LIC AAO -- ENGLISH WITH ANSWERS
Directions (Q. 1-5): Rearrange the following six sentences (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) and (F) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph, then answer the given questions.
(A) Take for example, the market for learning dancing.
(B) This could never happen if there was a central board of dancing education which enforced strict standards of what will be taught and how such things are to be taught.
(C) The Indian education system is built on the presumption that if something is good for one child, it is good for all children.
(D) More importantly, different teachers and institutes have developed different ways of teaching dancing.
(E) There are very different dance forms that attract students with different tastes.
(F) If, however, we can effectively decentralise education, and if the government did not obsessively control what would be the "syllabus" and what will be the method of instruction, there could be an explosion of new and innovative courses geared towards serving various riches of learners.
1. Which of the following should be the LAST (SIXTH) sentence after the rearrangement?
a) A b) F c) D d) C e) B
2. Which of the following should be the THIRD sentence after the rearrangement?
a) A b) B c) F d) D e) E
3. Which of the following should be the SECOND sentence after the rearrangement?
a) A b) B c) C d) D e) F
4. Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after the rearrangement?
a) A b) B c) C d) D e) E
5. Which of the following should be the FOURTH sentence after the rearrangement?
a) A b) B c) C d) E e) D
Directions (Q. 6-15): Read the following passage carefully and answer the given questions. Certain words / phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Manufacturers of consumer packaged goods (CPG) face two key challenges this year. The first is continued slow or negative growth in people's disposable incomes. The second is changing consumer attitudes towards products and brands, as the great fragmentation of consumer markets takes another turn. In response, companies must dramatically shift the route they take to reach consumers in terms of both product distribution and communications. In many markets, consumer wages have been static for five years now. Even where economies are starting to perform better, the squeeze on after-tax wages, especially for the middle class younger people and families, is depressing consumer spending. Although growth in developing countries is still better than in the United States and Europe, a slowdown in emerging countries such as China - where many countries had hoped for higher sales — has translated quickly into lower-than-expected consumer spending growth.
Meanwhile, what we call the great fragmentation is manifested in consumer behaviour and market response. In both developed and emerging markets, there is a wider variety among consumers now than at any time in the recent past. Growth is evident both at the top of the market (where more consumers are spending for higher-quality food and other packaged goods) and at the lower end (where an increasing number of consumers are concentrating on value). But the traditional middle of the market is shrinking.
Further, individual consumer behaviour is more pluralistic. We are used to seeing, for example, spirits buyers purchasing a premium brand in a bar, a less costly label at home for personal consumption and yet another when entertaining guests. But this type of variegated shopping has now spread to the grocery basket as well. Fewer consumers are making one big stocking-up trip each week. Instead, shoppers are visiting a premium store and a discounter as well as a supermarket, in multiple weekly stops — in addition to making frequent purchases online. During recession, more shoppers became inclined to spend time hunting for bargains, and as some traditional tailers either went out of business or shuttered down, retail space was freed up and was often filled by convenience stores, specialty shops, and discounters.
A decade ago, CPG companies had only a handful of sales channels to consider: supermarkets, convenience stores, hypermarkets in advanced economies and traditional small and large retailers in emerging countries.
Since then, various discounters have made significant inroads, including no-frills, low-variety outlets, such as Europe's Aldi and Lidi, which sell a limited range of private label grocery items in smaller stores and massive warehouse clubs, such as Costco and Sam's club, which initially operated solely in the US but are now expanding internationally. In addition, dollar stores, specialised retailers, and online merchants are having an impact on the CPG landscape. Economising consumers have been pleasantly surprised by the savings generated by spreading their business among multiple channels as well as by the variety and product quality they find.
The result has been greater demand for more products and brands, with different sizes, packaging and sales methods. At most CPG companies, SKUs are proliferating despite there being little increase in overall consumption. A better outcome can be seen at smaller food and beverage suppliers, which are benefiting from consumer demand for variety and authenticity. A recent ‘strategy & report’ found that in the US, small manufacturers (with revenues of less than US$ l billion) grew at twice the compound annual rate of large manufacturers (with revenues of more than $3 billion) between 2009 and 2012.
