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What is LAF?
Liquidity adjustment facility (LAF) is a monetary policy tool which allows banks to borrow money through repurchase agreements. LAF is used to aid banks in adjusting the day to day mismatches in liquidity. LAF consists of repo and reverse repo operations. Repo or repurchase option is a collaterised lending i.e. banks borrow money from Reserve bank of India to meet short term needs by selling securities to RBI with an agreement to repurchase the same at predetermined rate and date. The rate charged by RBI for this transaction is called the repo rate. Repo operations therefore inject liquidity into the system. Reverse repo operation is when RBI borrows money from banks by lending securities. The interest rate paid by RBI is in this case is called the reverse repo rate. Reverse repo operation therefore absorbs the liquidity in the system.
Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF) was introduced by RBI during June, 2000 in phases, to ensure smooth transition and keeping pace with technological up gradation. On recommendations of an RBI’s Internal Group RBI has revised the LAF scheme on March 25, 2004. Further revision has been carried with effect from Oct 29, 2004.
The revised LAF scheme has the following features: 
Objective: The funds under LAF are used by the banks for their day-to-day mismatches in liquidity.
Tenor: Under the scheme, Reverse Repo auctions (for absorption of liquidity) and Repo auctions (for injection of liquidity) are conducted on a daily basis (except Saturdays).
Eligibility: All commercial banks (except RRBs) and PDs having current account and SGL account with RBI.
Minimum bid Size: Rs. 5 crore and in multiple of Rs.5 crore
Eligible securities: Repos and Reverse repos in transferable Central Government dated securities and treasury bills.
Rate of Interest: The Reverse repo rate will be fixed by RBI from time to time (presently 6.25%). The Repo rate will be fixed by RBI from time to time (presently 7.25%).
What is Marginal Standing Facility?
Marginal Standing Facility is the rate at which scheduled banks could borrow funds overnight from Reserve Bank of India (RBI) against government securities.
Under this scheme, the rate of interest on the amount accessed from this facility will be 300 basis points (i.e. 3%) above the repo rate with the effect 15/07/2013 (Earlier this facility was available at 100 basis point above repo rate). This scheme has been introduced to reduce volatility in the overnight rates and improve monetary transmission.
The salient features of the Scheme are as under:
1. Effective Date: This facility will be effective from May 9, 2011.
2. Eligibility: All Scheduled Commercial Banks having Current Account and Subsidiary General Leger (SGL) Account with Reserve Bank, Mumbai will be eligible to participate in the MSF Scheme.
3. Timing: The Facility will be available on all working days in Mumbai, excluding Saturdays between 3.30 P.M. and 4.30 P.M.
4. Rate of Interest: The rate of interest on amount availed under this facility will be 300 basis points above the LAF repo rate, or as decided by the Reserve Bank from time to time.
5. Discretion to Reserve Bank: The Reserve Bank will reserve the right to accept or reject partially or fully, the request for funds under this facility.
6. Mechanics of operations:
i) The requests will be submitted electronically in the Negotiated Dealing System (NDS). Eligible members facing genuine system problem on any specific day, may submit physical requests in sealed cover in the box provided in the Mumbai Office, Reserve Bank of India, to the Manager, Reserve Bank of India, Securities Section, Public Accounts Department (PAD), and Mumbai Office by 4.30 P.M.
ii) The NDS provides for submission of single or multiple applications by the member. However, as far as possible only one request should be submitted by an applicant.
iii) The MSF will be conducted as “Hold-in-Custody” repo, similar to LAF – Repo.
iv) On acceptance of MSF requests, the applicant’s RC SGL Account will be debited by the required quantum of securities and credited to Bank’s RC SGL Account. Accordingly, the applicant’s current account will be credited with the MSF application amount. The transactions will be reversed in the second leg. In case the second leg falls on a holiday, the reversal date will be the next working day.
v) The MSF transactions between Reserve Bank and counter parties which would involve operation of the RC SGL Account would not require separate SGL forms.
vi) Pricing of all securities including Treasury Bills will be at face value for MSF operations by Reserve Bank. Accrued interest as on the date of transaction will be ignored for the purpose of pricing of securities.
7. Minimum request size: Requests will be received for a minimum amount of Rs. 1 crore and in multiples of Rs. 1 crore thereafter.
8. Eligible Securities: MSF will be undertaken in all SLR-eligible transferable Government of India dated Securities/Treasury Bills and State Development Loans (SDL).
9. Margin Requirement: A margin of five per cent will be applied in respect of Government of India dated securities and Treasury Bills. In respect of SDLs, a margin of 10 per cent will be applied. Thus, the amount of securities offered on acceptance of a request for Rs.100 will be Rs.105 (face value) of Government of India dated securities and Treasury Bills or Rs.110 (face value) of SDLs.
10. Settlement of Transactions: The settlement of all applications received under the MSF Scheme will take place on the same day after the closure of the window for acceptance of applications.
Difference between LAF and MSF

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