand and spur development, thus benefiting investors. The Government of India, under its Make in India initiative, is trying to boost the contribution made by the manufacturing sector with an aim to take it to 25% of the GDP from the current 17%. Besides, the government has also come up with the Digital India initiative, which focuses on three core components: the creation of digital infrastructure, delivering services digitally, and increasing digital literacy.
  • On January 29, 2022, the National Asset Reconstruction Company Ltd (NARCL) will acquire bad loans worth up to Rs. 50,000 crore (US$ 6.69 billion) about 15 accounts by March 31, 2022. India Debt Resolution Co. Ltd (IDRCL) will control the resolution process. This will clean up India's financial system and help fuel liquidity and boost the Indian economy.
  • National Bank for Financing Infrastructure and Development (NaBFID) is a bank that will provide non-recourse infrastructure financing and is expected to support projects from the first quarter of FY2022-23; it is expected to raise Rs. 4 lakh crore (US$ 53.58 billion) in the next three years.
  • By November 1, 2021, India and the United Kingdom hope to begin negotiations on a free trade agreement. The proposed FTA between these two countries is likely to unlock business opportunities and generate jobs. Both sides have renewed their commitment to boost trade in a manner that benefits all.
  • In August 2021, Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi announced an initiative to start a national mission to reach the US$ 400 billion merchandise export target by FY22.
  • In August 2021, Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi launched a digital payment solution, e-RUPI, a contactless and cashless instrument for digital payments.
  • In April 2021, Dr. Ahmed Abdul Rahman AlBanna, Ambassador of the UAE to India and Founding Patron of IFIICC, stated that trilateral trade between India, the UAE and Israel is expected to reach US$ 110 billion by 2030.
  • India is expected to attract investment of around US$ 100 billion in developing the oil and gas infrastructure during 2019-23.
  • The Government of India is expected to increase public health spending to 2.5% of the GDP by 2025.


Despite continuing geopolitical concerns, rising interest rates in the US and India and high prices of crude oil and few other commodities, economic activity in India is holding up better than anticipated. Electricity consumption, manufacturing PMI, exports, power supply and other high-frequency indicators indicate that the pace of economic activity has fully recovered from the COVID-19 pandemic shock. Economic growth is anticipated to be fueled by the effective implementation of PLI schemes, development of renewable energy sources while diversifying import dependence on crude oil and bolstering of the banking sector. Recent government initiatives to boost revenue will aid in containing the rise in the current account deficit and ensure that any potential fiscal slippage is adequately contained. Overall, the first ten days of July and June were better than the first two months of FY 2022–23, which is a cause for comfort and even cautious optimism in these testing times. According to a Boston Consulting Group (BCG) analysis, India is expected to be the third-largest consumer economy as its consumption may quadruple to US$ 4 trillion by 2025 due to changes in consumer behaviour and spending patterns. By 2040, India is anticipated to overtake the US to become the second-largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), according to a report by PricewaterhouseCoopers.



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