Consumers’ media usage has also fragmented with the rise of digital content and the proliferation of online devices. Each channel — from the Web, mobile and social sites to radio, TV, and print —- has its own requirements, audience appeal and economics, needing specialised attention. But, at the same time, media campaigns need to be closely coordinated for effective consumer messaging.
Collectively, these shifts challenge the way CPG companies manage their brand and business portfolios and call for a rethinking of their go-to-market approach, with an emphasis on analytics. Our work with INSEAD shows that among business leaders, applying analytics - especially for tracking consumer behaviour and product and promotional performance is considered one of the most effective ways to improve results and outpace the competition. But it’s not just about insight. It‘s also about using the insight wisely to determine how to manage costs. The more knowledgeable about customer needs and preferences a company is, the smarter and more focused it must be in managing its own economics to cost-effectively deliver both variety and value to the squeezed consumer.
6. The central theme of the given passage is
a) The shrinking market
b) Shift towards offering luxury goods to consumers
c) Products to officer consumers with squeezed pockets
d) To highlight products consumed by the middle class
e) Gaining insight into changing consumer behaviour towards CPGs
7. In the context of the passage, which of the following trends existed otherwise but is now being manifested in buying groceries as well?
a) Consumers purchasing the same products for over a period of time
b) Consumers willing to purchase goods for a longer period of time
c) Consumers preferring luxury goods over regular goods
d) Consumers are more aware of their rights
e) Consumers prefer buying goods from a variety of stores.
8. Which of the following is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning of the word ‘depressing’ as used in the passage?
a) encouraging b) sunny c) doubtful d) light e) nil
9. As mentioned in the passage, CPG companies may have to reassess their present strategies of operating to
(A) Retain their customers.
(B) Keep pace with changing consumer preferences as they have access to multiple media channels.
(C) Make more cost-effective decisions.
a) Only (A) b) Only (B) c) All (A), (B) and (C) d) Only (C)
e) Only (A) and (B)
10. Which of the following is True in the context of the passage?
a) In the US, during the three-year period after 2009, small manufacturers did not fare well as compared to their larger counterparts.
b) Impact on disposable incomes of people barely affects the CPG manufacturing industry.
c) Post-tax wages, especially for the middle class, is one of the critical factors which have reduced spending behaviour of consumers.
d) CPG has always been a favourite among consumers.
e) None of the given options is true.
11. Which of the following correctly explains the meaning of the phrase ‘a handful of’ as used in the passage?
a) Boundless b) Planned c) Satisfactory d) Limited e) Imperfect
12. As mentioned in the passage, one of the most critical factors that aids in catering to the needs of consumers is
a) Persuading them to purchase goods produced by the organisation.
b) Assessing their requirements and appropriately planning to meet them.
3) Offering them products that an organisation regularly manufactures.
d) Concentrating only on being aware about changing preferences of consumers
e) None of the given options.
13. Which of the following is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word ‘shrinking’ as used in the passage?
a) developing b) annoying c) narrowing d) wasting
14. Which of the following is most nearly the SAME in meaning to the word ‘variegated’ as used in the passage?
a) diverse b) composite c) strong d) narrow e) valued
15. Which of the following is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning of the word ‘shuttered’ as used in the passage?
a) closed b) retail c) flourished d) gratified e) nearest
Directions (Q. 16-20): Read each sentence to find out whether there is any mistake/error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. Mark the part with the error as your answer. If there is no error, mark ‘No Error’ as your answer. (Ignore errors of punctuation, if any)
16. After his term in the Department of Defence / he was appointed Secretary of Energy -/ a job in which he strongly supported the use / of alternate sources of energy such as nuclear energy.
a) After his term in the Department of Defence
b) he was appointed Secretary of Energy -
c) a job in which he strongly supported the use
d) of alternate sources of energy such as nuclear energy.
e) No error
17. As GDP growth is half of what it / is just a few years ago, the country / desperately needs to cut red tape and improve / infrastructure to boost investment and growth.
a) As GDP growth is half of what it
b) is just a few years ago, the country
c) desperately needs to cut red tape and improve
d) infrastructure to boost investment and growth.
e) No error
18. When elections in the country are due shortly / people are determined to register as voters and to vote for / candidates based on their track record and the programmes / that they intend to implement for the betterment of the country.
a) When elections in the country are due shortly
b) people are determined to register as voters and to vote for
c) candidates based on their track record and the programmes
d) that they intend to implement for the betterment of the country,
e) No error
19. At least a quarter of the World's corals have lost / over the past twenty-five years and as climate change warms / the oceans the additional carbon dioxide will make / the water more acidic further destroying coral reefs.
a) At least a quarter of the-world's corals have lost
b) over the past twenty-ﬁve years and as climate change warms
c) the oceans the additional carbon dioxide will make
d) the water more acidic further destroying coral reefs.
e) No error
20. The Prime Minister's speech laid out how / it is important to encourage female participated / in the economy yet the percentage of female lawmakers in / the lower house of parliament has fallen to8 per cent.
a) The Prime Minister's speech laid out how
b) it is important to encourage female participated
c) in the economy yet the percentage of female lawmakers in
d) the lower house of parliament has fallen to 8 percent
e) No error
Directions (Q. 21-25): Each question has two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Choose the set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.
21. Three unknown assailants __________ on motorcycles and opened __________ barely a few metres from where the actor was shooting.
a) came, shooting b) rode, rounds c) arrived, fire d) approached, hitting
e) climbed, shots
22. The police __________ in kg _________ a car theft case within a matter of two hours of registration of the complaint.
a) achieved, solving it b) victorious, catching c) famed, arresting
d) succeeded, cracking e) failed, assigning
23. The health ministry has approved major expansion of post-graduate seats in key departments of AIIMS to __________ the severe __________ of specialists across the country.
a) address, dearth b) correct, loss c) improve, damage d) rectify, limits
e) good, shortage
24. With the _________ wedding season, people are leaving no stone unturned to make their wedding cards look __________.
1) prolonged, beyond b) ongoing, special c) instant, great
d) sudden, while e) estimated, legible
25. The tourism data __________ that Indians __________ are the biggest spenders while on holidays.
a) says, within b) reveal, amongst c) proclaims, between
d) states, surrounded e) speaks, amid
Directions (Q. 26-30): In the given passage, there are blanks each of which has been numbered. Against each five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.
A strong economy would improve livelihoods and give hope for the future, but the lack of reliable electricity in the country has contributed to holding back prosperity. Over the past five years, GDP growth has averaged 3 per cent, too (26) to fight poverty and create jobs. Demand for power outstrips what the country can produce and (27). Planned and unplanned electricity outages of 12 to 16 hours daily nationwide (28) business, aggravate unemployment and spark angry protests. The country has (29) energy resources — an estimated 186 billion tonnes of coal, over 100,000 megawatts of hydro potential and wind potential of up to 3,46,000 megawatts. But the technology and investment to (30) these resources are limited. An overreliance on imported fuel has exposed the country to high oil prices and there isn't enough money to keep the system -a mix of private and state-run enterprises — running or to fix faulty infrastructure that leaks electricity. A resolution of power crisis is thus very critical to the survival of the country.
26. a) much b) low c) required d) tough e) minimal
27. a) represent b) sufficient c) adequate d) amount e) deliver
28. a) run b) happens c) plans d) effect e) hurt
29. a) ample b) fix c) worst d) frequent e) paucity
30. a) lack b) solve c) Waste d) exploit e) advantage
1. e) 2. a) 3. e) 4. c) 5. d)
6. e) 7. e) 8. a) 9. d) 10. c)
11. d) 12. b) 13. c) 14. a) 15. c)
16. (d); Replace ‘alternate’ with ‘alternative’
17. (b); Replace ‘is’ with ‘was’
18. (a); Replace ‘when’ with ‘as’
19. (a); Insert ‘been’ after ‘have’
20. (b); Replace ‘participated’ with ‘participation’
21. c) 22. d) 23. a) 24. b) 25. b)
26. b) 27. e) 28. e) 29. a) 30. d)
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